William Smith.

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should be deemed happy till he had finished
his life in a happy way. In a war with
Cyrus, king of Persia, the army of Croesus
was defeated, and his capital, Sardis, was
taken. Croesus was condemned by the con-
queror to be burnt to death. As he stood
before the pyre, the warning of Solon came
to his mind, and he thrice uttered the name
of Solon. Cyrus inquired who it was that he
called on ; and, upon hearing the story, re-
pented of his purpose, and not only spared
the life of Croesus, but made him his friend.
Croesus survived Cyrus, and accompanied
Cambyses in his expedi^on against Egypt.

CROMMtON or CROMtON, a town in
Megaris, on the Saronic gulf, afterwards
belonged to Corinth ; celebrated in my-
thology on account of its wild sow, which
was slain by Theseus.

CRONUS (-1), called SATURNUS (-i), by
the Romans, the youngest of the Titans, son
of Uranus and Ge (Heaven and Earth),
father, by Rhea, of Hestia, Demeter (Ceres),
Hera (Juno), Hades (Pluto), Poseidon (Nep-
tune), and Zeus (Jupiter). He deprived his
father Uranus of the government of the

Cronos (SaturnuB). (From a Painting at Pompeii).

world, and was, in his turn, dethroned by his
son Zeus. [Zeus.]
CROTOiJ C-dnia) or CROTONA f-ae), one

of the most powerftil cities in Magna Graecia,
was situated on the E. coast of Bruttium, and
was founded by the Achaeans b.c. 710. It is
celebrated as the residence of Pythagoras, the
philosopher, and of Milo, the athlete. It
attained its greatest power i>y the destruction
of Sybaris, in 510 j but suffered greatly in
the wars with Dionysius, Agathocles, and

CRUSTU^IERIA (-ae), -RIUM (-i), also
CRUSTUMIUM (-i), a town of the Sabines,
situated in the mountains near the sources of
the Allia.

CTESLA8 (-ae), of Cnidus, in Cayia, a con-
temporary of Xenophon, was private phy.
sician of Artaxerxes Mnemon, whom he
accompanied in his war against his brother
Cyrus, B.C. 401. He lived 17 years at the
Persian court, and wrote in the Ionic dialect
a great work on the history of Persia, and
also a work on India, of both of which works
we possess an abridgment in Photius.

CTfiSlBIUS (-i), celebrated for his me-
chanical inventions, lived at Alexandria in
the reigns of Ptolemy Philadelphus, and
Euergetes, about b.c. 250.

CTESIPHON. [Demosthenes.]

CTESIPHON (-ontis), a city of Assyria, on
the E. bank of the Tigris, 3 Roman miles
from Seleucia, on the W. bank, first became
an important place under the Parthian^,
whose kings used it for some time as a winter

COMAE (-arum), a town in Campania, and
the most ancient of the Greek colonies in
Italy and Sicily, was founded by Cyme, in
Aeolis, in conjunction with Chalcis and
; Eretria, in Euboea. Its foundation is placed
in B.C. 1050, but this date is evidently too
early. It was situated on a steep hill of Mt.
Gaurus, a little N. of the promontory Mise- ,
num. It became in early times a great and
flourishing city ; and its power is attested by
its colonies in Italy and Sicily, — Puteoli,
Palaeopolis, afterwards Neapolis, Zancle,
afterwards Messana. It maintained its inde-
pendence till b.c 417, when it was taken by
the Campanians, and most of its inhabitants
sold as slaves. From this time Capua became
the chief city of Campania. Cumae was
celebrated as the residence of the earliest
Sibyl, and as the place where Tarquinius
Superbus died.

CONAXA (-ae), a small town in Babylonia,

on the Euphrates, famous for the battle

fought here between the younger Cyrus and

his brother Artaxerxes Mnemon, in which the

j former was killed (b.c 401).

I CURES (-ium), an ancient town of the Sa-

I bines, celebrated as the birthplace of T. Tatiiis

and Numa Pompilius : from this town the

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Romans are said to have derived the name of

CtJRETES (-iim), a mythical people, said to
he the most ancient inhabitants of Acamania
and Aetolia; the latter country was called
Curetis from them. They also occur in Crete
ns the priests of Zeus (Jupiter), and are spoken
of in connexion with the Corybantes and
Idaean Dactyli. The infant Zeus was en-
trusted to their oare by Rhea ; and by clash-
ing their weapons in a warlike dance, they
drowned the cries of the child, and prevented
his father Cronus from ascertaining the place
where he was concealed.

CURIATII (-orum), a celebrated Alban
family. S brothers of this family fought with
3 Roman brothers, the Horatii, and were
conquered by the latter. In consequence of
their defeat Alba became subject to Rome.

CORIO, C. SCRIBONIUS. J;1) consul B.C.
76, was a personal enemy of Caesar, and sup-
ported?. Clodius, when the latter was accused
of violating the sacra of the Bona Dea. In 57
he was appointed pontifex maximus, and died
53. He had some reputation as an orator,
and was a friend of Cicero. — (2) Son of No. 1,
also a friend of Cicero, was a most profligate
character. He was married to Fulvia, after,
wards the wife of Antony. He at first be-
longed to the Pompeian party, by whose
influence he was made tribune of the plcbs,
50 ; but he was bought over by Caesar, and
employed his power as tribune against his
former friends. On the breaking out of the
civil war (49), he was sent by Caesar to Sicily
with the title of propraetor. He succeeded
in driving Cato out of the island, and then
crossed over to Africa, where he was defeated
and slain by Juba and P. Attius Varus.

CURIOSOLITAE (-arum), a Gallic people
on the Ocean in Armorica, near the Ye-

CURIUS, M. DENTATUS (-1), a favourite
hero of the Roman republic, was celebrated
in later times as a noble specimen of old
Roman frugality and virtue. In his first con-
sulship (B.C. 290), he successfully opposed the
Samnites ; and in his second consulship (275),
he defeated Pyrrhus so completely, that the
king was obliged to quit Italy. On this and
on subsequent occasions he declined to share
in the large booty that he gained. At the
close of his military career, he retired to his
small farm in the country of the Sabines,
which he cultivated with his own hands.
Once the Samnites sent an embassy to him
with costly presents ; they found him sitting
at the hearth and roasting turnips. He re-
jected their presents, telling them that he
preferred ruling over those who possessed
gold, to posi^essing it himself. He was censor

in 272, and in that year executed public
works of great importance.

CURSOR, L. PAPiRlUS. (1) A distin-
guished Roman general in the 2nd Samnite
war, was 5 times consul (b.c. 833 — 313), and
twice dictator (325 — 309). He frequently
defeated the Samnites, but his greatest vie
tory over them was gained in his 2nd dictator-
ship. Although a great general, he was not
popular with the soldiers on account of his
severity. — (2) Son of No. 1, was, like his
father, a distinguished general. In his 2nd
consulship, 272, he brought the 3rd Samnite
war to a close.

distinguished Sabine, fought with the rest of
his nation against Romulus. According to
one tradition, the Laciu Ourtius, which was
part of the Roman forum, was called after
him, because in the battle with the Romans
he escaped with difficulty from a swamp, into
which his horse had plunged. But the more
usual tradition respecting the name of the
Lacus Curtius related, that in b. c. 362 the
earth in the forum gave way, and a great
chasm appeared, which the soothsayers de-
clared could only be filled up by throwing
into it Rome's greatest treasure ; that there-
upon M. Curtius, a noble youth, mounted his
steed in full armour, and declaring that Rome
possessed no greater treasure than a brave
and gallant citizen, leaped into the abyss,
upon which the earth closed over him,

CURTIUS ROFUS (-1), Q., the Roman his-
torian of Alexander the Great, whose date is
uncertain. His history of Alexander con-
sisted of 10 books, but the first 2 are lost, and
the remaining 8 are not without considerable
gaps. It is written in a pleasing, though
somewhat declamatory style.

CUTILIaE aquae. [Aquae, No. 3.]

ClfANfi (-es), a Sicilian nymph and play-
mate of Proserpine, changed into a fountain
through grief at the loss of the goddess.

CtlNEAE (-arum), INSULAE, 2 small
rocky islands at the. entrance of the Thracian
Bosporus into the Euxine, the Planctak and
Symplkoades of mythology, so called because
they are said to have been once moveable and
to have rushed together, and thus destroyed
every ship that attempted to pass through
them. After the ship Argo had passed through
them in safety, they became stationary.

CYANEE (-es), daughter of Maeander,
mother of Caunus and of Byblis.

CYAXARfiS, king of Media, b.c. 634—594,
son of Phraortes, and grandson of Deioces.
He was the most warlike of the Median kings,
and introduced great military reforms. He
was engaged in wars vith the Assj-riaru^
«(!ytliiuns, and Alyattes, king of Lydia.
K 2

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[Altattes.] Cyaxares died in 594, and was
succeeded by his son Astyages. Xenophon
speaks of a Cyaxares II., king of Media, son
of Astyages, respecting whom see Cyrus.

CtBELE. [Rhra.]

CYBISTRA (-5rum), an ancient city of
Asia Minor, lying at the foot of Mt Taurus,
in the parf- of Cappadocia bordering on

CYCLADES (-um), a group of islands in
the Aegean Sea, so caUed because they lay in
a circle around Delos, the most important of

CYCLOPES and CtCLOPES (-urn), that is,
creatures with round or circular eyes, are
described differently by different writers.
Homer speaks of them as a gigantic and law.
less race of shepherds in Sicily, who devoured
human beintrs and cared nought for Zeus
(Jupiter) : e:ich of them had only one eye in
the centre of his forehead : the chief among
them was Polvphioius. • According to Hesiod
the Cyclops were Titans, sons of Uranus and
Ge, were 3 in number, Aroks, Steropks, and
Brontbs, and each of them had only one eye
in his forehead. They were thrown into
Tartarus by Cronus, but were released by Zeus,
and in consequence they provided Zeus with
thunderbolts and lightning, Pluto with a
helmet, and Poseidon with a trident. They
were afterwards killed by Apollo for having
furnished Zeus with the thunderbolts to kill
Aesculapius. A still later tradition regarded
the Cyclopes as the assistants of Hephaestus
rVulcan). Volcanoes were the workshops of
that god, and Mt. Aetna in Sicily and the
neighbouring isles were accordingly con-
sidered as their abodes. As the assistants of
Hephaestus they make the metal armour and
ornaments for gods and heroes. Their num-
ber is no longer confined to 3 ; and besides
the names mentioned by Hesiod, we also find
those of Pyracmon and Acamas. The name
Cyclopian was given to the walls built of
great masses of unhewn stone, of which
specimens are still to be seen at Mycenae and
other parts of Greece, and also in Italy.
They were probably constructed by the Pelas-
gians, and later generations, being struck by
their grandeur, ascribed their building to a
fabulous race of Cyclops.

CYCNUS or CYGNUS (-i). (1) Son of
Apollo by Hyrie, was metamorphosed into a
«<wan. — (2) Son of Poseidon (Neptune), and
father of Tenes and Hemithea. [Tenes.] In
che Trojan war Cycnus was slain by Achilles,
and his body was metamorphosed into a swan.
— (3) Son of Sthenelus, king of the Ligurians,
and a friend and relation of Phaethon, was
metamorphosed by Apollo into a swan, and
placed smong the stars.

CYDIPPfi (-es). (1) The mistress of Acon-
tius. [AcoNTius.] — (2) One of the Nereids.

CYDNUS (-i), a river of Cilicia Campestris,
rising in the Taurus, and flowing through the
midst of the city of Tarsus. It was celebrated
for the coldness of its waters, in bathing in
which Alexander nearly lost his life.

CtDONlA (-ae), one of the chief ernes of
Crete, situated on the N.W. coast, derived its
name ftromthe CrndNES, a Cretan race, placed
by Homer in the W. part of the isbind.
Cydonia was the place from which quinces
{CS/donia mala) were first brought to Italy,
and its inhabitants were some of the best
Cretan archers.

CYLLARU8 (-i), a beautiful centaur, killed
at the wedding feast of Pirithous. The horse
of Castor was likewise called Cyllarus.

CYLLEne (-es). (1) The highest moun-
tain in Peloponnesus on the frontiers of
Arcadia and Achaia, sacred to Hermes (Mer-
cury), who had a temple on the summit^ was
said to have been bom there, and was hence
called Cyll6n!us. — (2) A sea-port town of Elis. •

C YLON (-onis), an Athenian of noble family,
who gained an Olympic victory b.g. 640.
He seized the Acropolis, intending to make
himself tyrant of A thens. Pressed by famine,
Cylon and his adherents were driven to take
refuge at the altar of Athena, whence they
were induced to withdraw by the archon
Megacles, the Alcmaeonid, on a promise that
their lives should be spared. But their ene-
mies put them to death as soon as they had
them in their power.

CYMfi (-es), the largest of the Aeotian
cities of Asia Minor, stood upon the coast of
Aeolis, on a bay named after it, Cumaeus
(also Elaiticus) Sinus. It was the mother city
of Cumae in Campania.

CYNAEGIRUS (-i), brother of the poet
Aeschylus, distinguished himself by his
valour at the battle of Marathon, b.c. 490.
According to Herodotus, when the Persians
were endeavouring to escape by sea, Cynae-
girus seized one of their ships to keep it back,
but fell with his right hand cut off.

CYNESil (-drum) or CYNETES (-um), a
people, according to Herodotus, dwelling in
the extreme W. of Europe, beyond the Celts,
apparently in Spain.

CYNOSARGES, a gynmasium, sacred to
Hercules, outside Athens, E. of the city, for
the use of those who were not of pure Athe-
nian blood : here taught Antisthenes, the
founder of the Cpiic schooL

CtNOSCEPHALAE, i.e. " Dog's Heads,"

two hills near Scotussa in Thessaly, where

Flaminius gained his celebrated victory ovor

Philip of Macedonia, b.0. 197.

CYNOSSEMA, " Dog's Tomb,'»a promontory

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in the Thracian Chersonesus near Madytus,
po called because it was supposed to be the
tomb of Hecuba, who had been previously
changed into a dog.

CYNOSOBA (-ae), an Idaean nymph, and
one of the nurses of Zeus, who placed her
among the stars. [Aacros.]

CtNOStTRA t-ae), " Dog's Tail," a pro-
montory in Attica, S. of Marathon.

CYNTHUS (-i), a mountain of Delos, ce-
lebrated as the birthplace of Apollo and
Diana, who were lience called Cynthius and
Cynthia respectively.

CYNCRIA (-ae), a district on the frontiers
of Argolis and. Laiconia, for the possession of
which the Argives and Spartans carried on
frequent wars, and which the Spartans at
length obtained about b.c. 550.

CYNU8 (-i), the chief seaport in the ter-
ritory of the Locri Opuntii.

Cl^PARISSLA (-ae), a town in Messenia, on
the W. coast, on a promontory and bay of the
same name.

CYPARISSU8 (-i). (1) Son of Telephus,
who having inadvertently killed his favourite
Btag, was seized with immoderate grief, and
metamorphosed into a cypress. — (2) A small
town in Phocis on Parnassus near Delphi.

CYPRUS and CYPRUS (-i), a large island
in the Mediterranean, 8. of Cilicia and W. of
Syria, about 140 miles in length, and 50
miles in its gnreatest breadth. It was cele-
brated in ancient as well as in modem times
for its fertility. The hirgest plain, called
the Salaminian plain, is in the £. part of the
island near Salamis. The rivers are little
more than mountain torrents, mostly dry in
summer. Cyprus was colonised both by the
Phoenicians and the Greeks; was subject at
different times to the Egyptians, the Persians,
and the Romans, of whom the latter made it
a province, b.c. 58. Cyprus was one of the
chief seats of the worship of Aphrodite
(Venus), who is hence called C^prU or
Cypria, and whose worship was introduced
into the island by the Phoenicians.

CYPSELA (-orum). (1) A town in Arcadia
on the ft-ontiers of Laconia. — (2) A town
in Thrace on the Hebras and the Egnatia

CYPSELU8 (-i), a tyrant of Corinth, b.c.
655 — 625, so named because when a child he
was concealed from the Bacchiadae (the Doric
nobility of Corinth) by his mother in a chest
{»tr^ikv)> He was succeeded in the tyranny
by his son Periander.

CYRENE (-es). (1) Daughter of Hypseus,
mother of Aristaeus by Apollo, was carried
by the god from Mt. Pelion to Libya, where
the city of Cyrene derived its name from her.
— (2) An important Greek city in the N. of

Africa, lying between Alexandria and Car-
thage. It was founded by Battus (b.c. 631),
who led a colony from the island of Thera,
and he and his descendants ruled over the
city for 8 generations. It stood 80 stadia (8
geog. mUes) from the coast, on the edge of
the upper of two terraces of table land, at
the height of 1800 feet above the sea, in one
of the finest situations in the world. At a
later time Cyrene became subject to the
Egyptian Ptolemies, and was eventually
formed, with the island of Crete, into a
Roman province. The ruins of the city ol
Cyrene are very extensive. It was the birth-
place of CallimachuB, Eratosthenes, and
Aristippus. The territory of Cyrene, called
Cyrcnaica, included also the Greek cities of
Barca, Teuchira, Hesperis, and Apollonia,
the port of Cyrene. Under the Ptolemies
Hesperis became Berenice, Teuchira was
called Arsinoe, and Barca was entirely
eclipsed by its port, which was raised into a
city under the name of Ptolemais. The
country was at that time usually called
Pentapolis, firom the 5 cities- of Cyrene —
Apollonia, Ptolemais, Arsinoe, and Berenice.

a city of Sogdiana, on the Jaxartes, the
furthest of the colonies founded by Cyrus,
and the extreme city of the Persian empire :
destroyed, after many revolts, by Alexander.

CYRNUS (-i), the Greek name of the island
of Corsica, from which is derived the 'adjec-
tive OymeuSf used by the Latin poets.

CYRRHESTICfi (-es), the name given
under the Seleucidae to a province of Syria,
lying between Commagene on the N. and the
plain of Antioch on the S.

CYRUS (-i). (1) Thb Eldkr, the founder
of the Persian empire. The history of his
life was overlaid in ancient times with fables
and romances. According to the legend pre-
served by Herodotus, Cyrus was the son of
Cambyses, a noble Persian, and cf Mandane,
daughter of the Median king Astyages. In
consequence of a dream, which seemed to
portend that his grandson should be master
of Asia, Astyages coumiitted the child as soon
as it was bom to Harp&gus with orders to
kill it. But he delivered the infant to a
herdsman, and by the herdsman's wife the
child was reared. At ten years of age he
gave proof of his high descent by his royal
bearing, and on being sent to Astyages
was discovered by him to be his gnrandson.
By the advice of the Magians, who said that
the dream had been fulfilled when Cyrus
was made king in sport, he sent him to his
parents in Persia. When Cyrus grew up, he
led the hardy mountaineers of Persia against .
Astyages, defeated him in battle, and took

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him prisoner, B.C. 559. The Medes accepted
Cyrus for their king, and thus the supremacy
which they had held passed to the Persians.
Cyrus now proceeded to conquer the other
parts of Asia. In 546 he overthrew the
Lydian monarchy, and took Croesus prisoner.
[Croesus.] The Creek cities in Asia Minor
were subdued by his general Harpagus. He
next turned his arms against the Babylonian
empire, and took the capital, Babylon, by
diverting the course of the Euphrates, which
flowed through the midst of it, so that his
soldiers entered the city by the bed of the
river. This was in 538. Subsequently he
set out on an expedition against the Massa-
getae, a Scythian people, but he was defeated
and slain .in battle. Tomyris, the queen of
the Massagetae, cut off his head, and threw
it into a bag filled with human blood, that he
might satiate himself (she said) with blood.
lie was killed in 529. He was succeeded by
his son Cambyses. Xenophon's account is
very different. He represents Cyrus as
brought up at his grandfather's court, as
serving in the Median army under his uncle
Cyaxares II., the son and successor of Asty-
ages, of whom Herodotus knows nothing ;
as making war upon Babylon simply as
the general of Cyaxares; as marrying the
daughter of Cyaxares ; and at length dying
quietly in his bed. But Xenophon merely
draws a picture of what a wise and just
princ6 ought to be ; and his account must
not be regarded as a genuine history. — (2) The
YouxoER, the 2nd son of Darius Nothus, king
of Persia, and of Parysatis, was appointed by
his father commander of the maritime parts
of Asia Minor, and satrap of Lydia, Phrygia,
and Cappadocia, b.c. 407. He assisted
Lysander and the Lacedaemonians with large
sums of money in their war against the
Athenians. Cyrus was of a daring and am-
bitious temper. On the accession of his
elder brother Artaxerxes Mnemon, 404, he
formed the design of dethroning his brother,
to accomplish which he obtained the aid of
a force of 13,000 Greek mercenaries, set out
from Sardis in the spring of 401, and, having
crossed the Euphrates at Thapsacus, marched
down the river to the plain of Cunaxa, 500
stadia from Babylon Here he met the king's
army. In the battle which followed his
Greek troops were victorious, but Cyrus him-
self was slain. The character of Cyrus is
drawn by Xenophon in the brightest colours.
It is enough to say that his ambition was
gilded by all those brilliant qualities which
win men's hearts. — (3) A river of Armenia,
rising in the Caucasus, flowing through
Iberia,, and after forming the boundary be-
tween Albania and Armenia, uniting with

the Araxes, and falling into the W. side of the

CtTHfiRA (-ae : Cerigo), an island off
the S.E. point of Laconia, with a town of the
same name in the interior, the harbour of
which was called Scandka. It was colonise<l
at an early time by the Phoenicians, who in-
troduced the worship of Aphrodite (Venus)
into the island, for which it was celebrated.
This goddess was hence called Ctthebaea,
Ctthe&eis; and, according to some tra-
ditions, it was in the neighbourhood of this
island that she first rose from the foam of the

CYTHNUS (-i : Thermia)^ an island in the
Aegaean sea, one of the Cycladcs.

CYTINIUM (-i), one of the 4 cities in
Doris, on Parnassus.

CItORUS or -UM (-i), a town on the coast
of Paphlagonia, a commercial settlement of
Sinope, stood upon the mountain of the same
name, celebrated for its box-trees.

CYZICUS (-i), one of the most ancient and
powerful of the Greek cities in Asia Minor,
stood upon an island of the same name in
the Propontis {Sea of Marmara). This island
lay close to the shore of Mysia, to which it
was united by two bridges, and afterwards
(under Alexander the Great) by a mole,
which has accumulated to a considerable
isthmus. The most noted passages in its
history are its shaking off the Persian yoke
after the peace of Antalcidas, and its gallant
resistance against Mithridates (b.c. 75) which
obtained for it the rank of a " libera civitas."

rjAAE. JDahak.]

^ DACIA (-ae), as a Roman province, lay
between the Danube and the Carpathian
mountains, and comprehended the modem
Transyhaniaf Wallaehiaf Moldavia, and part
of Hungary. The Daci were of the same
race and spoke the same language as the
Getae, and are therefore usually said to be
of Thracian origin. They were a brave and
warlike people. In the reign of Domitian
they became so formidable under their king
Decebalus, that the Romans were obliged to
purchase a peace of them by the pa3rment of
tribute. Trajan delivered the empire from
this disgrace ; he crossed the Danube, and
after a war of 5 years (a.d. lOJ — 106) con-
quered the country, and made it a Roman ^
province. At a later period Dacia was in-
vaded by the Goths; and as Aurelian con-
sidered it more prudent to make the Danube
the boundary of the empire, he resigned
Dacia to the barbarians, removed the Roman
inhabitants to Moesia, and gave the name of
Dacia (Aureliana) to that part of the pro-

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vince along the Danube where they were

DACTit'LI (-onim), fabulous beingrs, to
whom the discovery of iron, and the art of
working it by means of fire, was ascribed.
. Mount Ida, in Phrygia, is said to hare been
the original seat of the Dactyls, whence they

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