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Athenians on the complaint of Artaxerxes
III. He was one of the Athenian com-
manders at the battle of ChaeronSa, 338. —
(2) Of Lindus, in Rhodes, a statuary in
bronze, the favourite pupil of Lysippus,
flourished b.c. 290. His chief work was the
statue of the Sun, which, under the name of
*' The Colossus of Rhodes," was celebrated as
one of the 7 wonders of the world.

CHARILiUS, or CHARILLUS, (-i), king of
Sparta, son of Polydectes, is said to have re-
ceived his name ftt)m the general joy excited
by th? justice of his uncle Lycurgus, when he
placed him, yet a new-bom infant, on the
royal seat, and bade the Spartans acknow-
ledge him for their king. •

CHARITES (-um), caUed GRATIAE by
the Romans, and by us . the GRACES, were
the personification of Grace and Beauty. In
the Iliad, Charis is described as the wife of
Hephaestus (Vulcan) ; but in the Odyssey
Aphrodite (Venus) appears as the wife of
Hephaestus; from which we may infer, if
not the identity of Aphrodite and Charis, at
least a close connection in the notions enter-
tained about the 2 divinities. The idea of
personified grace and beauty was at an early
period divided into a plurality of beings ; and
even in the Homeric poems the plural Cha-
rites occurs several times. The Charites are
usually described as the daughters of Zeus
(Jupiter), and as 3 in number, namely, Eu-
phrdsj^e, Aglfila, and Th&Ua. The names of

Charites (the Graces). (From a Coin of Genua.)

the Charites sufficiently express their cha-
racter. They were the goddesses who en-
hanced the enjoyments of life by refinement
and gentleness. They are mostly described
as in the service of other divinities, and they

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lend their grace and beauty to every thing
that delights and elevates gods and men.
Poetry, however, U the art which is espe-
cially favoured by them ; and hence they are
the Mends <^ the Muses, with whom they
live together in Olympus. In early times the
Gharites were represented dressed, but after,
wards their figures were without clothing :
specimens of both representations of the
Gharites are still extant. They appear un-
suspicious maidens, in the fall bloom of life ;
and they usually embrace each other.

Charites (the Graces). (PittureErcolauo,vuL3, tav.ll.)

CHAKMANDE (-es : nr. Eit), a great city
of Mesopotamia, on the Euphrates.

CHAKON (-ontis), son of Erebos, conveyed

CbaroD, Hermes or ITercury, and SouL (From a
Uoman Lamp.)

in his boat the shades of the dead across the

rivers of the lower world. For this service
he was paid with an obolus or danace, which
coin was placed in the mouth of every corpse
previous to its burial. He is represented as
an aged man, with a dirty beard and a mean
dress. ^

CHAROXDAS (-ae), a lawgiver of Catana,
who legislated for his own and the other
cities of Chalcidian origin in Sicily and Italy.
His date is uncertain, but he lived about
B.C. 500. A tradition relates that Charondas
one day forgot to lay aside his sword before
he appeared in the assembly, thereby vio-
lating one of his own laws; and that,
on being reminded of this by a citizen, he
exclaimed, " By Zeus (Jupiter), I will esta-
blish it," and immediately stabbed himself.
The laws of Charondas were probably in

CHAKYBDIS. [Sctlla.]

ARII (-6rum), a people of Germany, allies or
dependents of the Cherusoi. They dwelt N.
of the Chatti ; and in later times they appear
between the Rhine and the Maas, as apart oi
the Franks.

CHATTI. [Catti.]

CHAUCI or CAUCI (-6rum), a powerful
people in the N.E. of Germany, between the
Amisia {^nu) and the Albis (JE^«), divided
by the Visurgis {Weaer), which flowed
through their territory, into Majores and
Minores, the former W., and the latter E. of
the river. They are described by Tacitus as
the noblest and the justest of the German
tribes. They are mentioned for the last
time in the Srd century, when they devas-
tated ttaul; but their name subsequently
became merged tn the general name of

Islands), a group of small islands, surrounded
by dangerous shallows, off the promontory
called Hiera or Chelidonia, on the S. coast of

CHELONATAS {0. Tomese), a promontory
in Elis, opposite Zacynthus, the most
westerly point of the Peloponnesus.

CHEMMIS, aft. PANOPOLIS, a great city
of the Thebais, or Upper Egypt, on the E.
bank of the Nile, celebrated for its manu-
facture of linen, its stone-quarries, and its
temples of Fan and Perseus.

CHEOPS (-pts), an early king of Egypt,
godless and tyrannical, reigned 50 years, and
built the first and largest pyramid by the
compulsory labour of his subjects.

CHEPHREN (-enos), king of Egypt,
brother and successor of Cheops, whose
example of tyranny he followed, reigned 56
years, and built the second pyramid.

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CHERSONESUS (4), "a land-island/'
that is, " a peninsula" (from x^i^'ft " land,"
and w«*, " island "), ' (1) Chersonbsub
Thbacica [PeninstUa of the Dardanelles or of
Gallipoli), usually called at Athens '*The
Chersonesus," without any distinguishing
epithet, the narrow slip of land, 420 stadia
m length, running between the Hellespont
and the Gulf of Melas, and connected with
the Thracian mainland by an isthmus, which
was fortified by a wall, 36 stadia across, near
Cardia. The Chersonese was colonised by the
Athenians under Miltiades, the contemporary
of Pisistratus. — (2) Chersonesus Taukica or
ScYTHiCA {Orimea), the peninsula between
the Pontus Euxinus, the Cimmerian Bospo-
rus, and the Palus Maeotis, united to the
mainland by an isthmus, 40 stadia in width.
It produced, a great quantity of com, which,
was exported to Athens and other parts of
Greece. [Bosporus.] — (3) Cimbrica {Jut-
land). See CiuBRi.

CHERUSCI (-5rum), the most celebrated
of all the tribes of ancient Germany. The
ancients extended this name also to the
nations belonging to the league of which
the Cherusci were at the head, ^le Cherusci
proper dwelt on both sides of the Yi-
surgis {Weser)y and their territories ex-
tended to the Harz and the Elbe. Under
their chief Arminius they destroyed the
army of Varus, and drove the Romans be-
yond the Rhine, a.d. 9. In consequence of
internal dissensions among the German
tribes, the Cherusci soon lost their influ-
ence. Their neighbours, the Catti, suc-
ceeded to their power.

CHILON (-onis), of Lacedaemon, son of
Damagetus, and one of the Seven Sages,
flourished b.c. 590.

CHIMAERA (-ae), a fire-breathing mon-
ster, the fore part of whose body was that of
a lion, the hind part that of a dragon, and
the middle that of a goat. She made gieut

Belleropbon and the Chimaera.
(From the Terra-cotta in the British MuBeum. )

havoc in Lycia and the surrounding countries, i monster must probably be sought for in the
and was at length killed by Belleropbon. [Bel- volcano of the name of Chimaera, near Pha-
LEROPHON.] The origin of this fire-breathing I seUs, in Lycia. In the works of art recently

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di<tcovered in Lycia, we find several represen- of a species of lion, still occurring in that
cations of the Chimaera in the simple form | country.

Vellerophon expelling the Chimaera.
(Lycian Gallery in the British Museam.)

CmONfi (-es). — (1) Daughter of Boreas
and Orithyia, and mother of Eumolpus, who
is hence called Chionides. — (2^ Daughter of
Daedalion, mother of Autolycus, hy Hermes
(Mercury), and of Philammon, by Apollo.
She was killed by Artemis (Diana) for having
compared her beauty to that of the god-

CHIOS and CHIU8 (-1: /SWo), one of
the largest and most famous islands of the
Aegean, lay opposite to the peninsula of
Clazomenae, on the coast of Ionia. It was
colonised by the lonians at the time of their
great migration, and remained an independ-
cnt and powerful maritime state, till the
defeat of the Ionian Greeks by the Persians,
B.C. 494, after which the Chians were sub-
jected to the Persians. The battle of Mycale,
479, freed Chios from the Persian yoke, and
it became a member of the Athenian league,
in which it was for a long time the closest
and most favoured ally of Athens; but an
unsuccessAil attempt to revolt, in 412, led to
its conquest and devastation. Chios was cele-
brated for its wine and marble. Of all the
states which aspired to the honour of being
the birthplace of Homer, Chios was generally
considered by the ancients to have the best
olaim; and it numbered among its natives
the historian Theopompus, the poet Theo-
critoB, and other eminent men. Its chief

city, Chios (£Ato), stood on the E. side of the

CHIRISOPHUS (.i), a Lacedaemonian, was
sent by the Spartans to aid Cyrus in his ex.
pedition against his brother Artaxerxes, b. c.
401. After the battle of Cunaxa and the sub.
sequent arrest of the Greek generals, Chiri.
sophus was appointed one of the new generals,
and, in conjunction with Xcnophon, had the
chief conduct of the retreat.

CHIRON (.dnis), the wisest and justest of
all the Centaurs, son of Cronos (Saturn) and
Philyra (hence called Philyrides), lived on
Mount Pelion. He was instructed by Apollo
and Artemis (Diana), and was renowned for
his skill in hunting, medicine, music, gym-
nastics, and the art of prophecy. All the most
distinguished heroes of Grecian story, as
Peleus, Achilles, Diomedes, &c., are described
as the pupils of Chiron in these arts. He
saved Peleus from the other Centaurs, who
were on the point of killing him, and he also
restored to him the sword which Acastus had
concealed. [Acasttjs.] Hercules, too, was his
friend ; but while fighting with the other Cen-
taurs, one of the poisoned arrows of Hercules
struck Chiron, who, although immortal, would
not live any longer, and gave his immortality
to Prometheus. Zeus placed Chiron among
the stars as Sagittarius.

CHLORIS (-Idds).— (1) Daughter of the

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Tlieban Amphion and Niobe : bhe and her
brother Amyclas were the only children of
Niobe not killed by Apollo and Artemis
(Diana). She is often confounded with No. 2.
— (2) Daughter of Amphion of Orchomenos,
wife of Neleos, king of Pylos, and mother of
Nestor. — (3) Wife of Zephyrus, and god-
dess of flowers, identical with the Boman

CHOASPfiS (-is).— (1) {Kerah or KaraJSu),
a riyer of Susiana, falling into the Tigris. Its
water was so pure that the Persian kings
used to carry it with them in silver vessels,
when on foreign expeditions. — (2) {Attoek)^
a river in the Paropamisus, in India, falling
into the Gophes (C^bul),

CHOERILUS (-i), of lasos, a worthless epic
poet in the train of Alexander the Great, is
said to have received from Alexander a ^Id
stater for^every verse of his poem.

CHONIA (-ae), the name in early times
of a district in the S. of Italy, inhabited by
the Chones, an Oenotrian people. Chonia
appears to have included the 8. E. of Lucania
and the whole of the E. of Bruttium as far as
the promontory of Zephyrium.

CHORASmi (-6rum), a people of Sogdiana,
who inhabited tiie ban^ and islands of the
lower course of the Oxus. They were a branch
of the Sacae or Massagetae.

CHRTSA (.ae) or -E (-es), acityonthe coast
of the Troad, near Thebes, with a temple of
Apollo Smintheus ; celebrated by Homer.

CHBt^8£lS (4dXs or -IdSs), daughter of
Chryses, priest of Apollo at Chryse, was taken
prisoner by AcMlles at the capture of Lyr-
nessus or the Hypoplacian Thebe. In the
distribution of the booty she was given to
Agamenmon. Her father Chryses came to
the camp of the Greeks to solicit her ransom,
but was repulsed by Agamemnon with harsh
words. Thereupon Apollo sent a plague into
the camp of the Greeks, and Agamemnon was
obliged to restore her to her father to appease
the anger of the god. Her proper name was

CHRTsSS. [Chrtsbis].

CHRYSIPPUS (-i), a celebrated Stoic phi-
losopher, bom at Soli in Cilicia, b. c. 280, and
studied at Athens under the Stoic Cleanthes.
Disliking the Academic scepticism, he became
one of the most strenuous supporters of the
principle, that knowledge is attainable and
may be established on certain foundations.
He died 207, aged 78.

CHRYs6g6NUS, L. CORNfiLIUS (-i), a
favourite fireedman of Sulla, and a man of pro-
fligate character, was the false accuser of Sex.
Roscius, whom Cicero defended, b. c. 80.

CHRYSOPOLIS (-is), a fortified place on the
Bosporus, opposite to Byzantium, at the spot

where the Bosporus was generally crossed.
It was originally the port of Chalcedon.

CIBtRA (-ae). — (1) Maoka, a great dty of
Phrygia Magna, on the borders of Caria, said
to have been founded by the Lydians, but
afterwards peopled by the Pisidians. Under
its native princes, the city ruled over a large
district called Cibyrfitis. In b. c. 83, it was
added to the Boman empire. It was celebrated
for its manufactures, especially in iron. —
(2) Pabva, a city of Pamphylia, on the bor-
ders of CiUcia.

CiCEBO (-onis), a family name of the
Tullia gens. — (1) M. Tullius Ciceko, the
orator, was bom on the 3rd of January, b. c.
106, at the family residence, in the vicinity
of Arpinum. He was educated along with
his brother Quintus, and the two brothers
displayed such aptitude for learning that his
father removed with them to Bome, where
they received instraction firom the best
teachers in the capital. One of their most
celebrated teachers was the poet Archias, of
Antioch. After receiving the manly gown
(91), the young Marcus studied under Q. Mu-
cins Soaevola, and in later years, during the
civil war, under Phaedrus the Epicurean,
Philo, chief of the New Academy, Diodotus
the Stoic, and Molo the Bhodian. Having
carefully cultivated his powers, Cicero came
forward as a pleader in the forum, as soon as
tranquillity was restored by the final over-
throw of the Marian party. His first extant
speech was delivered in 81, when he was 26
years of age, on behalf of P. Quintius. Next
year 80, he defended Sex Boscius of Ameria,
charged with parricide by Chrysogonus, a
favourite freedman of Sulla. In 79 he went
to Greece, partly that he might avoid SuUa,
whom he had offended, but partly also that
he might improve his health and complete his
course of study. At Athens he formed tho
ftiendship with Pomponius Atticus which
lasted to his death, and at Bhodes he once
more placed himself under the care of Molo.
After an absence of 2 years, Cicero returned
to Bome (77), with his health firmly esta-
blished and his oratorical powers greatly im-
proved. He again came forward as an orator
in the fonmi, and soon obtained the greatest
distinction. His success in the forum paved
for him the way to the high offices of state.
In 75 he was quaestor in Sicily, returned to
Bome in 74, and for the next 4 years was
engaged in pleading causes. In 70 he distin-
guished himself by the imi>eachment of
Yebkes, and in 69 he was curule aedile. In
66 he was praetor, and while holding this
office he defended Cluentius in the speech
still extant, and delivered his celebrated ora-
tion in favour of the Manilian law, which

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^ 113


appointed Fompey to the command of the
Mithridatio war. Two years afterwards he
gained the great object of his ambition, and
although a fwmu homo was elected consnl,
with C. Antcmins as a colleague. He entered
upon the office on the Ist of January, 63.
Not haying any real sympathy with the popu-
lar party, he now deserted his former friends,
and connected himself closely with the aris-
tocracy. The consulship of Cicero was dis-
tinguished by the outbreak of the conspiracy
of Catiline, which was suppressed and finally
crashed by Cicero*s prudence and energy.
[Catilina.] For this serrice Cicero received
the highest honours: he was addressed as
** father of his country," and thanksgivings
in his name were voted to the gods. But as
soon as he had laid down the consulship, he
had to contend with the popular party, and
especially with the friends of the conspirators.
He also mortally offended Clodius, who, in
order to have his revenge, brought forward a
bill banishing any one who should be found
to have put a Roman citizen to death untried.
[Clodivs.] The triumvirs, Caesar, Fompey,
and Crassus, left Cicero to his fate ; Cicero's
courage failed him ; he voluntarily retired
from Rome before the measure of Clodius
was put to the vote, and crossed over to
Greece. Here he gave way to unmanly de-
spair and excessive sorrow. Meanwhile his
friends at Rome were exerting themselves on
his behalf, and obtained his recal from banish-
ment in the course of next year (55) . Taught
by experience, Cicero would no longer join
the senate in opposition to the triumvirs, and
retired to a great extent from public life. In
52 he was compelled, much against his will,
to go to the East as governor of Cilicia. He
returned to Italy towards the end of 50, and
arrived in the neighbourhood of Rome on the
4th of January, 49, just as the civil war be-
tween Caesar and Fompey broke out. After
long hesitating which side to join, he finally
determined to throw in his lot with Fompey,
and crossed over to Greece in June. After
the battle of Fharsalia (48), Cicero was not
only pardoned by Caesar, but, when the latter
landed at Brundusium in September, 47, he
greeted Cicero with the greatest kindiiess and
re^>ect, and allowed him to return to Rome.
Cicero now retired into privacy, and during
the next S or 4 years composed the greater
part of his philosophical and rhetorical works.
The murder of Caesar on the 15th of March, 44,
again brought Cicero into public life. He put
himself at the head of the republican party
and in his FhUippic orations attacked M.
Antony with unmeasured vehemence. But
this proved his ruin. On the fomation of
the triumvirate between Octavian, Antony.

and Lepidus (27th of November, 43), Cicero's
name was in the list of the proscribed. He
endeavoured to escape, but was overtaken
by the soldiers near Formiae. His slaves
were ready to defend their master with their
lives, but Cicero commanded them to desist,
and offered his neck to the executioners.
They instantly cut off his head and hands,
which were conveyed to Rome, and, by
the orders of Antony, nailed to the Rostra.
Cicero perished on the 7 th of December,
43, when he had nearly completed his 64th
year. — By nis first wife Terentia, Cicero
had 2 children, a daughter Tuixia, whose
death in 45 caused him the greatest sor-
row, and a son Marcus (No. S). His wife
Terentia, to whom he had been united for
30 years, he divorced in 46, and soon after-
wards he married ayoung and wealthy maiden,
FxjBiuA, his ward, but this new alliance was
speedily dissolved. As a statesman and a citi-
zen, Cicero was weak, changeM, and exces-
sively vain. His only great work was the sup-
pression of Catiline's conspiracy. It is as an
author that he deserves the highest praise.
In his works the Latin language appears in
the greatest perfection. They may be divided
into the following subjects : — ^I. Rhbtobicai.
WoEKS. Of these there were seven, which have
come down to us more or less complete. The
best known of these is the " De Oratore," writ-
ten at the request of his brother Quintus ; it
is the most perfect of his rhetorical works. —
II. Fhilosophical Works. 1. Political Phi.
losophy. Under this head we have the " De
Republica" and " De Legibus," both of which
are written in the form of a dialogue. A large
portion of both works is preserved. — 2. Philo-
sophy of Moral*. In his work " De Offlciis,"
which was written for the use of his son
Marcus, at that time residing at Athens, the
tone of his teaching is pure and elevated. He
also wrote " De Senectute" and " De Amicitia,"
which are preserved. — 3. Speculative Philoso-
phy. Under this head the most noted of hii<
works are the " De Finibus," or inquiry into
" the chief good," and the " Tusculan Disputa-
tions." — 4. Theoloffy. In the "De Naturo
Deorum" he gives an account of the specula-
tions of the ancients concerning a Divine
Being, which is continued in the " De Divi-
natione." — III. Obations. Of these 56 have
come down to us. — ^IV. Epistles. Cicero
during the most important period of his life
maintained a close correspondence with
Atticns, and with a wide circle of literary and
political friends and connexions. We now
have upwards of 800 letters, undoubtedly
genuine, extending over a space of 26 years,
and commonly arranged under "Epistolae ad
Familiares s. ad Diversos," «« Ad Atticum,"

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aud"AdQuintuinFratreni." — (2) Q. Tuixius
CicE&o, brother of the orator, was bom about
102, and was educated along with his brother.
In 67 he was aedile, in 62 praetor, and for the
next S years governed Asia as propraetor.
In 55 he went to Gaul as legatus to Caesar,
whose approbation he gained by his military
abilities and gallantry ; in 51 he accompanied
his brother as legate to Cilicia ; and on the
breaking out of the civil war in 49 he joined
Pompey. After the battle of Pharsalia, he
was pardoned by Caesar. He was proscribed
by the triumvirs, and was put to death in 43.
— (3) M. TuLLius CicBEO, only son of the
orator and his wife Terentia, was bom 65.
On the death of Caesar (44) he joined the
republican party, served as military tribune
under Bmtus in Macedonia, and after the
battle of Philippi (42) fled to Sex. Pompey in
Sicily. When peace was concluded between
the triumvirs and Sex. Pompey in 39, Cicero
returned toEome, and was favourably received
by Octavian, who at length assumed him as
his colleague in the consulship (b. o. 30, from
13th Sept.). By a singular coincidence, the
despatch announcing the capture of the fleet
of Antony, which was immediately followed
by his death, was addressed to the new consul
in his official capacity. — (4) Q. Tvllivs Cicero,
son of No. 2, and of Fomponia, sister of
Atticus, was bom 66 or 67, and perished with
his father in the proscription, 43.

CICONES (-um), a Thracian people on the
Hebrus, and near the coast.

CILICIA (-ae), a district in the S. E. of Asia
Minor, bounded by the Mediterranean on
the S., M. Amanus on the E., and M. Taurus
on the N. The W. part of Cilicia is inter-
sected by the ofbhoots of the Taurus, while
in its E. part the mountain chains enclose
much larger tracts of level country; and
hence arose the division of the country into
C. Aspera or Trachea, and C. Campestris ;
the latter was also called Cilicia Propria. The
tirst inhabitants of the country are supposed
to have been of the Syrian race. The my-
thical story derived their name from Cilix,
the son of Agenor, who started with his
brothers, Cadmus and Phoenix, for Europe,
but stopped short on the coast of Asia Minor,
and peopled with his followers the plain of
(Hlicia. The country remained independent
till the time of the Persian Empire, under
which it formed a satrapy, but it appears to
have been still governed by its native princes.
Alexander subdued it on his march into
Upper Asia ; and, after the division of his
empire, it formed a part of the kingdom of
the Scleucidae : its plains were settled by
Greeks, and the old inhabitants were for the
most part driven back into the mountains of

C. Aspera, where they remained virtually in-
dependent, practising robbery by land and
piracy by sea, till Pompey drove them from
the sea in his war against the pirates ; and
having rescued the level country from the
power of Tigranes, who had overrun it, he
erected it into a Boman province, b.c. 67 — 66.
The moimtain country was not made a pro-
vince till the reign of Vespasian. The Cilicians
bore a low character among the Greeks and
Romans. The Carians, Cappadocians, and
Cilicians, were called the 8 bad K's.

pass between Cappadocia and Cilicia, through
the Taurus, on the road from Tyana to Tarsiis.

CILICIUM MARE, the N.E. portion of the
Mediterranean, between Cilicia and Cyprus,
as far as the Gulf of Issus.

CILIX. [Cilicia.]

CILLA (-ae), a small town in the Troad,
celebrated for its temple of Apollo sumamed

CILNII (-5rum), a powerful Etrascan
family in Arretium, driven out of their
native town in b.c. 301, but restored by the
Romans. The Cilnii were nobles or Lucu-
mones in their state, and some of them in
ancient times may have held even the kingly

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