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IV., and as proconsul next year gained
along with Marias a decisive victory over the
Cimbri near Vercellae (Vercelli), in the N.
of Italy. Catulas belonged to the aristo-
cratical party ; he espoused the cause of
Sulla ; was included by Marios in the pro-
scription of 87 ; and as escape was impos-
sible, put an end to his life by the vapours
of a charcoal fire. Catulus was well ac-
quainted with Greek literature, and the
author of several works, all of which are
lost. — (3) Q. LuTATiTJS Catulus, son of No. 2,
a distinguished leader of the aristocracy, also
won the respect and confidence of the people
by his upright character and conduct. He
was consul in 78 and censor in 65. He
opposed the Gabinian and Manilian laws
which conferred extraordinary powers upon
Pompey (67 and 66).

CATURIGES (-urn), a Ligurian people in
Gallia Narbonensis, near the Cottian Alps.


(Caucanu)f a great chain of mountains in
Asia, extending from the E. shore of the
I'ontus Euxinus {Black Sea) to the W. shore
of the Caspian. There are two chief passes
over the chain, both of which were known to
the ancients ; one near Derhenty was called
Albaniae and sometimes Caspias Ptlax : the
other, nearly in the centre of the range, was
called Caucasiae Pylae {Pass of Dariel), That
the Greeks had some vague knowledge of the
Caucasus in very early times, is proved by the
myths respecting Prometheus and the Argo-
nauts, fh>m which it seems that the Caucasus
'A'as regarded as at the extremity of the earth,
on the border of the river Gceanus. — ^When
the soldiers of Alexander advanced to that
great range of mountains which formed the
N. boundary of Ariana, the Paropamisus,
they applied to it the name of Caucasus ;
afterwards, for the sake of distinction, it
was called Caucasus Indicus. [Pa&opamisus.]

CAUCI. [Chauci.]

CAUCONES (-um), the name of peoples
both in Greece and Asia, who had disappeared
Ht later times. The Caucones in Asia Minor
are mentioned by Homer as allies of the
Trojans, and are placed in Bithynia and
Paphlagonia by the geographers.

CAUDIUM (-i), a town in Samnium on
the road from Capua to Beneventum. In the
neighbourhood were the celebrated Fusculab
Caubhtax, or Oaudine Forks^ narrow passes
in the mountains, where the Roman army
surrendered to the Samnites, and was sent
under the yoke, b.c. S21 : it is now called
the valley of Arpaia.

CAULON (-6ni8), or CAULONLA (-ae), a

town in Bruttium, N.E. of Locri, originally
called Anion or Aulonia, founded by the in-
habitants of Croton, or by the Aohaeans.

CAUNUS (-i), one of the chief cities of
Caria, on its S. coast, in a very fertile but
imhealthy situation. It was founded by the
Cretans. Its dried figs (Cauneae ficus) were
highly celebrated. The painter Protogenes
was bom here.

CAURUS (-i), the Argestes of the Greeks,
the N.W. wind, is in Italy a stormy wind.

CAtSTER (-tri), and CAVsTRUS (-i), a
celebrated river of Lydia and Ionia, flowing
between the ranges of Tmolus and Messogis
into the Aegean, a little N.W. of Ephesus.
To this day it abounds in swans, as it did in
Homer's time. The valley of the Caystrus
is called by Homer "the Asian meadow,"
and is probably the district to which the
name of Asia was first applied.

CEA. [Ceos.^^

CEBENNA, GEBENNA (-ae : Cevennes), a
range of mountains in the S. of Gaul, ex-
tending N. as far as Lugdunum, and sepa*
rating the Arvemi firom the HelviL

C£B£S (-etis), of Thebes, a disciple and
fHend of Socrates, was present at the death of
his teacher. He wrote a philosophical work,
entitled Pinttx or Table, giving an allegorical
picture of human life. It is extant, and has
been exceedingly popular.

CEBR£NIS (-Idos : oco. Ida), daughter of
Cebren. a river-god in the Troad.

CECROPIA. [Athknae.]

CCCROPS (-5pis), a hero of the Pelasgic
race, said to have been the first king of
Attica. He was married to Agraulos,
daughter of Actaeus, by whom he had a son,
Erysichthon, who succeeded him as king of
Athens, and S daughters, Agraulos, Herse,
and Pandroeos. In his reign Poseidon (Nep-
tune) and Athena (Minerva) contended for
the possession of Attica, but Cecrops decided
in favour of the goddess. [Athxma.] Cecrops
is said to have founded Athens, the citadel of
which was called Cecropia after him, to have
divided Attica into 12 communities, and to
have introduced the first elements of civilised
life ; he instituted marriage, abolished bloody
sacrifices, and taught his subjects how to
worship the gods. The later Greek writers
describe Cecrops as a native of Sals in Egypt,
who led a colony of Egyptians into Attica,
and thus introduced from Egypt the arts of
civilised life ; but this account is rejected by
some of the ancients themselves, and by the
ablest modem critics.

CELAENAE (-firum), a great city in S.
Phrygia, situated at the sources of the rivers
Maeander and Marsyas. In the midst of it
was a citadel built by Xerxes, on a precipitous

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rock, at the foot of -which the Marsyas took
its rise, and near the river's source was a
grotto celebrated by tradition as the scene of
the punishment of Marsyas by Apollo. The
Maeander took its rise in the very palace, and
flowed through the park and the city, below
which it received the Marsyas.

CELAENO (-us), one of the Harpies.

CELETRtJM (4), a town in Macedonia on
a peninsula of the Laous Castoris.

CELEUS (.i), king of Eleusis, husband of
Metanira, and father of Demophon and Trip-
tolemus. He received Demeter (Ceres) with
hospitality at Eleusis, when she was wander,
ing in search of her daughter. The goddess,
in return, wished to make his son Demophon
immortal, and placed him in the fire in order
to destroy his mortal parts; but Metanira
screamed aloud at the sight, and Demophon
was destroyed by the flames. Demeter then
bestowed great favours upon Triptolemus.
[Triptolbkvs.] Celeus is described as the
first priest and his daughters as the first
priestesses of Demeter at Eleusis.

CELSU8, A. CORNELIUS (4), a Roman
writei on medicine, probably lived under the
reigns of Augustus and Tiberius. His treatise
De Medicina^ in 8 books, has come down to
i^s, and has been much valued from the
earliest times to the present day.

CELTAE (4lrum), a mighty race, which
occupied the greater part of western Europe
in ancient times. The Greek and Roman
writers call them by 8 names, -yrhich are pro>
bably only variations of one name, namely
CEI.TAB, Galatae, and Galu. The most
powerful part of the nation appears to have
taken up their abode in the centre of the
country called after them Gallia, between
the Garumna in the S. and the Sequana and
Matrona in the N. From this country they
spread over various parts of Europe. Besides
the Celts in Gallia, there were 8 other dif.
ferent settlements of the nation : — 1. Iberian
Celts, who crossed the Pyrenees and settled
in Spain. [Celtibbri.] 2. British Celts,
the most ancient inhabitants of Britain.
[Bbitamnia.] 8. Belgio Celts, the earliest
inhabitants of Gallia Belgica, at a later time
much mingled with Germans. 4. Italian
Celts, who crossed tlie Alps at different pe-
riods, and eventually occupied the greater
part of the N. of Italy, which was called
after them GaJiUA Cisalpina. 6. Celts in
the Alps and on the Danube, namely the
Helvetii, Gothini, Osi, Vindelici, Raeti,
Norici, and Cami. 6. Ulyrian Celts, who,
under the name of Scordisci, settled on Mt.
Scordus. 7. Macedonian and Thracian Celts,
who had remained behind in Macedonia when

the Celts invaded Greece, and who are rarely
mentioned. 8. Asiatic Celts, the Tolistobogi,
Trocmi, and Tectosages, who founded the
kingdom of Galatla. — Some ancient writers
divided the Celts into two great races, one
consisting of the Celts in the S. and centre of
Gaul, in Spain, and in the N. of Italy, who
were the proper Celts, and the other consist-
ing of the Celtic tribes on the shores of the
Ocean and in the E. as far as Scythia, who
were called Gauls: to the latter race the
Cimbri belonged, and they are considered by
some to be identical wiUi the Ciomierii of
the Greeks. This twofold division of the
Celts appears to correspond to the two races
into which the Celts are at present divided
in Great Britain, namely the Gael and the
Kymry, who differ in language and customs,
the Gael being the inhabitants of Ireland and
the N. of Scotland, and the Kymry of Wales.
— ^The Celts are described by the ancient
writers as men of large stature, of fair com-
plexion, and with flaxen or red hair. They
were long the terror of the Romans : once
they took Rome, and laid it ashes (e.g. 890).

CELT1b£RI (-dram), a powerftil people
in Spain, consisting of Celts, who crossed the
Pyrenees at an early period, and became
mingled with the Iberians, the original in-
habitants of the country. They dwelt chiefly
in the central part of Spain. Their country
called CxLTiBBRiA was mountainous and un-
productive. They were a brave and warlike
people, and proved formidable enemies to the
Romans. They submitted to Scipio AMca-
nuB in the 2nd Punic war, but the oppres-
sions of the Roman governors led them to
rebel, and for many years they successfully
defied the power of Rome. They were re-
duced to submission on the capture of Nu-
mantia by Scipio Africanus the younger (e.g.
134), but they again took up arms under
Sertorius, and it was not till his death (72)
that they began to adopt the Roman customs
and language.

CENAEUM (4), the N.W. promontoiy of
Euboea, opposite Thermopylae, with a temple
of Zeus Cenaeus.

CENCHREAE (.&rum), the E. harbour of
Corinth on the Saronic gulf, important for
the trade and commerce with the East.

CENOMANI (-6rum), a powerful Gallic
people, crossed the Alps at an early period,
and settled in the N.W. of Italy, in the country
of Brixia, Verona, and Mantim, and extended
N. as far as the confines of Rhaetia.

CENSORINUS (4), author of an extant
treatise, entitled De Die NtUaliy which treats
of the generation of man, of his natal hour, of
the influence of the stars and genii upon his

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career, and discusses the various methods em-
ployed for the division and calculation of time.
CENTAUEI (-6rum), that is the buU-
killers, were an ancient race, inhabiting
Mount Pelion in Thessaly. They led a wild
and savage Ufe, and are hence called ^(cr
or S^iff, i. e., savage-beasts, in Homer. In
later accounts they were represented as half-
horses and half men, and are said to have
been the offspring of Izion and a cloud. The
Centaurs are celebrated in" ancient story for
their fight with the Lapithae, which arose at
the marriage feast of Pirithous. This fight
is sometimes placed in connexion with a com-
bat of Hercules with the Centaurs. [Heb-
cuLKS.] It ended by the Centaurs being

expelled from their country, and taking refugu
on mount Pindus, on the frontiers of Epirus.
Chirou is the most celebrated among the
Centaurs. [Chikon.] We know that hunt-
ing the bull on horseback was a national
custom in Thessaly, and that the Thessalians
were celebrated riders. Hence may have
arisen the fable that the Centaurs were
half-men and half-horses, just as the Ameri-
cans, when they first saw a Spaniard on
horseback, believed horse and man to be one
being. The Centaurs are frequently repre-
sented in ancient works of art, and generally,
as men trom the head to the loins, while the
remainder of the body is that of a horse witli
its 4 feet and taiL

Centaur. (Metope from the Partheuon.)

CENTRItES, a small river of Armenia,
which it divided from the land of the Cardu-
chi, N. of Assyria.

CENTUM CELLAE (-arum: avitaVeeehia),
a sea-port town in Etruria, first became a
place of importance under Trajan, who built
a villa here, and constructed an excellent

CENTURIPAE (-Srum), an ancient town
of the SicuU, in Sicily, at the foot of Mt.
Aetna, and not far from the river Symae-
thus. Under the Romans it was one of the
most flourishing cities in the island.

CEOS (-1), or CEA (-ae), an island in the
Aegean 8ea, one of the C^dades, between

the Attic promontory Sunium and the islaud
Cythniis, celebrated for its fertile soil anci
its genial climate. Its chief town was
lulls, the birth-place of Simonides, whence
we read of the Ceae munera neniae.

CEPHALLfiNLA. (-ae : Oephalonia), called
by Homer Sams or Samos, the largest island
in the Ionian sea, separated from Ithaca by a
narrow channel. The island is very moun-
tainous; its chief towns were Same, Pale,
Cranil, and Proni. It never obtained poli-
tical importance. It is now one of the 7
Ionian islands under the protection of Great

CEPHALOEDIUM C-i). a ttwn or. lh«

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N. coast of Sicily in the territory of Hi*

CEPHALUS (4), son of Deion and Diomede,
and husband of Prooris or Procne. He was
beloYcd by Eos (Aurora), but as he rejected
her advances from love to Us wife, she ad-
vised him to try the fidelity of Procris.
The goddess then metamorphosed him into a
stranger, and sent him with rich presents to
his house. Procris was tempted by the
brilliant presents to yield to the stranger,
who then discovered himself to Im her hus-
band, whereupon she fled in shame to Crete.
Artemis (Diana) made her a present of a dog
and a spear, which were never to miss their
object, and sent her back to Cephalus in the
disguise of a youth. In order to obtain this
dog and spear, Cephalus promised to love the
youth, who thereupon made herself known
to him as his wife Procris. This led to a
reconciliation between them. Procris how-
ever still feared the love of Eos, and there-
fore Jealously watched Cephalus when he
went out hunting, but on one occasion he
killed her by accident with the never-erring
spear. A somewhat different version of the
same story is given by Ovid.

CfiPHEtJS (-6«s or 6i). (1) King of Ethi-
opia, son of Belus, husband of Cassiopea,
and father of Andromeda, was placed among
the stars after his death.— (2) Son of Aleus,
one of the Argonauts, was king of Tegea in
Arcadia, and perished with most of his sons
in an expedition against Hercules.

CfiPHISUS or CEPHISSUS (-1). (1) A
river flowing through a fertile valley, in
Phocis and Boeotia, and falling into the lake
Copais, which is hence called Cephisis in the
Iliad. [Copais.] — <2) The largest river in
Attica, rising in the W. slope of Mt. Penteli-
cus, and flowing past Athens on the W. into
the Saronic gulf near Phalerum.

CERAMUS (.i), a Dorian sea-port town on
the N. side of the Cnidian Chersonesus on the
coast of Caria, from which the Ceramic gulf
took itsname.

CERASUS (-i),aflourishingcolonyof Sinope,
on the coast of Pontus, at the mouth of a
river of the same name ; chiefly celebrated
as the place from which Europe obtained
both the cherry and its name. LucuUus is
said to have brought back plants of the cherry
with him to Rome, but this refers probably
only to some particular sorts, as the Romans
seem to have had the tree much earlier. Ce-
rasus fell into decay after the foundation of

CERAUNil M0NTE8 {Khimara), a range
v>f mountains extending firom the frontier of
lUyricum along the coast of Epirus, derived
their name from the firequent thunder-

storms which occurred among them {xi^eanis).
These mountains made the coast of Epirus
dangerous to ships. They were also called
Acroceraunia, though this name was properly
applied to the prodiontory separating the
Adriatic and Ionian seas. The inhabitants
of these mountains were called Ceraunii.

CERBERUS (-1), the dog that guarded the
entrance of Hades, is called a son of T5T>haoD
and Echidna. Some poets represent hin
with 50 or 100* heads; but later writers
describe him as a monster with only 3 heads,
with the tail of a serpent and with serpente
round his neck. His den is usually placed
on the further side of the Styx, at the spot
where Charon landed the shades of the

Cerberus. ( From a Bronze Statue.)

CERCASORUM (-i), a city of Lower Egypt,
on the W. bank of the Nile, at the point
where the river divided into its S principal

CERCINA (-ae) and CERCINITIS, two low
islands off the N. coast of Africa, in the mouth
of the Lesser Syrtis, united by a bridge, and
possessing a flne harbour.

CERCOPES (-um), droll and thievish
gnomes, who robbed Hercules in his sleep.
Some place them at Thermopylae ; others at
Oechalia in Euboea, or in Lydia.

CERCtON (-finis), son of Poseidon (Nep-
tune) or Hephaestus (Vulcan), a cruel tjTant
at Eleusis, put to death his daughter Alopb,

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and killed all strangers whom lie oyercame
in wrestling ; he was in the end conquered
and slain by Theseus.

CERES. [Dkmetkk.]

C£R£S, the personified necessity of death,
are described by Homer as formidable, dark,
and hateful beings, because they carry off
men to the joyless house of Hades. According
to Hesiod, they are the daughters of Night,
and sisters of the Moerae, and punish men
for their crimes.

CERINTHUS (4), a town on the £. coast
of Euboea, on the Riyer Budorus.

CERRETANI (-drum), an Iberian people in
Hispunia Tarraconensis, inhabited the modem
Cerdagne in the Pyrenees j they were cele-
brated for their hams.

CERTONIUM (-i), a town in Mysia.

C£t£I (-orum), a people of Mysia, the old
inhabitants of the country abont Fergamus,
and upon the Cetius, mentioned by Homer.

CETHEGUS (-i), the name of an ancient pa-
trician family of the Cornelia gens. They seem
to have kept up an old fashion of wearing their
arms bare, to which Horace alludes in the
words cmctuti Cethegi, — (1) M. Cornelius
CsTHSous, censor b.c. 209, and consul 204,
distinguished for his eloquence, and his cor-
rect use of Latin words, is quoted by Ennius
and Horace with approbation; died 196 —
(2^ C. CoRMELiTTS CsTHxous, ono of Catiliuo's
crew, was a profligate from his early youth.
When Catiline left Rome, 63, after Cicero's
first speech, Cethegus stayed behind under
the orders of Lentulus. His charge was to
murder the leading senators ; but the tardi-
ness of Lentulus prevented anything being
done. Cethegus was arrested and condemned
to death with the other conspirators.

C£nUS (-i), a small river of Mysia, falling
into the Cai'cus close to Fergamus.

C£YX. [Alcyone.]

CHABORAS, the same as the Aborrhas.

CHABRIAS (-ae), a celebrated Athenian
generaL In b.c. S78 he was one of the com.
manders of the forces sent to the aid of
Thebes against Agesilaus, when he adopted
for the first time that manoeuvre for which
he became so celebrated, — ordering his
men to await the attack with their spears
pointed against the enemy and their shields
resting on one knee. A statue was after-
wards erected at Athens to Chabrias in this
posture. At the siege of Chios (357) he fell
a sacrifice to his excessive valour.

CHAEREA (-ae), C. CASSIUS (-i), tribune
of the praetorian cohorts, formed the con-
spiracy by which the emperor Caligula was
«lain, A.D. 41. Chaerea was put to death by
Claudius upon his accession.

CUAERONEA (-ae), a town in Bocotia on

the Cephisus near the frontier of Fhocis,
nvemorable for the defeat of the Athenians
and the Boeotians by Fhilip, which crushed
the liberties of Greece, b.c. 338, and for Sulla*s
victory over the army of Mithridates, 86.
Chaeronea was the birthplace of Flutarch.
Several remains of the ancient city are to be
seen at Obptima, more particularly a theatre
excavated in the rock, an aqueduct, and the
marble lion (broken in pieces), which adorned
the sepulchre of the Boeotians who fell at the
battle of Chaeronea.

CHALAEUM (-rj, a port town of the Locn
Ozolae on the Crissaean gulf, on the frontiers
of Fhocis.

CHALASTRA (-ae), a town in Mygdonla
in Macedonia, at the mouth of the river

CHALCS (-es), or CHALCIA (-ae), an island
of the Carpathian sea, near Rhodes.

CHALCEDON (-6nis), a Greek city of
Bithynia, on the coast of the Fropontis, at
the entrance of the Bosporus, nearly oppo-
site to Byzantium, was founded by a colony
firom Megara in b.c. 685. After a long
period of independence, it became subject to
the kings of Bithynia, and most of its in-
habitants were transferred to the new city of
Nicomedia (bo. 140).

CHALCIdICC (-es), a peninsula in Mace-
donia, between the Thermaic and Strymonic
gulfs, runs out^into the sea like a 3-pronged
fork, terminating in 3 smaller peninsulas,
Faxlbnb, SriHONL^ and Acte or Athos. It
derived its name from Chalcidian colonists.
[Chalcis, No. 1.]

CHALCIS (-Idis). (1) {^ripo or ITegro.
ponte)f the principal town of Euboea, situated
on the narrowest part of the Euripus, and
united with the mainland by a bridge. It
was a very ancient town, originally inhabited
by Abantes or Curetes, and colonised by Attic
lonians. Its flourishing condition at an
early period is attested by the numerous
colonies which it planted in various parts of
the Mediterranean. It founded so many
cities in the peninsula in Macedonia, between
the Strymonic and Thermaic gulfs, that the
whole peninsula was called Chalcidice. In
Italy it founded Cuma, and in Sicily Naxos.
Chalcis was usually subject to Athens during
the greatness of the latter city. The orator
Isaeus and the poet Lycophron were bom at
Chalcis, and Aristotie died here. — (2) A
town in Aetolia, at the mouth of the Evenus,
situated at the foot of the mountain Chalcis,
and hence also called Hypochalds. — (3) A
city of Syria, in a fruitful plain, near the
termination of the river Chains ; the chief
city of the district of Chalcidice, which lay to
the E. of the Orontes.

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CHALDAEA (-ae), in the narrower sense,
was a province of Babylonia, about the lower
course of the Euphrates, the border of the
Arabian Desert, and the head of the Persian
Oulf. It was intersected by numerous canals,
and was extremely fertile. In a wider sense,
the term is applied to the whole of Babylo-
nia, and even to the Babylonian empire, on
account of the supremacy which the Chal-
daeans acquired at Babylon. [Babtlon.]
Xenophon mentions Chaldaeans in the moun-
tains N. of Mesopotamia. Their original seat
was most probably in the mountains of Ar-
menia and Kurdistan, whence they descended
into the plains of Mesopotamia and Babylonia.
Respecting the Chaldaeans as the ruling class
in the^Babylonian monarchy, see Babylon.

CHALtBES (-um), a remarkable Asiatic
people, dwelling on the S. shore of the Black
Sea, and occupying themselves in the work-
ing of iron. Xenophon mentions Chalybes
in the mountains on the borders of Armenia
and Mesopotamia, who seem to be the same
people that he elsewhere calls Chaldaeans ; and
several of the ancient geographers regarded
the Chalybes and Chaldaei as originally the
same people.

CHALYBON {0. 21, Hemon), a consider-
able city of N. Syria, probably the same as

CHAMAYI (-5rum), a people in Germany,
who first appear in the neighbourhood of the
Khine, but afterwards migrated £., defeated
the Bructeri, and settled between the Weser
and the JIarz.

CHAONES, a Pelasgian people, one of the
3 peoples which inhabited Epirus, were at an
earlier period in possession of the whole of
the country, but subsequently dwelt along
the coast from the river Thyamis to the Acro-
ceraunian promontory, which district was
therefore called Chaokia. By the poets
Chctoniw is used as equivalent to Epirot.

CHAOS {abl. Ch^), the vacant and Infinite
space which existed according to the ancient
cosmogonies previous to the creation of the
world, and out of which the gods, men, and
all things arose. Chaos was called the mother
of Erebos and Night.

CHARADRA (-ae), a town in Phocis, on
the river Charadrus, situated on an eminence
not far from Lilaea.

CHARAX (i.e., a palisaded camp), the
name of several cities, which took their
origin from military stations. The most re-
markable of them stood at the mouth of the
TigriSj^ [Alexandria, No. 4.] '

CHARfiS (-6ti8).—(l) An Athenian general,
who for many years contrived, by profuse
corruption, to maintain his influence with
the people, in spite of hia very disreputable

character. In the Social war, b.c. 356,
he accused his colleagues, Iphicrates and
Timotheus, to the people, and obtained the
sole command. After which he entered into
the service of Artabazus, the revolted satrap
of Western Asia, but was recalled by the

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