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dignity. The name has been rendered chiefly
memorable by C. Cilnius Maecenas [Mae-

CIMBER (-ri), L. TILL!uS (-i), (not Tul-
lius), a friend of Caesar, who gave him the
province of Bithynia, but subsequently one of
Caesar's murderers, B.c. 44.

CIMBRI (-drum), a Celtic people, probably
of the same race as the Cymry [Celtae].
They appear to have inhabited the peninsula,
which was called after them Cubrsonesxts
CiMB&iCA {Jutland), In conjunction with
the Teuton! and Ambrones, they migrated S.,
with their wives and children, towards the
close of the 2nd century b.c. ; and the whole
host is said to have contained 300,000
flghting men. They defeated several Ro-
man armies, and caused the greatest alarm
at Rome. In b.c. 113 they defeated the
consul Papirius Carbo, near Noreia, and
then crossed over into Gaul, which they
ravaged in all directions. In 109 they de-
feated the consul Junius Silanus ; in 107, the
consul Cassius Longinus, who fell in the
battle ; and in 105 they gained their most
brilliant victory, near the Rhone, over the
united armies of the consul Cn. Mallius and
the proconsul Servilius Caepio. Instead of
crossing the Alps, the Cimbri, fortunately for
Rome, marched into Spain, where they re-
mained two or three years. The Romans,
meantime, had been making preparations to
resist their formidable foes, and hud placed

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their troops under the command of Marias.
The barbarians returned to Gaul in 102. In
that year the Teutoni were defeated and cut
to pieces by Marius, near Aquae Sextiae {Aix)
in Gaul ; and next year (101) the Cimbri
and their allies were likewise destroyed by
Marius and Catulos, in the decisive battle of
the Campi Raudii, near Verona, in the N. of
Italy. I

CImiNUS or CIMINIuS MONS, a range of
mountains in Etruria, thickly covered with
wood (Saltus Ciminius, Silva Ciminia), near
a lake of the same name, N.W. of Tar-
quinii, between the Lacus Yulsiniensis and

CIMMERII (-orum), the name of a my-
thical and of a historical people. The mythical
Cimmerii, mentioned by Homer, dwelt in the
ftirthest W. on the ocean, enveloped in con-
stant mists and darkness. Later writers
sought to localise them, and accordingly
placed them, either in Italy near the lake
Avemus, or in Spain, or in the Tauric Cher-
sonesus. — ^The historical Cimmerii dwelt on
the Palus Maeotis {Sea of Azov), in the
Tauric Chersonesus, and in Asiatic Sarmatia.
Driven from their abodes by the Scythians,
they passed into Asia Minor on the N.E., and
penetrated W. as far as Aeolis and Ionia.
They took Sardis b.o. 635 in the reign of
Ardys, king of Lydia; but they were ex-
pelled from Asia by Alyattes, the grandson of


CImOLUS (4), an island in the Aegaean
eea, one of the Cyolades, between Siphnos and
Melos, celebrated for its fine white earth,
used by fullers for cleaning cloths.

CIMON (-6nis). (1) Father of the cele-
brated Miltiades, was secretly murdered by
order of the sons of Pisistratus.^(2) Grand.'
Hon of the preceding, and son of Miltiades. '
On the death of his father (b.o. 489), he was
imprisoned because he was unable to pay his
fine of 50 talents, which was eventually paid
by CaUias on his marriage with Elpinice,
Cimon's sister. Cimon frequently commanded
the Athenian fleet in their aggressive war
against the Persians. His most brilliant suc-
cess was in 466, when he defeated a large
Persian fleet, and on the same day landed and
routed their land forces also on the river
Eurymedon in Pamphylia. The death of Aris-
tides and the banishment of Themistocles left
Cimon without a rival at Athens for some
years. But his influence gradually declined
as that of Pericles increased. In 461 he was
ostracized through the influence of the popular
party in Athens, who were enraged with him
and with the Spartans. He was subsequently
recalled, and through his intervention a 5

years* truce was made between Athens and

Sparta, 450. In 449 the war was renewed

with Persia, Cimon received the command,

. and with 200 ships sailed to Cyprus ; here,

I while besieging Citium, illness or the effects

of a wound carried him off. — Cimon was of a

cheerful convivial temper ; frank and affable

in his manners. Having obtained a great

I fortune by his share of the Persian spoils, he

displayed unbounded liberality. His orchards

I and gardens were thrown open ; his fellow

demesmen were free daily to his table,

and his public bounty verged on osten-

tation. ^

CINARA (-ae), a small island in the
Aegaean sea, E. of Naxos, celebrated for its
artichokes {Kiw^a),

favourite hero of the old Roman republic,
and a model of old Roman frugality and in-
tegrity. He lived on his farm, cultivating
the land with his own hand. In b.c. 458 he
was called from the plough to the dictatorship,
in order to deliver the Roman consul and
army from the perilous position in which they
had been placed by the Aequians. He saved
the Roman army, defeated the enemy, and,
after holding the dictatorship only 16 days,
returned to his farm. In 439, at the age of
80, he was a 2nd time appointed dictator to
oppose the alleged machinations of Sp. Mae-

CINEAS (-ae), a Thessalian, the friend and
minister of Pyrrhus, king of Epirus. He
was the most eloquent man of his day, and
Pyrrhus prized his persuasive powers so
highly, that " the words of Cineas " (he was
wont to say) " had won him more cities than
his own arms.** The most famous passage in
his life is his embassy to Rome, with propo-
sals for peace from Pyrrhus, after the battle
of Heraclea (b.c. 280). Cineas spared no
arts to gain favour. Thanks to his won-
derful memory, on the day after his ar-
rival he was able (we are told) to address
all the senators and knights by name.
The senate, however, rejected his propo-
sals mainly through the dying eloquence
of old App. Claudius Caecus. The am.
bassador returned and told the king that
there was no people like that people, —
their city was a temple, their senate an as-
sembly of kings.

CINGA (-ae : Cinca), a river in Hispania
Tarraconensis, falling with the Sicoris into
the Iberus.

€INGETORIX (-Igis), a Gaul, one of the
flrst men in the city of the Treviri {TrSves,
Trier) y attached himself to the Romans,
though son-in-law to Indutiomorus, the head
of the independent party.


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. 116


CINGClUM (-i), a town in Picennm on a
rock, built by Labienus, shortly before the
breaking out of the civil war, b.c. 49.

CINNA (-ae). (1) L. CoRNELirs Cinna,
the famous leader of the popular party during
the absence of Sulla in the East. (b.c. 87 —
84.) In 87 Sulla allowed Cinna to be elected
consul with Cn. Octavius, on condition of his
taking an oath not to alter the constitution
as then existing. But as soon as Sulla had
left Italy, he began his endeavour to over-
power the senate, and to recal Marius and
his party. He was, however, defeated by his
colleague Octavius in the forum, was obliged
to fly the city, and was deposed by the senate
from the consulate. But he soon returned,
and with the aid of Marius took possession of
Rome, massacred Sulla's fdends, and for three
successive years 86, 85, 84, was elected
consul. [Marius]. In 84 Sulla prepared to
return firom Greece ; and Cinna was slain by
his own troops, when he ordered them to
cross over from Italy to Greece, where he
intended to encounter Sulla. — (2) L. Corne-
lius Cinna, son of No. 1., joined M. Lepidus
in his attempt to overthrow the constitution
of Sulla, 7 8. Caesar made him Praetor, yet he
approved of Caesar's assassination.— <3) Hel-
vius Cinna, a poet of considerable renown, the
friend of Catullus. In b.c. 44 he was tribune
of the plebs, when he was murdered by the
mob, who mistook him for his namesake Cor-
nelius Cinna.

CINYPS (-yphis: Wad^Khakan or Einifo),
a small river on the N. coast of Africa, be-
tween the Syrtes, forming the E. boundsuy of
the proper territory of the African Tripolis.
The district about it was called by the same
name, and was famous for its fine-haired
ffoats. The Roman poets use the adjective
Cinyphius in the general sense of Libyan or

CINl^RAS (-ae), son of Apollo, Icing of
Cyprus, and priest of the Paphian Aphrodite
(Venus). By his own daughter Mj-rrha or
Smyrna, he became the father of Adonis.
[Adonis] . Hence we find in the poets Myrrha
called Oinyreia virgo and Adonis Oinyreius

CIRCfi (-es), daughter of Helios (the Sun)
by Perse, and sister of Aeetes, distinguished
for her magic arts. She dwelt in the island
of Aeaea, upon which Ulysses was cast.
His companions, whom he sent to explore
the land, tasted of the magic cup which
Circe offered them, and were forthwith
changed into swine, with the exception of
Eurylochus, who brought the sad news to
Ulysses. The latter, having received from
Hermes (Mercury) the root moly, which for-
tified him against enchantment, drank the

magic cup without injury, and then com-
pelled Circe to restore his companions to

Circe and Ulysves, and his Companions.
(From an ancient Basrelief.)

their former shape. After this he tarried a
whole year with her, and she became by him
the mother of Telegonus, the reputed founder
of Tusculum.



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CISSfeUS (-658 or JSVj, a king in Thrace,
and father of Theano, or, according to others,
of Hecuba, who is hence called dssSis.

CISSLA. (-ae), a very fertile district of Sn-
Riana, on the Choapses. The inhabitants,
Cissii, were a wild free people, resembling
the Persians in their manners.

CITHAERON (-onis), a lofty range of
mountains, separating Boeotia from Megaris
and Attica. It was sacred to Dionysus
(Bacchus) and the Muses, and was celebrated
for the death of Fentheus and Actaeon.

CITIUM (-i). (1) A town in Cyprus, 200
stadia from Salamis, near the mouth of the
Tetius : here Cimon, the celebrated Athe-
nian, died, and Zeno, the founder of the
Stoic school, was bom. — (2) A town in Mace-
donia, N. W. of Beroea.

CIUS (4), an ancient city in Bithynja, on
a bay of the Propontis called Cianus Sinus,
was colonized by the Milesians. It was de-
stroyed by Philip III., king of Macedonia ;
but was rebuilt by Frusias, king of Bithynia,
from whom it was called Prusias.

CLANIS (-is). (1) A river of Etruria,
forming 2 smsdl lakes near Clusium, and
flowing into the Tiber E. of Vulsinii. — (2)
The more ancient name of the Liris.


CLARUS or CIArOS (-i), ft small town on
the Ionian coast, near Colophon, with a cele-
brated temple and oracle of Apollo, sumamed

CLASTIDIUM (-i), a fortified town of the
Ananes, in Gallia C^padana, not far from

CLAUDIA QUINTA (-ae), a Roman ma-
tron, not a Vestal Virgin, as is frequently
stated. When the vessel conveying the
image of Cybele from Pessinus to Rome, had
stuck fast in a shallow at the mouth of the
Tiber, the soothsayers announced that only a
chaste woman could move it. Claudia, who
had been accused of incontinency, took hold
of the rope, and the vessel forthwith followed
her, B.C. 204.

CLAUDIA GENS, patrician and plebeian.
The patrician Claudii were of Sabine origin,
and came to Rome in b.c. 504, when they
were received among the patricians. [Clau-
dius, No. 1.] They were noted for their
pride and haughtiness, their , disdain for the
laws, and their hatred of the plebeians. They
bore various surnames, which are given under
Claudius, with the exception of those with
the cognomen Nero, who are better known
under the latter name. The plebeian Claudii
were divided into several families, of which
the most celebrated was that of Mabcellus.

of the Latin classic poets, flourished under

Theodosius and his sons Arcadius and Hono-
rius. He was a native of Alexandria, and
removed to Rome, where he enjoyed the
patronage of the all-powerful Stilicho. He
was a heathen, and wrote a large number <rf
poems, many of which are extant, and are
disting^uished by purity of language and
poetical genius. He died about a.d. 408.

CLAUDIUS (-i), patrician. See Claudia
Gkns. (1) App. Claudius Sabinus Reoil-
LBMsis, a Sabine, of the town of Regillum or
RegiUi, who in his own country bore the
name of Attus Clausus, being the advocate of
peace with the Romans, when hostilities
broke out between the two nations, withdrew
with a large train of followers to Rome, b.c.
504. He was received into the ranks of the
patricians, and lands beyond the Anio were
assigned to his followers, who were formed
into a new tribe, called the Claudian. He
exhibited the characteristics which marked
his descendants, and showed the most bitter
hatred towards the plefbeians. He was consul
495 ; and his conduct towards thc^ plebeians
led to their secession to the Mons Sacer,
494. — (2) App. Claudius Reoill. Sab.,
the decemvir, 451 and 450. In the latter
year his character betrayed itself in the most
tyrannous conduct towards the plebeians, till
Ms attempt against Virginia led to the over-
throw of the decemvirate. App. was im-
peached by Virginius, but did not live to
abide his trial. He either killed himself, or
was put to death, in prison, by order
of the tribunes. — (3) App. Claudius
Caecus became blind before his old age. In
his censorship (312), to which he was elected
without having been consul previously, he
built the Appian aqueduct, and commenced
the Appian road, which was continued to
Capua. He retained the censorship 4 years,
in opposition to the law, which limited the
length of the office to 18 months. In his old
age, Appius, by his eloquent speech, induced
the senate to reject the terms of peace which
Cineas had proposed on behalf of Pyrrhus.
Appius was the earliest Roman writer in
prose and verse whose name has come dowi.
to us. — (4) App. Cl. Pulcher, brother of
the celebrated tribune, whom he joined in
opposing the recall of Cicero ft'om banish,
ment. He preceded Cicero as proconsul in
Cilicia (53), fled with Pompey from Italy,
and died before the battle of Pharsalia. — (5)
P. Cl. Pulchee, usually called Clodius, and
not Claudius, brother of the preceding, the
notorious enemy of Cicero, and one of the
most profligate characters of a proflig^ate age.
In 62 he profaned the mysteries of the Bona
Dea, which were celebrated by the Roman
matrons in the house of Caesar; was dis.

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aovered; and next year, 61, when quaestor,
was brought to trial, but obtained an acquit,
tal by bribing the judges. He had attempted
to prove an alibi ; but Cicero's evidence
showed that Clodius was with him in Home
only 3 hours before he pretended to have been
at Interamna. In order to revenge himself
upon Cicero, Clodius was adopted into a ple-
beian family, that he might obtain the for-
midable power of a tribune of the plebs. He
was tribune 58, and, supported by the trium-
virs Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus, drove
Cicero into exile ; but notwithstanding all his
efforts, he was unable to prevent the recal of
Cicero in the following year. [Cice&o.] In
56 Clodius was aedile, and attempted to
bring his enemy Milo to trial. Each had a
large gang of gladiators in his pay, and fre-
quent fights took place in the streets of Rome
between the two parties. In 53, when Clo-
dius was a candidate for the praetorship, and
Milo for the consulship, on the 20th of
January, 52, on the Appian road, near Bo-
villae, an aflhty ensued between their
followers, in which Clodius was murdered.
The mob was infuriated at the death of their
favourite ; and such tumults followed at the
burial of Clodius, that Pompey was appointed
sole consul, in order to restore order to the
state. For the proceedings which followed,
see Milo. ^

CLAUDIUS (-i) I., Roman emperor a.d.
41 — 54. His full name was Tib. Ci^iudius
Drusus Nero Germanicus. He was the
younger son of Drusus, the brother of the
emperor Tiberius, and of Antonia, and was
bom on August Ist, B.C. 10, at Lyons in Gaul.
When he grew up he devoted the greater part
of his time to literary pursuits, but was not
allowed to take any part in public affairs.
He had reached the age of 50, when he was
suddenly raised by the soldiers to the im-
perial throne after the murder of Caligula.
Claudius was not cruel, but the weakness of
his character made him the slave of his wives
and freedmen, and thus led him to consent to
acts of tyranny which he would never have
committed of his own accord. He was
married 4 times. At the time of his acces-
sion he was married to his 3rd wife, the
notorious Valeria MessaUna, who governed
him for some years, togetlici with the freed-
men Narcissus, Pallas, and others. After the
execution of Messalina, a.d. 48, a fate which
she nchly merited, Claudius was still more
imfortunate in choosing for his wife liis niece
Agrippina. She prevailed upon him to set
aside his own son, Britannicus, and to adopt
her son, Nero, that she might secure the sue.
cession for the latter. Claudius soon after
regretted this step, and was in consequence

poisoned by Agrippina, 54. In his reign the
southern part of Britain was made a Roman
province, and Claudius himself went to
Britain in 43, where he remained, however,
only a short time, leaving the conduct of the
war to his generals.

CLAUDIUS II. (M. Aurklius Claudius).
Roman emperor a.d. 268 — 2 7 0, was descended
from an obscure family in Dardania or lUyria,
and succeeded to the empire on the death of
Gallienus (268). He defeated the Alemanni
and Goths, and received in consequence the
surname Oothicus, He died at Sirmium in
270, and was succeeded by Aurelian.

CLAZOMENAE (-arum), an important city
of Asia Minor, and one of the 12 Ionian
cities, lay on the N. coast of the Ionian pe-
ninsula, upon the gulf of Smyrna. It was
the birthplace of Anaxagoras.

CLEANTHES (-is), a Stoic philosopher,
bom at Assos in Troas about b.c. 300. He
first placed himself under Crates, and then
under Zeno, whose disciple he continued for
19 years. In order to support himself, he
worked all night at drawing water from
gardens ; but as he spent the whole day in
philosophical pursuits, and had no visible
means of support, he was summoned before
the Areopagus to account for his way of
living. The judges were so delighted by the
evidence of industry which he produced, that
they voted him 10 minae, though Zeno would
not permit him to accept them. He suc-
ceeded Zeno in his school b.c. 268. He died
about 220, at the age of 80, of voluntary

CLEARCHUS (-i), a Spartan, distinguished
himself in several important commands during
the latter part of the Peloponnesian war,
and at the close of it persuaded the Spartans
to send him as a general to Thrace, to pro-
tect the Greeks in that quarter against the
Thracians. But having been recalled by the
Ephors, and refusing to obey their orders, he
was condemned to death. He thereupon
crossed over to Cyrus, collected for him a
large force of Greek mercenaries, and marched
with him into Upper Asia, 401, in order to
dethrone his brother Artaxerxes, being the
only Greek who was aware of the prince's
real object. After the battle of Cunaxa and
the death of Cyrus, Clearchus and the other
Greek generals were made prisoners by the
treachery of Tissaphemes, and were put to
death.^ ^


CLEOBULUS (-i), one of the Seven Sages,
of Lindus in Rhodes, son of Evagoras, liveti
about B.C. 580. He, as well as his daughter,
CleobulIn§ or CleobdlS, were celebrated for
their skill in riddles. To the latter U

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ascribed a veil-known one on the subject of
the year : — " A father has 12 children, and
each of these SO daughters, on one side white,
and on the other side black, and though im.
mortal they all die."

CLEOMBROTUS (4). (1) Son of Anax-
andrides, king of Sparta, became regent after
the battle of Thermopylae, b.o. 480, for
Plistarchus, infant son of Leonidas, but died
in the same year, and was succeeded in the
regency by his «on Fausanias. — (2) King of
Sparta, son of Fausanias, succeeded his
brother AgesipoUs I., and reigned B.C. S80 —
371. He commanded the Spartan troops
several times against the Thebans, and fell
at the battle of Leuctra (S71), after fighting
most bravely. — (3) King of Sparta, son-in.
law of Leonidas II., in whose place he was
made king by the party of Aois IV., about
243. On the return of Leonidas, Cleombrotus
was deposed and banished to Tegea, about 240.
— (4) An academic philosopher of Ambracia,
said to have killed himself, after reading the
Phaedon of Flato ; not that he had any suf-
ferings to escape f^om, but that he might
exchange this life for a better.

CLECmENES (.is). (1) King of Sparta,
son of Anaxandrides, reigned b.c. 520 — 491.
He was a man of an enterprising but wild
character. In 510 he commanded the forces
by whose assistance Hippias was driven from
Athens, and not long after he assisted Isa-
goras and the aristocratical party, . against
CUsthenes. By bribing the priestess at
Delphi, he eflTected the deposition of his
colleague Dxmabatus, 491. Soon afterwards
he was seized with madness and killed him-
self. — (2) King of Sparta, son of Cleom-
brotus I., reigned 870 — 309. — (3) King of
Sparta, son of Leonidas II., reigned 236 —
222. While still young he married Agiatis,
the widow of Agis IV. ; and following the
example of the latter, he endeavoured to re-
store the ancient Spartan constitution. He
succeeded in his object, and put the Ephors
to death. He was engaged in a long contest
with the Achaean League and Antigonus
Doson, king of Macedonia, but was at length
defeated at the battle of Sellasia (222), and
fled to Egypt, where he put an end to his own
life, 220.

CLEON (-5nis), son of Cleeanetus, was origi-
aally a tanner, and first came forward in
public as an opponent to Ferides. On the
death of this great man, b.c. 429, Cleon be-
came the favourite of the people, and for
about 6 years of the Feloponnesian war (428
— 422) was the head of the party opposed to
peace. In 427 he strongly advocated in the
assembly that the Mytilenaeans should be put
to death. In 424 he obtained his greatest

glory by taking prisoners the Spartans in the
island of Sphacteria, and bringing them in
safety to Athens. Fuffed up by this success,
he obtained the command of an Athenian
army, to oppose Brasidas in Thrace ; but he
was defeated by Brasidas, under the walls of
Amphipolis, and fell in the battle, 422. Aris-
tophanes and Thucydides both speak of him
as a vile, unprincipled demagogue. In thin
they were probably too severe. The chief
attack of Aristophanes upon deon was in the
Knightt (424), in which Cleon figures as an
actual dramatis persona, and, in default of an
artificer bold enough to make the mask, was
represented by the poet himself with his face
smeared with wine lees.

CLEONAE (-arum). *(D An ancient town
in Argolis, on the road from Corinth to Argos,
on a river of the same name fiowing into the
Corinthian gulf. In its neighbourhood was
Nemea, where Hercules killed the lion, which
is accordingly called Cleotumu Leo by the
poets. — (2) A town in the peninsula Athos
in Chalcidice.

CLEOPATRA (-ae). (1) Niece of Attains,
married Philip b.c 337, on whose murder ehe
was put to death by Olympias. — (2) Daughter
of Philip and Olympias, and sister of Alex-
ander the Great, married Alexander, king
of Eptrus. 336. It was at the celebration
of her nuptials that Philip was murdered
by Fausanias. — (3) Eldest daughter of
Ptolemy Auletes, celebrated for her beauty
and fascination, was 17 at the death of her
father (51), who appointed her heir of his
kingdom in conjunction with her younger
brother, Ptolemy, whom she was to marry,
^he was expelled from the throne by Pothinus
and Achillas,- his guardians ; but having won
by her charms the support of Caesar, he
replaced her on the throne in conjunction
with her brother. She had a son by Caesar,
called Cabsabion, and she afterwards fol-
lowed him to Rome, where she appears to
have been at the time of his death, 44. She
then returned to Egypt, and in 41 she met
Antony in Cilida. She was now in her 28th
year, and in the perfection of matured beauty,
which, in conjunction with her talents and
eloquence, completely won the heart of An-
tony, who henceforth was her devoted lover

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