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dictator Caesar, to whom she was married in
59. She survived her husband.

CALPURNIA GENS, plebeian, pretended
to be descended from Calpus, a son of Numa.
It was divided into the families of Bibulus
and Piso.

CALViNUS, CN. DOMITIUS (-i), tribune
of the plebs, b.c. 59, when he supported
Bibulus against Caesar, praetor 56, and consul
53, through the influence of Pompey. He
took an active part in the civil war as one of
Caesar's generals.

CALJCADNUS (-i), a considerable river of
Cilicia Tracheia, navigable as far as Seleucia.

CALYDNAE (-ftrum). (1) Two small
islands off the coast of Troas. — (2) A group
of islands off the coast of Caria, belonging
to the Sporades. The largest of them was
called Calydna, and afterwards Calymna.

CALItdON (-onis), an ancient town of
Aetolia W. of the Evenus in the land of the
Curetes, said to have been founded by Aetolus
or his son Calydon. The town was celebrated
in the heroic ages, but is rarely mentioned in
historical times. In the mountains in the
neighbourhood took place the celebrated hunt
of the Calydonian boar. The inhabitants
were remo\ed by Augustus to Nicopous. In
the Roman poets we find CaiydomSt a woman
of Aetolia, i.e. Delanira, daughter of Oeneus,
king of Calydon : Oalydonius heroa, Le.
Meleager : Calydonws amnis, i.e., the Ache-
lous separating Acamania and Aetolia, be-
cause Calydon was the chief town of Aetolia :
Calydonia regna^ i.e. Apulia, because Dio-
medes, grandson of Oeneus, king of Calydon,
afterwards obtained Apulia as his kingdom.

CALYPSO (-Qs : aee, .6), a nymph inhabiU
ing the island of Ogygia, on which Ulyssen
was shipwrecked. Calypso loved the unfor.
tunate hero, and promised him immortality
if he would remain with her. Ulysses re-
fused, and after she had detained him 7 years,
the gods compelled her to allow him to con-
tinue his journey homewards.

Calypso. (From a painted Vase.)

CAMALODCNUM {Oolehetter), the capital
of the Trinobantes in Britain, and the first
Roman colony in the island, founded by the
emperor Claudius, a.d. 48.

Digitized by





CAMARINA (-ae), a town on the 8. coast
of Sicily, at the mouth of the Hipparis,
founded by Syracuse, b.c. 599. It was
several times destroyed by Syracuse ; and in
the first Punic war it was taken by the
Romans, and most of the inhabitants sold as

CAMBtNI (-drum) MONTES, the monn-
tains which separate Macedonia and Thessaly.

CAMBYSES (-is). (1) Father of Cyrus the
Great. — (2) Second king of Persia, succeeded
his father Cyrus, and reigned b.c. 529 — 522.
In 525 he conquered Egypt ; but was onsuo-
cessftd in expeditions against the Ammonians
and against the Aethiopians. On his return
to Memphis he treated the Egyptians with
great cruelty ; he insulted their religion, and
slew their god Apis with his own hands. He
also acted tyrannically towards his own family
and th^ Persians in general. He caused his
own brother Smerdis to be murdered ; but a
Magian personated the deceased prince, and
set up a claim to the throne. [Smerdis.] Cam-
byses forthwith set out from Egypt against
this pretender, but died in Syria, at a place
named Ecbatana, of an accidental wound in
the thigh, 522.

CAM£NA£ (4brum), prophetic nymphs,
belonging to the religion of ancient Italy,
although later traditions represent their wor.
ship as introduced into Italy from Arcadia,
and some accounts identify them with the
Muses. The most important of these god-
desses was Carmenta or CarmentlB, who had
a temple at the foot of the Capitoline hill,
and altars near the Porta Carmentalis. The
traditions which assigned a Greek origin to
her worship, state that her original name was
Nicoetrate, and that she was the mother of
Evander, with whom she came to Italy.

CAMERIA (-ae), an ancient town of La.
tium, conquered by Tarquinius Priscus.

cXmeRInUM or CAMARINUM (-i), more
anciently CAMERS (-tis : Ckmierino)^ a town
in Umbria, on the borders of Picenum, and
subsequently a Roman colony.

CAMERINUS (-i), a Roman poet, contem-
porary with ,Ovid, wrote a poem on the cap-
ture of Troy' by Hercules.

CAMICUS (-i), an ancient town of the
Sicani on the S. coast of Sicily, and on a river
of the same name, occupied the site of the
citadel of Aoriobntvu.

CAMILLA (.ae), daughter of king Metabus
of the Yolscian town of Privemum, was one
of the swift-footed servants of Diana, accus-
tomed to the chase and to war. She assisted
Tumus against Aeneas, and after slaying
numbers of the Trojans was at length killed
by Aruns.

CAMILLUS, M. FCrIuS (-i), one of the

great heroes of the Roman republic. He
was censor b.c. 40S, in which year Livy er-
roneously places his first consular tribunate.
He was consular tribune six different years,
and dictator five times during his life. Ip
his first dictatorship (896) he gained a glori-
ous victory over the Faliscans and Fidenates,
took Veil, and entered Rome in triumph.
Five years afterwards (891) he was accused
of having made an unfair distribution of the
booty of Yeii, and went volimtarily into exile
at Ardea. Next year (890) the Gauls took
Rome, and laid siege to Ardea. The Romans
in the Capitol recalled Camillus, and ap-
pointed him dictator in his absence. Camillus
hastily collected an army, attacked the Gauls,
and defeated them completely. [Brbnnus.]
His fellow-citizens saluted him as the Second
Romulus. In 867 he was dictator a fifth
time, and though 80 years of age, he com-
pletely defeated the Gauls. He died of the
pestilence, 865. Camillus was the great
general of his age, and the resolute cham-
pion of the patrician order.

CAMIrUS (-i), a Dorian town on the W.
coast of the islanid of Rhodes, and the prin-
cipal town in the island before the foundation
of Rhodes.

CAMPANIA (-ae), a district of Italy, the
name of which is probably derived from
campuf "a plain," separated from Latium
by the river Liris, and from Lucania at a
later time by the river Silarus, though in the
time of Augrustus it did not extend further
S. than the promontory of Minerva. In still
jearlier times the Ager Campantu included
only the country round Capua. Campania is
a volcanic country, to which circumstance it
was mainly indebted for its extraordinary
fertility, for which it was celebrated in an-
tiquity above all other lands. The fertility
of the soil, allowing in parts 8 crops in a
year, the beauty of the scenery, and the soft-
ness of the climate, the heat of which was
tempered by the delicious breezes of the sea,
procured for Campania the epithet FeliXy a
name which it justly deterved. It was the
favourite retreat in summer of the Roman
nobles, whose villas studded a considerable
part of its coast, especially in the neighbour,
hood of Baias. The earliest inhabitants of
the country were the Ausones and Osci or
Opici. They were subsequently conquered
by the Etruscans, who became the masters of
almost all the country^ In the time of the
Romans we find S distinct peoples, besideb
the Greek population of Cumab : 1. The
Campanif properly so called, a mixed race,
consisting of Etruscans and the original in-
habitants of the country, dwelling along the
coast from Sinuessa to Paestum. They were

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the ruling race. [CAPUk.] — 2. Sidicxhi, an
Auaonian people, in the N.W. of the country
on the borders of Samnium. — 3. Picbmtim,
in the S.E. of the country.

CAMPl RAUDIi (-orum), a plain in the
X. of Italy, near Yercellae, where Marius and
Catulus defeated the Cimbri, B.C. 101.

CAMPUS MARTIUS (-i), the " Plain of
Mars," frequently called Campus simply, was
the N.W. portion ■ of the plain lying in the
bend of the Tiber, outside the walls of Rome.
The Circus Flaminios in the S. grave its name
to a portion of the plain. The Campus Mar-
tius Lb said to have belonged originally to the
Tarquins, and to have been consecrated to
Mars upon the expulsion of the kings. Here
the Roman youths were accustomed to per-
form their gymnastic and warlike exer-
cises, and here the comitia of the centuries
were held. At a later time it was sur-
rounded by porticoes, temples, and other
public buildings. It was included within
the city walls by Aurelian.

Penonification of the Campus Martius. ( Visconti,
Mua. Pio Clem. vol. 6, tav. 1.)

CANACE (-es), entertained an unnatural
love for her brother Macareus, and on this
account was compelled by her father to kill

CANDAcE (-es), a queen of the Aethio-
pians of Meroe, invaded Egypt 'B.C. 22, but
was driven back and defeated by Petronius,
the Roman governor of Egypt. Her name
seems to have been common to all the queens
of Aethiopia.

CANDAULfiS, also called MyrsTlus, last
Heraclid king of Lydia. He exposed his

wife to Gyges, whereupon she compelled
Gyges to put him to death. [Gyges.]

CANDAVIA (^e), CANDlVII (-orum)
MONTES, the mountains separating Illyri-
cum from Macedonia, across which the Via
Egnatia rui.

CANIDIA (-ae), whose real name was
Gratidia, was a Neapolitan courtesan, be-
loved by Horace £ but when she deserted
him, he revenged himself by holding her up
to contempt as an old sorceress.

CANIS (-is), the constellation of the
Great Dog, The most important star in
this constellation was specially named
Cants or Caniculay and also Sirita, The
Dies Caniculares were as proverbial for the
heat of the weather among the Romans
as are the dog days among ourselveb.
The constellation of the Little Dog was
called Procyotiy literally translated Ante
canenty AntecaniSt because in Greece this con-
stellation rises heliacally before the Great
Dog. When Bootes was regarded as Icarius
[A&cTOs], Procyon became Maera, the dog of

CANNAE (-arum), a village in Apulia,
situated in an extensive plain, memorable for
the defeat of the Romans by Hannibal, b.c.
I 216.

I CANObUS or CANOPUS (-i), an import-

I ant city on the coast of L^wer Egypt, 2

I geog. miles E. of Alexandria. It was near

I the W.-mosi mouth of the Nile, which was

' hence called the Canopic Mouth. It was

celebrated for a great temple of Serapis, for

j its commerce and its luxury.

I CANTABRI (-orum), a fierce and warlike

j people in the N. of Spain, bounded on the

E. by the Astures, and on the W. by tlie

' Autrigoncs. They were subdued by Au-

■ gustus after a struggle of several years (b.c.


CANTIUM (-i) a district of Britain, nearly
the same as the modem Kent, but included


CANt^Sl UM (-i: Canosa)^ an important to'Vi-n
in Apulia, on the Aufidus, fonndeid, according
to tradition, by Diomedes. It was at all
events a Greek colony, and bo'th Greek and
Oscan were spoken there in the time of
Horace. It was celebrated for its mules and
its woollen manufactures, but it had a de-
ficient supply of water.

CAPANEUS (-Ws or -*I), son of ^pponous,
and one of the 7 heroes who marched against
Thebes. He was struck by Zeus (Jupiter)
with lightning, as he was scaling the walls
of Thebes, because he had dared to defy the
god. While his body was bui-ning, his wite
Evadne leaped into the flames and destroyed

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CAPELLA, the star. [Capra.]
CAP£NA (-ae), an ancient Etruscan town
fonnded by Veil, and subsequently became a
Roman monicipium. In its territory was the
celebrated groye and temple of Feronia on the
small river Capenas. [Fb&onia.]
CAPHlREUS {Capo eP Oro), a rocky and
dan^roos promontory on the S. E. of Eu-
boea, where the Greek fleet is said to have
been wrecked on its^retum from Troy.

CAPITO, C. ATEiUS, an eminent Roman
jurist, who gained the favour of both Au-
gustus and Tiberius by flattery and obse-
quiousness. Capito and his contemporary
Labeo were reckoned the highest legal au-
thorities of their day, and were the founders
of 2 legal schools, to which most of the great
jurists belonged.

CAPITO, C. PONTEIUS, a friend of M.
Antony, accompanied Maecenas to Brundi-
sium, B.C. 87, when the latter was sent to
efifect a reconciliation between Octavianns
and Antony,



CAPITOl!uM (-i), the temple of Jupiter
Optimus Maximus at Rome, was situated on the
8. summit of the Mons CapitoUnus, so called
on account ot the temple. The site of the
temple is now covered in part by the Palazzo
Gqffarellif while the N. summit, which was
formerly the arx, is occupied by the church
of Ara Celt. The temple is said to have
been called the Capitolitmi, becaufte a htmian
head {captU) was discovered in digging the
foundations. The building of it was com-
menced by Tarquinius Priscus, and it was
finished by Tarquinius Superbus, but was
not dedicated till the 3rd year of the re-
public, B.C. 507, by the consul M. Hora-.
tins. It was burnt down in the civil wars,
83, and twice afterwards in the time of the
emperors. After its 8rd destruction in the
reign of Titus it was again rebuilt by Domi-
tian with greater splendour than before.
The Capitol contained 3 cells under the same
roof : the middle cell was the temple of Ju-
piter, hence described as *' media qui sedet
aede Deus,** and on either side were the
cells of his attendant deities, Juno and Mi-
nerva. The Capitol was one of the most im.
posing buildings at Rome, and was adorned
as befitted the majesty of the king of the
gods. It was in the form of a square,
namely, 200 feet on each side, and was ap-
proached by a flight of 100 steps. The gates
were of bronze, and the ceilings and tiles
gilt. The gilding alone of the building cost
Domitian 12,000 talents. In the Capitol

were kept the Sibylline books. Here the
consuls upon entering on their office offered
sacrifices and took their vows ; and hither
the victorioos general, who entered the city
in triumph, was carried in his triumphal
car to return thanks to the Father of the
gods. The whole hill was sometimes called
Arx, and sometimes OapitoHum, but moi^t
completely and correctly Arx Capitoliumque.

CAPPADSCIA (-ae), a district of Asia
Minor, to which different boundaries were
assigned at different times. Uqder the Per-
sian empire it included the whole country
inhabited by a people of Syrian origin, who
were called (from their complexion) White
Syrians {Leueofyri), and also Cappadoces.
Their country embraced the whole N.E. part
of Asia Minor, E. of the river Halys, and
N. of Mt. Taurus, which was afterwards
divided into Pontus and Cappadocia Proper.
[PoMTVs.] When this division took place is
uncertain ; but we find that under the Per-
sian empire the whole country was governed
by a line of hereditary satraps, who even-
tually became independent kings. At a later
period Cappadocia Proper was governed by a
line of independent monarchs. In a.d. 17,
ArchelaQs, the last king, died at Rome, and
Tiberius made Cappadocia a Roman province^
Cappadocia was a rough and mountainous
region. Its fine pastures supported abun-
dance of good horses and mules.

CAPRA, CAPRA or CAPELLA (-ae), the
brightest star in the constellation of the
Auriga, or Charioteer, is said to have been
originally the nymph or goat who nursed the
infant Zeus (Jupiter) in Crete. [Ahal-


CAPRXRIA (-ae), a small island off the
coast of Etruria, inhabited only by wild
goats, whence its name.

CAPREAE (-arum : Capri), a small island,
9 miles in circumference, off Campania, at
the S. entrance of the gulf of Puteoli. The
scenery is beautiful, and the climate soft and
genial. Here Tiberius lived the last 10 years
of his reign, indulging in secret debauchery,
and accessible only to his creatures.

CAPRICORNUS (-i), the Goat, a sign of the
Zodiac, between the Archer and the Water-
man, is said to have fought with Jupiter
against the Titans.

CAPS A (-ae), a strong and ancient city in
the S.W. of Byzacena, in N. Africa, in a fer-
tile oasis, surrounded by a sandy desert,
abounding in serpents. In the war- with
Jugurtha it was destroyed by Marius ; but it
was afterwards rebuilt, and erected into a

CapCa (-ae : Capua), the chief city of
Campania, either founded or colonised by the

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Rtruscans. It became at an early period the
most prosperous, wealthy, and luxurious city
in the S. of Italy. Its warlike neighbours,
the Sanmites, made frequent attempts upon
it, sometimes with success. In order to be
a match for them, Capua, in b.o. 343, placed
itself under the protection of Rome. It re-
volted to Hannibal after the battle of Cannae,
216, but was taken by the Romans in 211,
was fearftilly punished, and never reooyered
its former prosperity. It was subsequently
made a Roman colony.

CAPtS (-jf6s and -fn).^{l) Son of Assa-
racus, and father of Anchises. — (2) A com-
panion of Aeneas, from whom Capua was
said to haye derived its name.

CAPtS SILVIU8. [SiLvnrs.]

CARACALLA (-ae), emperor of Rome,
A.D. 211 — 217, was sonofSeptimius Severus,
and was bom at Lyons, a.d. 188. His proper
name was M. Awelius Antoninus, CaraceUla
was a nickname derived from a long tunic
worn by the Gauls, which he adopted as his
favourite dress after he became emperor. He
accompanied his father to Britain in 208;
and on the death of Severus, at York, 211,
Caracalla and his brother Geta succeeded to
the throne, according to their father's ar-
rangements. A succession of cruelties now
marked his career. He assassinated his
brother Geta, and, with him, many of the
most distinguished men in the state; thus
securing himself in the sole government. The
celebrated jurist, Fapinian, was one of his
victims. He added extravagance to cruelty ;
and after wasting the resources of Italy, he
visited the eastern and western provinces of
the empire, for the purposes of extortion
and plunder, and sometimes of wanton cruelty.
He was about to set out on further expe.
ditions across the Tigris, but was murdered
at Edessa by Macrinus, the praetorian pre-
fect. Caracalla gave to all free inhabitants
of the empire the name and privileges
of Roman citizens.

CARACTACUS (-i), king of the Sllures in
Britain, bravely defended his country against
the Romans, in the reign of Claudius. He
was at length defeated, and fled for protec-
tion to Cartismandua, queen of the Brigantes ;
but she betrayed him to the Romans, who
carried him to Rome, a.d. 51. When brought
before Claudius, he addressed the emperor in
so noble a manner that the latter pardoned
him and his friends.

CARALIS (-is) or CARALES (-ium :
Cagliari)f the chief town of Sardinia, with an
excellent harbour.

CARAMBIS (-idis), a promontory, with a
city of the same name, on the coast of Pa-

CARXnUS (-i), a descendant of Hercules, is
said to have settled at Edessa, in Macedonia,
with an Argive colony, about b.o. 750, and
to have become the founder of the dynasty of
Macedonian kings.

CARBO (-dnis), the name of a family of
the Papiria gens. (1) C. Papirtos Cabbo, a
distinguished orator, and a man of great
talents, but of no principle. He was one of
the 3 conmiissioners or triumvirs for carrying
into effect the agrarian law of Tib. Gracchus.
His tribuneship of the plebs, b.o. 131, was
characterised by the most vehement oppo.
sition to the aristocracy. But after the death
ofC. Gracchus (121), he suddenly deserted
the popular party, and in his consulship (120)
undertook the defence of Opimius, who had
murdered C. Gracchus. In 119 Carbo waf*
accused by L. Licinius Crassus; and as he
foresaw his condemnation, he put an end to
his life. — (2) Cn. Papirtos Carbo, one of the
leaders of the Marian party. He was thrice
consul, namely, in 85, 84, and 82. In 82 he
carried on war against Sulla, but he was at
length obliged to fly to Sicily, where he was
put to death by Pompey at Lilybaeum.

CARCASO (-6nis : Carecusone)^ a town of
the Tectosages, in Gallia Narbonensis.

CARDAMtLE (-6s), a town in Messenia.

CARDLa. (-ae), a Roman divinity, pre-
siding over the hinges of doors, that is, over
family life.

CARDIA (-ae), a town on the Thracian
Chersonese, on the gulf of Melas, was the
birth-place of Eumenes. It was destroyed
by Lysimachus, who built the town of Lysi-
JCACHIA, in its immediate neighbourhood.

CARDOCHI (-6rum), a powerful and war-
like people, probably the Kw-ds of modem
times, dwelt in the mountains which divided
Assyria from Armenia {Mta. of Kurdistan),

CARIA (-ae), a district of Asia Minor, in
its S.W. comer. It is intersected by low
mountain chains, nmning out far into the sea
in long promontories, forming gulfs along
the coast and inland valleys that were fertile
and well watered. The chief products of the
country were com, wine, oil, and flgs. The
coast was inhabited chiefly by Greek colo-
nists. The inhabitants of the rest of the
country were Carians, a people nearly allied
to the Lydians and Mysians. The Greeks
considered the people mean and stupid, even
for slaves. The country was govemed by a
race of native princes, who fixed their abode
at Halicamassus. These princes were subject
allies of Lydia and Persia, and some of them
rose to great distinction in war and peace.
[See Artemisia, Mausolus.] Under the Ro-
mans, Caria formed a part of the province of

Digitized by





CXRtiJUS, M. AUR£l!U8 (-i), Roman
emperor, ^a.i>. 284 — 285, the elder of the 2
sons of Cams, was associated with his father
in the goyemment, a.d. 283. He was slain
in a battle against Diocletian by some of his
own officers.^

CARMANIA (-ae), a proTince of the an.
dent Persian empire, boonded on the W. by
Persia, on the N. by Parthia, on the E. by
Oedrosia, and on the S. by the Indian Ocean.

CARMfiLUS, and-UM (4), a range of
mountains in Palestine, commencing on the
N. border of Samaria, and running through
the S.W. part of Galilee, till it terminates in
the promontory of the same name {Cape


CARNA (.ae), a Roman divinity, whose
name is probably connected with Caro, flesh,
for she was regarded as the protector of the
physical well-being of man. Her festival was
celebrated June 1st, and was beliered to haye
been iostitnted by Brutus in the first year of
the republic Ovid confoonds this goddess
with Cardsa.

CARNEADES (.is), a celebrated philoeo.
pher, bom at Gyrene about b.o. 218, was the
founder of the Third or New Academy at
Athens, and a strenuous opp<ment of the
Stoics. In 155 he was sent to lUnne, with
Diogenes and Critolaus, by the Athenians, to
deprecate the fine of 500 talents which had
been imposed on the Athenians for the de.
struction of Oropus. At Rome he attracted
great notice fSrom his eloquent declamations
on philosophical subjects. He died in 129,
at the age of 85.

GARNI (.Oram), a Geltic people, dwelling
N. of .the Teneti, in the Alpes Gamicae.


GARNUNTUM (.i), an ancient Geltic town
in Upper Pannonia, on the Danube, E. of
Vindobona {Vienna)^ and subsequentiy a
Roman municipium or a colony.

CARNOTES (-um) or -I (.5rum), a power,
ful people in the centre of Gaul, between the
Ldger and Sequana: their capital was Gb.
KABtru {Orleans).

GARPATES (-um), also called ALPES
BASTARNIGAE {Cttrjmthian IfountoMw), the
mountains separating Dacia from Sarmatia.

GARPATHUS (.i: Scarpanto), an island
between Grete and Rhodes, in the sea named
after it

GARPEtXNI (4}rum), a powerftil people
in Hispania Tarraoonensis, with a fertile
territory on the rivers Anas and Tagus.
Their capital was Tolbtttx.

CARPI or GARPllNI (.5mm), a German
people between the Carpathian mountains and
the Danube.

GARRAE or GARRHAE (4brum) the Haran
or Gharran of the Scriptoree, a city of Osro.
ene, in Mesopotamia, where Crassus met his
death after his defeat by the Parthians,
B.C. 5S.

CARS£dLI (.drum: Carsoli)^ a town of
the Aequi, in Latium, colonised by the

GARTEIA (.ae : also called Garthaea, Gar.
pia, Carpessus), more ancientiy TARTESSUS,
a celebrated town and harbour in the S. of
Spain, at the head of the gulf of which
M. Galpe forms one side, founded by the
Phoenicians, and colonised b.o. 170 by 4000
Roman soldiers.

GARTHAEA (.ae), a town on the 8. side
of. the island of Ceos.

iGO (Ru. near JEUMarsa, N.E. of Tunis),
one of the most celebrated cities of the
ancient world, stood in the recess of a large
bay, in the middle of the N..most part of the
N. coast of AfHca. The coast of this part
of AfHca has been much altered by the de-
posits of the river Bagradas, and the sand
which is driven seawards by the N.W.

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