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winds. The old Peninsula upon which Car.
thage stood was about 30 miles in circum.
ference, and the city itself, in the height of
its glory, measured about 15 miles round.
But owing to the influences just referred to
the locality presents a very difl)erent appear,
ance at present. Carthage was founded by
the Phoenicians of Tyre, according to tra-
dition, about 100 years before the building
of Rome, that is about b.c. 853. The my.
thical account of its foundation is given
under Dido. The part of the city first built
was called, in the Phoenician language, Bet-
Kura or Bosra, i, «, a eastU, which was
corrupted by the Greeks into Byrsa i.e,
a hidef and hence probably arose the story of
the way in which the natives were cheated
out of the groimd. As the city grew, the
Byrsa formed the citadel. Gothon was the
inner harbour, and was used for ships of
war : the outer harbour, divided ttom it by
a tongue of land 300 feet wide, was the sta.
tion for the merchant ships. Beyond the
fortifications was a large suburb, caUed
Magara or Magallli. The population of Car.
thage, at the time of the Srd Punic war is
stated at 700,000. — ^The constitution of Car.
thage was an oligarchy. The two chief ma-
gistrates, called Snffotes, appear to have
been elected for life ; the Greek and Roman
writers call them kings. The generals and
foreign governors were usually quite distinct
from the sufi'etes; but the 2 offices were
sometimes united in the same person. The
governing body was a Senate, partly here-

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ditary and partly elective, vithin which
there was a select body of 100 or 104, called
Gerusia, whose chief (^ce was to control
the magistrates, and especially the generals
returning flrom foreign service, who might
be suspected of attempts to establish a
tyranny. Important questions, especially
liiose on which the senate and the suffetes
disagreed, were referred to a general as-
sembly, of the citizens ; but concerning the
mode of proceeding in this assembly and
the extent of its powers, we know very
little. Their punishments were very severe,
and the usual mode of inflicting death
was by crucifixion. The chief occupa-
tions of the people were commerce and
agriculture ; in both of which they reach^
a pre-eminent position among the nations of
the ancient world. The Carthaginians became
the rivals of the Romans, with whom they
carried on three wars, usually known as the
three Punic Wars. The first lasted firom
B.C. 265 — 242, and resulted in the loss to
Carthage of Sicily and the Lipari islands.
The second, which was the decisive contest,
began with the siege of Sagnntum (218),
and terminated (201) with the peace, by which
Carthage was stripped of all her power.
[Hannibal.] The third began and ter.
minated in 146, by the capture and destruc
tion of Carthage. It remained in ruins for
30 years. At the end of that time a
colony was established on the old site by
the Gracchi, which continued in a feeble con-
dition till the times of Julius and Augustus,
under whom a new city was built, with the
name of Colonia Carthago. It became the
first city of Africa, and occupied an import-
ant place in ecclesiastical as well as in civil
history. It was taken by the Vandals in a.i>.
439, retaken by Belisarius in a.d. 533, and
destroyed by the Arab conquerors in a.d.
698. The Carthaginians are firequently
called Poeni by the Latin writers on account
of their Phoenician origin.

CARTHAGO (-Inis) NOVA {Cart?uigena\
an important town on the £. coast of Hispa-
nia Tarraconensis, founded by the Cartha-
ginians under Hasdrubal, b.c. 243, and sub-
sequently conquered and colonised by the
Romans. It is situated on a promontory
running out into the sea, and possesses one of
the finest harbours in the world.

ClRUS, M. AURELIUS, Roman emperor
A.D. 282 — 283, succeeded Probus. He was
engaged in a successful military expedition
in Persia, when he was struck dead by light-
ning, towards the close of 283. He was suc-
ceeded by his sons Cakikus and NuMERiANirs.
Carus was a victorious general and able ruler.

CARVENTUM (-i), a town of the Volsci, to

which the Cakvemtaka Arx mentioned by
Livy belonged, a town of the Volsci between
Signia and the sources of the Trerus.

CARVILIU8 MAXIMUS. .1) Sp., twice
consul, B.C. 293 and 273, both times with
L. Papirius Cursor. In their first consul-
ship they gained brilliant victories over the
Samnites, and in their second they brought
the Samnite war to a close. — (2) Sp., son of
the preceding, twice consul, 234 and 228, is
said to have been the first person at Rome
who^divorced his wife.

CARI^AE (4Lrum), a town in Laconia
near the borders of Arcadia, originally be-
longed to the territory of Tegea in Arcadia.
Female figures in architecture that support
burdens were called Caryatides in token of
the abject slavery to which the women of
Caryae were reduced by the Greeks, as a
punishment for joining the Persians at the
invasion of Greece.

ClR"f ANDA (-orum), a city of Caria, on a
little island, once probably united with the
mainland, was the birthplace of the geo-
grapher Scylax.

CARtlTIDES. [Caetab.]

CARYSTUS (-i), a town on the 8. coast of
Euboea, founded by Dryopes, celebrated for
its marble quarries.

CASCA, P. 8ERVIl!U8, tribune of the
plebs, B.Cj 44, and one of Caesar's assassins.

CASILINUM (-i), a town in Campania on
the Vultumus, and on the same site as the
modem Capua, celebrated for its heroic de-
fence against Hannibal, b.c. 216.

CASlNUM (-i : S, Germano), a town in
Latium on the river Cabixvs. Its citadel
occupied the same site as the celebrated con-
vent MonU Cassino,


CASiUS (-i). (1) {Baa Kasaroun), a moun-
tain on the coast of Egypt, £. of Pelusium,
with a temple of Jupiter on its summit.
Here also was the grave of Pompey. —
(2) {Jebel Okrah), a mountain on the coast
of Syria, S. of Antioch and the Orontes.

CASMENA (-ae), a town in Sicily, founded
by Syracuse about b.c 643. *

CASPERIA or CA8PERULA (-ae), a town
of the Sabines, on the river Himella.

pian Gates, the name given to several passes
through the mountains round the Caspian.
The principal of these were near the ancient
Rhagae or Arsacla. Being a noted and
central ^int, distances were reckoned from it.

CASPU (-5rum), the name of certain
Scythian tribes around the Caspian Sea.

CASPII MONTES {Mburz Mts.) a name
applied generally to the whole range of
! mountains which surround the Caspian Sea,

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on the 8. and S.W., at the distance of from
15 to 80 miles firom its shore, and more espe-
cially to that part of this range S. of the
Caspian, in which was the pass called Caspiax

CASFIBI or CASPIRAEI (^nim), a peopleof
India, whose exact position is doubtful : they
are generally placed in Ocuhmeer and ITepatU.

CASPIUM SfARE {the Ckupian Sea), also
called Htkcamiitm, Albamvh, and Scythicith,
iill names derived from the people who lived
(vn its shores, a great salt-water lake in Asia.
Probably at some remote period the Caspian
was united both with the sea of Aral and
with the Arctic Ocean. Both lakes have
their surface considerably below that of the
Enxine or Black Sea, the Caspian nearly 350
feet, and the Aral about 200 feet, and both
are still sinking by evaporation. The whole
of the neighbouring country indicates that
this process has been going on for centuries
past. Besides a number of smaller streams,
two great rivers flow into the Caspian ; the
Rha {Volga) on the N., and the united Cyrus
and Araxes {Kour) on the W. ; but it loses

more by evaporation than it receives from
these rivers.

CASSANDER (.dri), son of Antipater. His
father, on his death-bed (b.o. 319), appointed
Polysperchon regent, and conferred upon Cas-
Sander only the secondary dignity of Chiliarch.
Being dissatisfied with this arrangement,
Cassander strengthened himself in various
ways, that he might carry on war with
Polysperchon. First he formed an alliance
with Ptolemy and Antigonus, and next de-
feated Olympias and put her to death. After-
wards he joined Seleucus, Ptolemy, and
Lysimachus in their war agn^inst Antigonus.
This war was on the whole unfavourable to
Cassander. In 306 Cassander took the title
of king, when it was assumed by Antigonus,
Lysimachus, and Ptolemy. But it was not
until the year 301 that the decisive battle
of Ipsus secured Cassander the possession
of Macedonia and Greece. Cassander died
of dropsy in 297, and was succeeded by his
son Philip.

CASSANDRA (-ae), daughter of Priam and •
Hecuba, and twin-sister of Helenus. In her

CaMtandra and ApoUo. (Pittare d'Ercolano, vol. C, tav. 17.)

youth she was the object of ApoUo's regard, I gift of prophecy, upon her promising to
and when she grew up her beauty won upon comply with his desires ; but when she had
him so much that he conferred upon her the I become possessed of the prophetic art, she

11 2

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reftised to ftdfil her promise. Thereapon fhe
god in anger ordained that no one should
belieye her prophecies. On the eaptore of
Troy she fled into the sanetoary of Athena
(Minerva), but was torn away from the statue
of the goddess by Ajax, son of OHeus. On
the division of the booty, Cassandra fell to
the lot of Agamemnon, who took her with
him to Mycenae. Here she was killed by

CAS8ANDREA. [Potidaia.]
CASSlEPfiA, CA8Si6PEA (-ae), or CA8-
SldPfi (-es), wife of Cepheos, in Aethiopia,
and mother of Andromeda, whose beauty she
extolled above that of the Nereids. [Amdso-
MEDA.] She was afterwards placed among
the stars.

(4), a distinguished statesman, and one of the
few men of learning at the downfal of the
Western Empire, was bom about a.d. 468.
He enjoyed the confidence of Theodoric the
Great and his successors, and conducted for a
• long series of years the government of the
Ostrogothic kingdom. Several of his works
are extant.

CASSIOPfiA. [Cassibpka.]
CASSITERIDES. [Brixaitnia.]
CASSiUS (-i), the name of one of the most
disting^uished of the Roman gentes, originally
patrician, afterwards plebeian. — (1) Sp. Gas.
snrs YisaELLiNXTs, who was thrice consul, in
the years b.c. 502, 493, 486 ; and is distin-
guished as haying carried the first agrarian
law at Rome. This law brought upon him
the enmity of his feUow>patricians ; they ac-
cused him of aiming at regal power, and put
him to death. He left 3 sons ; but as aU the
subsequent Cassii are plebeians, his sons were
perhaps expelled from the patrician order, or
may have voluntarily passed over to the pie.
beians, on account of the murder of their
father. — (2) C. Cabs. Lomointjs, the mur-
derer of Julius Caesar. In b.c. 53, he was
quaestor of Crassus, in his campaign against
the Parthians, in which, both during his
quaestorship and during the two subsequent
years he greatly distinguished himself, gain-
ing an important victory over them in 62,
and again in 51. In 49 he was tribune of the
plebs, joined the aristocratical party in the
civU war, fied with Pompey from Rome,
and after the battle of Pharsalia sur-
rendered to Caesar. He was not only
pardoned by Caesar, but in 44 was made
praetor, and the province of Syria was pro-
mised him for the next year. But Cassius
had never ceased to be Caesar's enemy ; it
was he who formed the conspiracy against
the dictator's life, and gained over M. Brutus
to the plot. After the death of Caesar, on

the 15fh of March, 44 [Caesar], Cassius
went to Syria, which he claimed as his pro-
vince, although the senate had given it to
Dolabella, and had conferred upon Cassius
Cyrene in its stead. He defeated Dola-
bella, who put an end to his own life ;
and after plundering Syria and Asia most
unmercifully, he crossed over to Greece with
Brutus in 42, in order to oppose Octavia
and Antony. At the battle of Philippi, Cas-
sius was delated by Antony, while Brutus,
who commanded the other wing of the army,
drove Octavian off the field; but Cassius,
ignorant of the success of Brutus, commanded
his freedman to put an end to his life.
Brutus mourned over his companion, calling
him the last of the Romans. Cassius was
married to Jnnia Tertia or Tertnlla, half-sister
of M. Brutus. Cassius was well acquainted
with Greek and Roman literature ; he was a
follower of the Epicurean philosophy; his
abilities were considerable, but he was vain,
proud, and revengeful. — (3) C Cass. Lonoi-
Kus, the celebrated jurist, governor of Syria,
A.D. 50, in the reign of Claudius. He was
banished by Nero in a.i>. 66, because he had,
among his ancestral images, a statue of Cas-
sius, the murderer of Caesar. He was re-
called from banishment by Vespasian. Cassius
wrote 10 books on the civil law, and some
other works ; was a follower of tiie school of
Ateius Capito ; and as he reduced the prin- ,
ciples of Capito to a more scientific form, the
adherents of this school received the name of
OasnofU, •— (4) Cass. Pabhxhszs, so called
from Parma, his birth-place, was one of the
murderers of Caesar, b.c. 43 ; took an active
part in the civil wars that followed his death ;
and after the battle of Actium, was put to
death by the command of Octavian, b.c. 30.
Cassius was a poet, and his productions were
prized by Horace. — (5) Cass. Etbubcits, a
poet censured by Horace {Sat. i. 10. 61),
must not be confounded with No. 4. — (6)
Cass. Aviditts, an able general of M. Aure-
lius, was a native of Syria. In the Parthian
war (a.i}. 162 — 165), he commanded the
Roman army as the general of Verus ; was
afterwards appointed governor of all the
Eastern provinces, and discharged his trust
for several years with fidelity ; but in a.d.
175 he proclaimed himself emperor. He
reigned only a few months, and was slain by
his own officers, before M. Aurelius arrived
in the East. [Aubblius.] — (7) Cass. Dion.
[Dion Cassius.]

CASSIVELAUNUS (-i), a British chief,
ruled over the country N. of the Tamesis
{Thames) f and was entrusted by the Britons
with the supr^ne command on Caesar's
2nd invasion of Britain, b.c. 54. He was de.

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feated by Caesar, and was obliged to sue for

CASTALIA (-ae), a celebrated fountain
on Mt. Famassos, in -which the Pythia
used to bathe; sacred to Apollo and the
Muses, who were hence called Castaudbs.

CASTOB (-6ris), brother of Pollux. [Dios-

CASTRUM (4). (1) Imn, a town of the
Rntoli, on the coast of Latinm, confounded
by some writers with No. 2.-— (2) Novum
{Torre di CffUaruecia), a town in Etruria, and
a Boman colony on the coast. — (3) Novum
{Giulia Nova)f a town in Picenum, probably
at the mouth of the small river Batinum

CA8T0LO (-6nis: Cculona)^ a town of
the Oretani in Hispania Tarraoonensis, on
the Baetis, and under the Bomans an im.
portant place. In the mountains in the
neighbourhood were silver and lead mines.
The wife of Hannibal was a native of

descent), a mountain and sea port, at the
bottom of a deep bay on the N. coast of
Africa, considered the boundary between
Eg^pt and Cyrenaica.

CATADtJPA (-5rum) or -I (-Orum), a name
given to the cataracts of the Nile, and also
to the parts of Aethiopia in their neighbour-
hood. JNitus.]

CATELAUNI (-6rum: Chdhnt nsr Mame),
a town in Gaul, near which Attila was
defeated by Aetius and Theodorio, ▲.n.

CXtImITTTS. [Gantmbdes.]

CATANA or CaTINA (-ae : Cbtonia), an
important town in Sicily, at the foot of Mt.
Aetna, founded b.c. 730 by Nazos. In b.o.
476 it was taken by Hiero I., who removed
its inhabitants to Leontini, and settled 6000
Syracusans and 5000 Peloponnesians in the
town, the name of which he changed into
Aetna. The former inhabitants again ob-
tained possession of the town soon after the
death of Hiero, and restored the old name.
Catana was afterwards subject to various
reverses, and finally in the 1st Punic war
fell under the dominion of Bome.

CATAONIa (-ae), a fertile district in the
S.E. part of Cappadocia, to which it was first
added under the Bomans, with Melitene,
which lies E. of it.

CATABBHACTfiS (-ae). (1) A river of
Pamphylia, which descends from the moun-
tains of Taurus, in a great brok^ waterfall,
(whence its name). — (2) The term is also
applied, first by Strabo, to the cataracts of
the Nile, which are distinguished as C.
M^jor and C. Minor. [Nilub.]

CATHAEI (-drum), a great and warlike
people of India intra Gangem, upon whom
Alexander made war.

ClTIllNA (-ae), L. SEBGIuS (-i), the
descendant of an ancient patrician family
which had sunk into poverty. His youth
and early manhood were stained by even'
vice and crime. He first appears in history
as a zealous partisan of Sulla, taking an
active part in tiie horrors of the proscription.
His private life presents a compound of
cruelty and intrigue, but notwithstanding
these things he obtained the dignity of
praetor in b.c. 68, and sued for the consul-
ship in 66. For this office however he had
been disqualified for becoming a candidate,
in consequence of an impeachment for op-
pression in his province, preferred by P.
Clodius Pulcher, afterwards so celebrated as
the enemy of Cicero. His first plot was to
murder the two consuls that had been
elected, a design which was fi*ustrated only
by his own impatience. He now organised
a more extensive conspiracy. Having been
acquitted in 65 upon his trial for extortion,
he was left unfettered to mature his plans.
The time was propitious to his schemes.
The younger nobility and the veterans of
Sulla were desirous of some change, to
relieve them from their wants; while the
poimlace were restless and discontented,
ready to follow the bidding of any demagogue.
The conspiracy came to a head in the consul-
ship of Cicero, b.c. 63. But the vigilance of
Cicero baffled all the plans of Catiline. He
compelled Catiline to leave Bome (Nov. 8—
9) ; and shortly afterwards, by the inter-
ception of correspondence between the other
leaders of the conspiracy and the ambassa.
dors of the Allobroges, he obtained legal
evidence against Catiline's companions. Thi»
done, Cicero instantly summoned the leaders,
conducted them to the senate, where they
were ocmdemned to death, and executed
them the same night in prison. (Deo. 5, 63).
The consul Antonius was then sent against
Catiline, and the decisive battle was fought
early in 62. Antonius, however, unwilling
to fight against his former associate, gave the
command on the day of battle to his legate,
M. Petreius. Catiline fell in the engagement,
after fighting with the most daring valour. —
The history of Catiline's conspiracy has been
written by Sallust.

CAtO (-dms), the name of a celebrated
family of the Porcia gens. (1) M. Pobcius
Cato, frequently sumamed Censorius or
Cemsob, also Cato Major, to distinguish
him from his great-grandson Cato Uticensis
[No. 2.] Cato was bom at Tusculum, B.C.
234, and was brought up at his father's

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farm, situated in the Sabine territory. In
217 he served his first campaign in his
17th year. During the first 26 years of his
public life (217 — 191) he gave his energies
to military pursuits, and distinguished him.
self on many occasions — ^in the 2nd Punic
irar, in Spain, and in the campaign against
Antiochusin Greece. With the victory over
Antiochus at Thermopylae in 191 his military
career came to a close. He now took an
active part in civil affairs, and distinguished
himself by his vehement opposition to the
Roman nobles, who were introducing into
Rome Greek luxury and refinement. It was
especially against the Scipios that his most
violent attacks were directed, and whom
he pursued with the bitterest animosity.
[SciPio.] In 184 he was elected censor with
L. Valerius Flaccus. His censorship was a
great epoch in his life. He applied himself
strenuously to the duties of his office, regard,
less of the enemies he was making ; but all
his eflfbrts to stem the tide of luxury which
was now setting in proved unavailing. His
strong national prejudices appear to have
diminished in force as he grew older and
wiser. He applied himself in old age to the
study of Greek literature, with which in
youth he had no acquaintance, although he
was not ignorant of the Greek ,language.
He retained his bodily and mental vigour in
his old age. In the year before his death he
was one of the chief instigators of the third
Punic war. He had been one of the Roman
deputies sent to Africa to arbitrate between
M asinissa and the Carthaginians, and he was
so struck with the flourishing condition of
Carthage that on Ms return home he main,
tained that Rome would never be safe as long
as Carthage was in existence. From this
time forth, whenever he was called upon for
his vote in the senate, though the subject of
debate bore no relation to Carthage, his words
were Delenda est Carthago. He died in 149,
at the age of 85. Cato wrote several works,
of which only the De Re Rustica has come
down to us.-— (2) M. Porcius Cato, great-
grandson of Cato the Censor, and sumamed
Uticemsis from Utica, the place of his death,
was bom 95. In early childhood he lost
both his parents, and was brought up in the
house of his mother's brother, M. Livius
Drusus, along with his sister Porcia and the
children of his mother by her second hus-
band, Q. Servilius Caepio. In early years he
discovered a stem and unyielding character ;
he applied himself with great zeal to the
study of oratory and philosophy, and be-
came a devoted adherent of the Stoic school ;
and among the profligate nobles of the age
he soon became conspicuous for his rigid

morality. In 63 he was tribune of the plebs,
and supported Cicero in proposing that the
Catilinarian conspirators should sulfer death.
He now became one of the chief leaders a^
the aristocratical party, and opposed with the
utmost vehemence the measures of Caesar,
Pompey, and Crassus. He joined Pompey on
the breaking out of the civil war (49). After
the battle of Pharsalia he went first to Corcyra,
and thence to AMca, where he joined Me-
tellus Scipio. When Scipio was defeated at
Thapsus, and all Africa with the exception of
Utica submitted to Caesar, he resolved to die
rather than fall into his hands. He there,
fore put an end to his own life, after spending
the greater part of the night in perusing
Plato's Phaedo on the immortality of the
soul. Cato soon became the subject of bio.
graphy and panegyric. Shortly after his,
death appeared Cicero's Cato^ which provoked
Caesar's Anticato, In Lucan the character
of Cato is a personification of godlike virtue.
In modem times, the closing events of his
life have been often dramatised; and few
dramas have gained more celebrity than the
Cato of Addison.

CATTI or CHATTI (-5rum), one of the
most important nations of Germany, bounded
by the Visurgis ( Weser) on the E., the Agri
Decumates on the S., and the Rhine on the
W., in the modem Sesae and the adjacent
countries. They were a branch of the Her-
miones, and are first mentioned by Caesar
under the erroneous name of Suevi. They
were never completely subjugated by the
Romans ; and their power was greatly aug-
mented on the decline of the Cherusd. Their
capital was Mattium.

poet, bom at Verona or in its immediate
vicinity, b.c. 87. Catullus inherited consi-
derable property from his father, who wat.
the friend of Julius Caesar ; but he squan-
dered a great part of it by indulging freely
in the pleasures of the metropolis. In order
to better his fortunes, he went to Bithynia
in the train of the praetor Memmius, but it
appears that the speculation was attended
with little success. He probably died about
B.C. 47. The extant works of Catullus con-
sist of 116 poems, on a variety of topics, and
composed in dififerent styles and metres.
Catullus adorned all he touched, and his
shorter poems are characterised by original
invention and felicity of expression.

CATULUS, the name of a distinguished
family of the Liitatia gens. (1) C. Lxjtatius
Catvlxjs, consul b.c. 242, defeated as pro-
consul in the following year the Carthaginian
fleet off the Aegates islands, and thus brought
the first Punic war to a close, 241. — (2) C^

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LuTATivs CATin.u8, consiil 102 with C. Marias

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