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and slave. In the war between Octavian and
Antony, Cleopatra accompanied her lover, and
was present at the battle of Actium (31), in
the midst of which she retreated with her
fieet, and thus hastened the loss of the day.
She fled to Alexandria, where she was joined
by Antony. Seeing Antony's fortunes des-
perate, she entered into negotiations with
Augustus, and promised to make away with
Antony. She fied to a mausoleum she had

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built, and then caused a report of her death
to be spread. Antony, resolving not to sur-
vive her, stabbed himself, and was drawn up
into the mausoleum, where he died in her
arms. She then tried to gain the love of Au-
gustus, but her charms failed in softening his
colder heart. Seeing that he had determined
to carry her captive to Home, she put an end
to her own life by the poison of an asp. She
died in the 39th yfear of her age (b.o. 80),
and with her ended the dynasty of the
Ptolemies in Egypt, which was now made a
Roman province.

CLIMAX (-&cis), the name iq>plied to the
W. termination of the Taurus range, which
extends along the W. coast of the Famphylian
Oulf, N. of Phasells in Lycia. Alexandet
made a road between it and the sea.


CLIO. [^MusA«.]

CLlSTH£N£d (.is), an Athenian, son of
Megacles and Agarista, who was the daughter
of Clisthenes, the tyrant of Sicyon. He ap-
pears as the head of the Alcmaeonid clan on
the banishment of the Pisistratidae. Find-
ing, however, that he could not cope with his
political rival Isagoras except through the
aid of the commons, he set himself to in-
crease the power of the latter. The principal
change which he introduced was the abolition
of the 4 ancient tribes and the establishment
of 10 new ones in their stead, b.c. 510. He
is also said to have instituted ostracism.
Isagoras and his party called in the aid of
the Spartans, but CUsthenes and his friends
eventually triumphed.

CLiTOR (-5ri8) or CLITORIUM (-i), a
town in the N. of Arcadia on a river of the
same name, a tributary of the Aroanius :
there was a fountain in the neighbourhood,
the waters of which are said to have given to
persons who drank of them a dislike for wine.

CLITUMNUS (-i), a small river in Umbria,
springing firom a beautiful rock in a grove of
cypress trees, where was a sanctuary of the
god Clitumnus, and falling into the Tinia, a
tributary of the Tiber.

CLITUS (-i), a Macedonian, one of Alex-
ander's generals and friends, who saved the life
of the latter at the battle of Granicus, B.a 334.
In 328 he was slain by Alexander at a banquet,
when both parties were heated with wine,
and Clltus had provoked the king's resent-
ment by insolent language. Alexander was
inconsolable at his friend's death.

CLODIUS, another form of the name
Claudius. [Ci^tjdius.]

CLOdIuS ALBINUS. [Albinvs.]

CLOELIa (-ae), a Roman virgin, one of the
hostages given to Porsena, who escaped from
the Etruscan camp, and swam across the

Tiber to Rome. She was sent back by the
Romans to Porsena, who was so struck with
her gallant deed, that he not only set her at
liberty, but allowed her to take with her a
part of the hostages. Porsena also rewarded
her with a horse adorned with splendid trap-
pings, and the Romans with a statue of a
female on horseback.

CLOTA AESTUlRILTll {Frith of Clyde),
(m the W. coast of Scotland.

CLOTHO (-as), one of the Fates. [Moi&ab.]

CLIJENTIUS hIbITUS, a., (ri), of Lari-
num, accused in b.o. 74 his own step-father,
Statins Albius Oppianicus, of having attempted
to procure his death by poison. Oppianicus
was condemned, and it was generally believed
that the judges had been bribed by Cluentius.
In 66, Cluentius was himself accused by
young Oppianicus, son of Statius Albius, who
had died in the interval, of 3 distinct acts of
poisoning. He was defended by Cicero in the
oration still extant.

CLUPEA or CLtPEA. [Aspis.]

CLUSIUM (Cftttm), one of the most power,
ful of the 12 Etruscan cities, originally calle<l
Camera or Camars, situated on an eminence
above the river Clanis, and S.W. of the Lacus
CLUsnnjs (X. tU Chiusi), It was the royal
residence of Porsena, and in its neighbour-
hood was the celebrated sepulchre of this
king in the form of a labyrinth. Subsequently
Clusium was in alliance with the Romans, by
whom it was regarded as a bulwark against
the Gauls. Its siege by the Gauls, b.c. 391,
led, as is well known, to the capture of Rome
itself by the Gauls. In its neighbourhood
were warm baths.

CLUsIus (4), a surname of Janus, whose
temple "waa closed in peace.

CLtM£N£ (-es). (1) Daughter^f Oceanus
and Tethys,' and wife of lapetus, to whom
she bore Atlas, Prometheus, and others. — (2)
Mother of Phaeton by Helios (the Sun),
whence Phaeton is called Clj^SncIus. — (3)
A relative of Menelaus and a companion
of Helena, with whom she was carried off by

CLtTAEMNESTRA (-ae), daughter of
Tyndareus and Leda, sister of Castor, Pollux,
and Helena; wife of Agamemnon; and
mother of Orestes, Iphigenla, and Electra.
During her husband's absence at Troy she
lived in adultery with Aegisthus, and on his
return to Mycenae she murdered him with
the help of Aegisthus. [Agamemnon.] She
was subsequently put to death by her son
Orestes, to revenge the murder of his father.

CLYTIe (-es), a daughter of Oceanus,
changed into the plant heliotropium.

CNIDUS or GNIDUS (-i), a celebrated
city of Asia Minor, on the proihontory uf

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Triopium on tbe coast of Caria, was a Lace-
daemonian colony. It was built partly on
the mainland and partly on an island joined to
the coast by a causeway, and had two harbours.
It had a considerable commerce ; and it was
reported to by trayellers from all parts of the
civilised world, that they might see the
Ktatue of Aphrodite (Venus) by Praxiteles,
which stood in her temple here. Among the
celebrated natives of the city were Ctesias,
Eudoxus, Sostratus, and Agatharcides.

CNOSUS or GNOSUS, subsequentiy CNOS-
SUS or GNOS8U8 (4), an ancient town of
Crete, and the capital of king Minos; situated
at a short distance from the N. coast ; colo-
nised at an early time by Dorians. It is
frequently mentioned by the poets in conse-
quence of its connexion with Minos, Ariadne,
the Minotaur, and the Labyrinth ; and the
a(JUectiye Cnossius is used as equivalent to

COCALUS (-i), a mythical king of Sicily,
who kmdly received Daedalus on his flight
from Crete, and with the assistance of his
daughters put Minos to death, when the latter
came in pursuit of Daedalus.


COCHE, a city on the Tigris, near Cle-

COCLfiS (-Ytis), HORlTIUS (-i), that is,
Horatius the " one-eyed," a hero of the old
Roman lays, is said to have defended the
Sublician bridge along with Sp. Lartius and
T. Herminius against the whole Etruscan
army under Porsena, while the Romans
broke down the bridge behind them. When
the work was nearly finished, Horatius sent
back his 2 companions. AJs soon as the
bridge was quite destroyed, he plunged into
the stream and swam across to the city in
safety amid the arrows of the enemy. The
state raised a statue to his honour, which was
placed in the comitium, and allowed him as
much land as he could plough round in one

COCOSSATES, a people in Aquitania in
GauL mentioned along with the Tarbelli.

COCtLIUM (-i), an Aeolian city in Mysia,
whose inhabitants are mentioned by Xeno-

COuStuS (-i), a river in Epirus, a tri-
butary of the Acheron. Like the Acheron,
the Cocytus was supposed to be connected
with the lower world, and hence came to be
described as a river in the lower world.


OODRUS (-i). (1) Son of Melanthui, and
last king of Athens. When the Dorians
invaded Attica from Peloponnesus, an oracle
declared, that they should be victorious if |
Che life of the Attic king was spared. Codrus ]

thereupon lesolved to sacrifice himself foi
his country. He entered the camp of the
enemy in disguise, commenced quarrelling
with the soldiers, and was slain in the
dispute. When the Dorians discovered the
death of the Attic king, they returned home.
Tradition adds, that as no one was thought
worthy to succeed such a patriotic king, the
kingly dignity was abolished, and Medon,
son of Codrus, was appointed archon for life
instead. — (2) A Roman poet, ridiculed by

COELA, " the HoUows of Euboea," the W.
coast of Euboea, between the promontories
Caphareus and Chersonesus, very dangerous
to ships : here a part of the Persian fleet
was wrecked b.o. 480.

COELEstRIA (-ae : i. e. Hollow Syria),
the name given to thd great valley between
the two ranges of M. Lebanon (Libanus and
Anti-Libanus), in the S. of Syria, bordering
upon Phoenicia on the W. and Palestine on
the S. In the wars between the Ptolemieu
and the Selencidae, the name was applied to
the whole of the S. portion of Syria, whicli
became subject for some time to the kings of

COELIUS. [Camjus.]

COLCHIS (-Kdos or -Idis), a country of Asia,
bounded on the W. by the Euxine, on the N.
by the Caucasus, on the E. by Iberia. The
land of Colchis (or Aea), and its river Phasis,
are famous in the Greek mythology. [Akoo-
NAUTAE.] It was a very fertile country; but
it was most famous for its manufactures of
linen, on account of which, and of certain
physical resemblances, Herodotus supposed
tbe Colchians to have been a colony f^om
Egypt. The land was governed by its native
princes, until Mithridates Eupator made it
subject to the kingdom of Pontus. After the
Mithridatic war, it was overrun by the Romans,
but they did not subdue it till the time of

COlIaS, a promontory on the W. coast of
Attica, 20 stadia S. of Phalerum, with a
temple of AphroditS (Venus), where some of
the Persian ships were oast after the battle of

COLLATIA (-ae), a Sabine town in Latium,
near the right bank of the Anio, taken by
Tarquinius Priscus.

of Egerius, and nephew of Tarquinius Priscus,
derived the surname CoUatlnus from the town
CoUatia, of which his father had been ap.
pointed governor. The violence ofliered .by
Sex. Tarquinius to his wife Lucretia, led to
the dethronement of Tarquinius Superbus.
Col\{atinu8 and L. Junius Brutus were the firs*
consuls ; but as the people could not endure

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the riile of any of the hated race of the Tar-
quins, CoUatinus resigned his office, and re-
tired firom Borne to Laviniam.

COLLtTUS (4), a demus in Attica, in.
eluded within the walls of Athens. It was
the demus of Plato and the residence of Timon
the misanthrope.

COLONAE, a small town in the Troad.

SIS {Ooloptu on the Rhine), originally the
chief town of the Ubii, and called Oppidum^
or dviUu Vbiorum, was a place of small im-
portance till a. n. 51, when a Roman colony
was planted in the town by the emperor
Claudius, at the instigation of his wife Agrip-
pina, who was bom here, and from whom it
derived its new name. It soon became a large
and flourishing city, and was the capital of
Lower Germany.

COLONUS (4), a demus of Attica, 10 stadia,
or a little more than a mile N. W. of Athens,
near the Academy ; celebrated for a temple of
Poseidon (Neptune), a grove of the Eumenides,
the tomb of Oedipus, and as the birthplace of
Sophocles, who describes it in his Oedipus

COLOPHON (-6nis), one of the 12 Ionian
cities of Asia Minor, stood about 2 miles from
the coast, between Lebedus and Ephesus, on
the river Halesus, which was famous for the
coldness of its water. Its harbour was called
Notium. Besides claiming to be the birth-
place of Homer, Colophon was the native city
of Mimnermus, Hermesianax, and Nicander.
It was also celebrated for the oracle of Apollo
Clarius in its neighbourhood. [Clarus.]

COLOSSAE (-&rum), once an important city
of Great Phrygia, on the river Lycus, but so
reduced subsequently that it might have been
forgotten but for the epistle written to its
mhabitants by the apostle Paul.

RATUS (4), a native of Gades, in Spain, and
a contemporary of Seneca. We have no par-
ticulars of his life, but Rome appears to have
been his ordinary residence. He wrote a
work upon agriculture {DeBe£ustica)y in 12
books, which is still extant. His style is
easy and ornate.

COLUMNAE HERCULI8. [Abtla ; Calpb.]

COMANA (-orum). (1) A city of Pontus,
upon the river Iris, celebrated for its temple
of Artemis Taurica (Diana), the foundation of
which tradition ascribed to Orestes. The high
priests of this temple took rank next after the
king, and their domain was increased by
Pompey after the Mithridatic war. — (2) A
city of Cappadocia, also celebrated for a
temple of Artemis Taurica, the foundation of
which was likewise ascribed by tradition to

COMBRSA (-ae), a town in the Macedonian
district of Crossaea,

COMINIUM (-1), a town in Samnium, de-
stroyed by the Romans in the Samnite wars.
COMMAGBNE (-e8),theN. E..moBt district
of Syria, lying between the Taurus and the
Euphrates. It formed a part of the kingdom
of Syria, after the fall of which it maintained
its independence under a race of kings, the
family of the Seleucidae, and was not united
to the Roman empire till the reign of Yes-

COMMIUS (4), king of the Atrebates, was
advanced to that dignity by Caesar. He was
sent by Caesar to Britain, but he was cast
into chains by the Britons, and was not re-
leased till the Britons had been defeated by
Caesar. In b. c. 52 he joined the other GaulK
in their great revolt against the Romans, and
continued in arms, even after the capture of

COMMODUS, L. AURfiUUS (4), a Roman
emperor, a. d. 180 — 192, son of M. Aurelius
and the younger Faustina, was bom at Lanu.
vium, 161, and was thus scarcely 20 when he
succeeded to the empire. He was an unwor-
thy son of a noble father. Notwithstanding
the great care which his father had bestowed
upon his education, he turned out one of the
most sanguinary and licentious tyrants that
ever disgraced a throne. He sought to gain
popular applause by fighting with the wild
beasts in the amphitheatre ; and having slain
immense numbers of them, demanded worship
for himself, as being the god Hercules. One
of his concubines, whom he had determined
to put to death, administered poison to him ;
but as the poison worked slowly. Narcissus,
a celebrated athlete, was ordered to strangle
him, Dec. 31, 192.

COMPSA (-ae), a town of the Hirpini, in
Samnium, near the sources of the Aufidus.

COMUM (4 : Obmo), a town in Gallia Cisal.
pina, at the S. extremity of the W. branch of the
Lacus Larius (X. di Oomo), It was originally
a town of the Insubrian Gauls, and subse-
quently a Roman colony. It was the birth-
place of the younger Pliny.

COMtS (-1), the god of festive mirth and
joy, represented as a winged youth, occurs
only in the later times of antiquity.

CONCORDIA (-ae), a Roman goddess, the
personification of concord, had several temples
at Rome. The earliest was built by Camillus,
in commemoration of the reconciliation be-
tween the patricians and the plebeians, after
the enactment of the Licinian rogations, b.c.
367. In this temple the senate frequently met.
Concordia is represented on coins as a matron,
holding in her left hand a cornucopia, and
in her right either an olive branch or a patera.

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CONDRtJSI (-6nim), a German people in
Gallia Belgica, the dependents of the Treviri,
dwelt between the Eburones and the Treviri.

CONFLCeNTES (-ium : OobletUz)^ atown in
Germany, at the conflnenoe of the Moselle
and the Rhine.

CONON (^nis), a distinguished Athenian
general, held several important commands in
the Feloponnesian war. After the defeat of
the Athenians by Lysander at Aegos Potami
(B.C. 405), Conon, who was one of the gene-
rals, esca];>ed with 8 ships, and took refuge
with Evagoras in Cyprus, where he remained
for some years. In S94 he gained a decisive
victory over Pisander, the Spartan general, off
Cnidus. — (2) Of Samos, a distinguished
mathematician and astronomer, lived in the
time of the Ptolemies Philadelphus and Euer-
getes (B.C. 283—222).

CONSENTES (-ium) DII (-drum), the 12
Etruscan gods who formed the council of
Jupiter, consisting of six male and six female
divinities. We do not know the names of all
of them, bat it is certain that Juno, Minerva,
Summanus, Yuluan, Saturn, and Mars were
among them.

CONSENTIa (-ae), chief town of the Bruttii
on the river Crathis ; here Alaric died.

CONSTANS (-antis), youngest of the 8
sons of Constantine the Great and Fausta, re-
ceived after his father's death (a.d. 337) lUy-
ricum, Italy, and Africa, as his share of the
empire. After successfully resisting his
brother Constantine, who was slain in in-
vadlng his territory (810), Constans became
master of the whole West. His weak and
profligate character rendered him an object
of contempt, and he was slain in 850 by the
soldiers of the usurper Maonxntius.

CONSTANTlNA, the city. [Cirta.]

CONSTANTlNOPOLIS (-is : Cbnstanttno-
pie) J built on the site of the ancient Byzantium
by Constantine the Great, who called it after
his own name and made it the capital of the
Roman empire. It was solemnly consecrated
A.D. 330. It was built over 7 hills, and was
divided into 14 regiones. Its extreme length
was about 3 Roman miles ; and its walls in-
eluded eventually a circumference of 13 or 14
Roman miles. It continued the capital of the
Roman empire in the £. till its capture by
the Turks in 1453.

C0NSTANTINU8 (-i). (1) I. sumamed
" the Great," Roman emperor, a.d. 306 — 337,
eldest son of the emperor Constantius Chlorus
and Helena, was bom a.d. 272, at Naissus, a
town in Upper Moesia. He was early trained
to arms, and during a large portion of his
reign he was engaged in wars. On the death
of his father at York (306), Constantine laid
claim to a share of the empir6, and was ac- |

knowledged as master of the countries be-
yond the Alps. In 308 he received the title
Augustus. He was engaged in a contest with
Maxentius, who had possession of Italy,
and defeated him at the village of Saxa
Rubra near Rome, Oct. 27, 312. Maxen.
tius tried to escape over the MOvian bridge
into Rome, but perished in the river. It was
in this campaign that Constantine is said to
have been converted to Christianity. On
his march to Rome, either at Autun in
Gaul, or near Andemach on the Rhine, or
at Verona, ho is said to have seen in the sky
a luminous cross with the inscription. By
THIS CoMQuxa ; and on the night before the
last and decisive battle with Maxentius, a
vision is said to have appeared to Constantine
in his sleep, bidding him inscribe the shields
of his soldiers with the sacred monogram of
the name of Christ. The tale of the cross
seems to have grown out of that of the
vision, and even the latter is not entitled to
credit. It was Constantino's interest to gain
the affections of his numerous Christian sub-
jects in his struggle with his rivals ; and it
was probably only self-interest which led him
at first to adopt Christianity. After the
death of Maxentius Constantine was engaged
in a contest with Licinius, who had obtained
possession of the whole of the East; the
struggle ended in the defeat and death of
Licinius, so that Constantine was now sole
master of the empire. He removed the seat
of empire to Byzantium, which he called
after himself Constantinople, and solemnly
dedicated it, 830. Constantine reigned in
peace the rest of his life. He died in May,
837, and was baptized shortly before his
death by Eusebius. His three sons Constan-
tine, Constantius, and Constans succeeded
him in the empire. — (2) n. Roman emperor,
337 — 840, eldest of the three sons of Con.
stantine the Great, by Fausta, received Gaul,
Britain, Spain, and part of Africa at his
father's death. Dissatisfied with his share of
the empire, he made war upon his younger
brother Constans, who governed Italy, but
was defeated and slain near Aquileia.

CONSTANTIUS (-i). (1) I. sumamed
Chlorus, "the pale," Roman emperor a.d.
305 — 306. He was one of the two Caesars
appointed by Maximian and Diocletian in
292, and received the government of Britain,
Gaul, and Spain with Treviri {Trivei) as his
residence. Upon the abdication of Diocletian
and Maximian, in 805, Constantius and
Galerius became the Augusti. Constantius
died 15 months afterwards (July, 806) at
Eboracum (York) in Britain, on an expedition
against the Picts : his son Constantine, after-
wards the Great, succeeded him in his share

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coRiNrniACUs sinus.

of the government. — (2) n. Boman emperor,
337 — 361, third son of Constantine the Qreat
by his second wife Fausta. He was soc-
ceeded by Julian. — (3) m. Emperor of the
West (▲.D. 421), a distinguished general of
Honorius, who declared him Augustus in 421,
but he died in the 7 th month of his reign.

CONSUS (-i), an ancient Boman divinity,
who was identified in later times with Nep-
tune. Hence Livy calls him Neptunus
Equestris. He was regarded by some as the
god of secret deliberations, but he was most
probably a god of the lower world.

CX)NTREBIa (-ae), one of the chief towns
of the Celtiberi, in Hispania Tarraconensis,
S.E. of Saragossa.

CONVENAE (-arum), a people in Aqui-
tania, near the Pyrenees, and on both sides
of the Garumna ; a mixed race, which had
served under Sertorius, and were setUed in
Aquitania by Pompey.

COPAE (-firum), an ancient town in
Boeotia, on the N. side of the lake Copais,
which derived its name fh>m this place.

COPAIS (.Idos), a large lake in Boeotia,
formed chiefly by the river CepMsus, the
waters of which are emptied into the Euboean
sea by several subterraneous canals, called
Katdbothra by the modem Greeks. It was
originally called Cephisis, under which name
it occurs in Homer. In the summer the
greater part of the lake is dry, and becomes
a green meadow, in which oattie are pastured.
Its eels were much prized in antiquity, and
they retain their celebrity in modem times.

CX)PH£N or COPHES [Cahul), the only
errand tributary river whibh flows into the
Indus fi-om the W. It was the boundary
between India and Ariana.

C0PT08 (-i), a city of the Thebais or
Upper Egypt, lay a little to the E. of the
Nile, some distance below Thebes. Under
the Ptolemies it occupied an important com-
mercial position.

CORA (-ae), an ancient town in Latium,
in the Volscian mountains, S.E. of Velitrae.

CORACESiUM (-i), a very strong city of
Cilicia Aspera, on the borders of Pamphylia,
standing upon a steep rock, and possessing a
good harbour.

CORASSIAE (4lrum), a group of small
islands in the Icarian sea, S.W. of Icaria.
They must not be confounded, as they often
are, with the islands Cobseae or CorsUe, off
the Ionian coast, and opposite the promon-
tory Ampelos, in Samos.

CORAX (.actis), a Sicilian rhetorician,
flourished about b.c. 467, and wrote the
earliest work on the art of rhetoric.

CORBULO (-onis), Cn. DOMITIUS (-i),
a general who distinguished himself by his

campaigns against the Parthians, in the
reigns of Claudius and Nero. To avoid death,
by the orders of Nero, he committed suicide.

CORCTRA (-ae : Corfu), an island in the
Ionian sea, off the coast of Epirus, about 88
miles in length, but of very unequal breadth.
The ancients regarded it as the Homeric
ScHB&iA, where the sea-loving Phaecians
dwelt, governed by their king Alcinous.
About B.C. 700 it was colonised by the Co-
rinthians, and soon became rich and ];>owerful
by its extensive commerce. The increasing
prosperity of Coroyra led to a rivalship with
Corinth; and about b.c. 664 a battie was
fought between the fleets, which is memo-
rable as the most ancient sea-fight on record.
At a later period Corcyra became one of the
causes of the Peloponnesian war, 431.
Shortly afterwards her power declined in
consequence of civil dissensions ; and at .last
it became subject to the Romans, with the
rest of Greece. Corfu is at present one of the
7 Ionian islands under the protection of
Great Britain, and the seat of government.

CORDl^BA (-ae: Cordova), one of the
largest cities in Spain, and the capital of
Baetica, on the right bank of the Baetis;
made a Roman colony b.c. 152 ; birthplace
of the two Senecas and of Lucan.


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