William Smith.

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lire usually called Idacan Dactyls. In
Phrygia they were connected with the wor-
ship of Rhea, or Cybele. They are sometimes
confounded or identified with the Curetes,
Corybantes, and Cabiri.

DAEDALUS (-i), a mythical personage,
under whose name the Greek writers per-
sonified the earliest development of the arts
of sculpture and architecture, especially
among the Athenians and Cretans. He is
rtometimes called an Athenian, and sometimes
a Cretan, on account of the long time he
lived in Crete. He devoted himself to sculp-
ture, and made great improvements in the
art. He instructed his sister's son, Calos,
Talus, or Perdix, who soon came to surpass
him in skill and ingenuity, and Daedalus
killed him through envy. [Perdix.] Being
condemned to death by the Areopagus for
this murder, he went to Crete, where the
fame of his skill obtained for him the friend-
ship of Minos. He made the well-known



Daedalus and Icarus. (Zo*(c«, Baasiriiievi di Boma,
tav. 44.)

wooden cow for PasiphaC; and when Pasi-
phaegave birth to the Minotaur, Daedalus
constructed the labyrinth, at Cnossus, in
which the monster was kept. For his part
in this affair, Daedalus was imprisoned by
Minos ; but Pasiphae released him ; and, aa
Minos had seized all the ships on the coast of



Crete, Daedalus procured wings for himself
and his son Icarus, and fastened them on
with wax. [Icarus.] Daedalus flew safely
over the Aegean, alighting, according to
some accounts, at Cumae, in Italy. He then
fled to Sicily, where he was hospitably enter,
tained by Cocalus. Minos, who sailed to
Sicily in pursuit of him, was slain by
Cocalus or his daughters. Several other
works of art were attributed to Daedalus, in
Greece, Italy, Libya, and the islands of the
Mediterranean. They belong to the period
when art began to be developed. The name
of Daedala was gri'^en by the Greeks to the
wooden statues, ornamented with gilding, and
bright colours, and real drapery, the earliest
known forms of the images of the gods.

DAHAE (-arum), a great Scythian people,
who led a nomad life over a great extent of
country, on the E. of the Caspian, in Hyr-
cania (which still bears the name of Daghea-
ton), on the banks of the Margus, the Oxus,
and even the Jaxartes.

DALMATIA or DELMATIA (-ae), a part
of the country along the E. coast of
the Adriatic sea, included under the general
name of Illyricum, and separated from
Libumia on the N. by the Titius (JTcrfai),
and from Greek lUyria on the S. by the
Drilo {Drino)^ thus nearly corresponding
to the modern Dalmatia, The capital was
Dalminium or Dklximium, from which the
country derived its name. The next most
important town was Saloka, the residence
of Diocletian. The Dalmatians were a brave
and warlike people, and gave much trouble
to the Romans. In B.C. 119 their country
was overrun by L. Metellus, who assumed, in
consequence, the surname Dalmaticus, but
they continued independent of the Romans.
In 39 they were defeated by Asinius PoUio,
of whose Dalmatictts triumphtu Horace
speaks ; but it was not till the year 28 that
they were finally subdued by Statilius Tau-
rus. They took part in the great Pannonian
revolt under their leader Bato ; but after a
three years' war were again reduced to sub-
jection bv Tiberius, a.d. 9.

DALmInIUM. [Dalmatia.]

DAMALIS (-is) or BOUS (-i), a small
place in Bithynia, on the shore of the Thra-
cian Bosporus, N. of Chalcedon ; celebrated
by tradition as the landing-place of lo.

DAMARATUS. [Dbmaratus.]

DAMASCUS (-i), one of the most ancient
cities of the world, mentioned as existing in
the time of Abraham (Gen. xiv. 16), stood in
the district afterwards called Coele-Syria,
upon both banks of the river Chrysorrhoas or
Bardines {Burada). Its fruits were cele-
brated in ancient, as in modem times ; and



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DAMA8IPPU8.



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DANAU8.



altogether the sitaation of the city is one of
the flneet on the globe. For a long period
Damascus was the seat of an independent
kingdom, called the kingdom of Syria, which
was subdued by the Assyrians, and passed
successively under the dominion of the Baby-
lonians, the Persians, the Greek kings of
Syria, and the Romans. It flourished greatly
under the emperors. Diocletian established
in it a great factory for arms ; and hence the
origin of the fame of Damascus blades. Its
position on one of the high roads from lower
to upper Asia gave it a considerable trade.

DAMASIPPUS (.i). (1) A Jlomun senator,
fought on the side of the Pompeians in Africa,
and perished, b.o. 47. — (2) A contemporary
of Cicero, who mentions him as a lover of
statues, and speaks of purchasing a garden
(rom Damasippus. He is probably the same
person as the Damasippus ridiculed by
Horace. {Sat. ii. 3. 16, 64.) It appears
from Horace that Damasippus had become
bankrupt, in consequence of which he in.
tended to put an end to himself ; but he was
prevented by the Stoic Stertinius, and then
turned Stoic himself, or at least affected to
be one by his long b^rd.

DAMASTfiS of SigSum, a Greek historian,
and a contemporary of Herodotus and HeU
lanlcus of Lesbos ; his works are lost.

DAMIA. [AuxasiA.]

DAMNONII (.drum). (1) Or Dumnonii
or DuMKUNii, a powerful people in the 8.W.
of Britain, inhabiting Cornwall, Devonshire,
and the W. part of Somertetshire, from whom
was called the promontory Damnomixtm, also
OcKimrH {C. lAzard), In Cornwall. — (2) Or
Damnii, a people in N. Britain, inhabiting
parts of Perth, ArgyU, Sterling, and Dum-
harton^hiree.

DAMO, a daughter of Pythagoras and
Theano, to whom Pythagoras entrusted his
writings, and forbad her to give them to any
one. This command she strictly observed,
although she was in extreme poverty, and
received many requests to sell them.

DAMOCLES (.is), a Syracusan, one of the
companions and flatterers of the elder Diony-
sius. Damocles having extolled the great
felicity of Dionysius on account of his wealth
and power, the tyrant' invited him to try
what his happiness really was, and placed
him at a magnificent banquet, in the midst
of which Damocles saw a naked sword sus-
pended over his head by a single horse-hair
— a sight which quickly dispelled all his
visions of happiness. The story is alluded
to by Horace. {Oarm. iii. r. 17.)

DlMON (-5ni8.) (1) Of Athens, a celebrated
musician and sophist, a teacher of Pericles,
with whom he lived on the most intimate



terms. 'He was said to have been also a
teacher of Socrates. — (2) A Pythagorean, and
friend of Phimtias (not Pythias). When the
latter was condemned to die for a p^ot ag^ainsc
Dionysius I., of Syracuse, he obtained leave
of the tyrant to depart, for the purpose of
arranging his domestic affairs, upon Damon
offering himself to be put to death instead of
his friend, should he fail to return. Phintiatf
arrived just in time to redeem Damon ; and
Dionysius was so struck with this instance
of friendship on both sides, that he pardoned
the criminal, and entreated to be admitted
as a third into their bond of brotherhood.

DAMOXENUS (-i) an Athenian comic
poet of the new comedy, and perhaps partly
of the middle.

DANA (-ae), a great city of Cappadocia,
probably the same as the later Tyana.

DAnX£ (-es), daughter of Acrisius king
of Argos, was confined by her father in a
braien tower, because an oracle had declared
that she would give birth to a son, who should
kill his grandfather. But here she became
the mother of Perseus by Zeus (Jupiter), who
visited her in a shower of gold, and thus
mocked the precautions of the king. Acrisius
shut up both mother and child in a chest,
which he cast into the sea; but the chest
floated to the island of Seriphus, where both
were rescued by Dictys. As to the fulfilment
of the oracle, see Pkrskus. An Italian legend
related that DanaS came to Italy, built the
town of Ardea, and married Pilumnus, by
whom she became the mother of Daunus, the
ancestor of Tumus. ,

DANAI. [Danaus.]

dAnaIDES (-um), the 50 daughters of
Danaus.^ [Danaus.]

DANALA (-5rum), a city in the territory
of the Trocmi, in the N.E. of Galatia, notable
in the history of the Mithridatic War as the
place where Lucullus resigned the command
to Pompey.

DANAPRIS. [BORYSTHENES.]

DANASTRIS. [Tyuas.]

DANAUS (-i), son of Belus, and twin-
brother of Aegyptus. Belus had assigned
Libya to DanaQs, but the latter, fearing his
brother and his brother's sons, fled with his
50 daughters to Argos. Here he was elected
king by the Argives in place of Gelanor, the
reigning monarch. The story of the murder
of the 60 sons of Aegyptus by the 50 daugh-
ters of DanaOs (the Danaides) is given under
Aegyptus. There was one exception to tbe
murderous deed. The life of Lynceus was
spared by his wife Hypermnestra ; and ac-
cording to the common tradition he afterwards
avenged the death of his brothers by killing
his father-in-law, Dunails. According to the



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DANUBIUS.



137



DARES.



poets the Danaides were punished in Hades
by being compelled everlastingly to pour
water into a sieve. From Danaixs the Argives



were called Danai, which name, like that of
the Argives, was often applied by the poets
to the collective Greeks.



Danaidi. (YiBCouti.Mus. Pio Clem., vol. 4, tav. 36.)



DANXJeIUS (-i : Danube, in Germ. Donau),
called IsTER by the Greeks, one of the chief
rivers of Europe, rising in M. Abnoba the
Black Forest, and falling into the Black sea ,
after a course of 1770 miles. The Danube
formed the N. boutidary of the empire, with
the exception of the time that Dacia was a
Roman province. In the Bx)man period the
upper part of the river from its source as far
as Vienna was called Danubius, while the
lower part to its entrance in the Black Sea
was named Ister.

DAPHNE (-es). (1) Daughter of the river-
god Peneus, in Thessaly, was pursued by
Apollo, who was charmed by her beauty;
but as she was on the point of being overtaken
by him, she prayed for aid, and was meta-
morphosed into a laurel-tree (Ja^i-*}), which
became in consequence the favourite tree of
Apollo. — (2) A beautiful spot, 5 miles S. of
Antioch in Syria, to which it formed a sort
of park or pleasure garden. It was cele-
brated for the grove apd temple dedicated to
Apollo.

DAPHNIS (-Idis), a Sieilian shepherd, son
of Hermes (Mercury) by a nymph, was
taught by Pan to play on the flute, and was
regarded as the inventor of bucolic poetry.
A Naiad to whom he proved faithless punished
him with blindness, whereupon his father
Hermes translated bim to heaven.

DARDANI (-orum), a people in Upper
Moesia, occupying part of Illyricum.

DARDInIA (-ae). (1) A district of the
Troad, lying along the Hellespont, S. W. of
Abydos, and adjacent to the territory of
Ilium. Its people (Dardari) appear in the



Trojan War, under Aeneas, in close alliance
with the Trojans, with whose name theirs is
often interchanged, especially by the Roman
poets. — (2) A city in this district. See Dar-
danus. No. 2.

DARDANUS (-i). (1) Son of Zeus (Jupi-
ter) and Electra, the mythical ancestor of
the Trojans, and through them of the Ro-
mans. The Greek traditions usually made
him a king in Arcadia, from whence he emi-
grated first to Samothrace, uid afterwards to
Asia, where he received a ^act of land from
king Teucer, on whi6h he built the town of
Dardania. His grandson Tros removed to
Troy the Palladiimi, which had belonged to
his grandfather. According to the Italian
traditions, Dardanus was the son of Cory-
thus, an Etriiscan prince of Corythus (Ck)rto-
na) ; and, as in the Greek tradition, he
afterwards emigrated to Phrygia. — (2) Also
Da&damtjm and -ivm, a Greek city in the
Troad on the Hellespont, 12 Roman miles
from Dium, built by Aeolian colonists, at
some distance from the site of the ancient
city Dardania. From Dardanus arose the
name of the Castles of the Dardanelles, after
which the Hellespont is now called.

DARES (-etis), a priest of Hephaestus
(Vulcan) at Troy, mentioned in the Iliad, to
whom was ascribed in antiquity an Iliad,
believed to be more ancient than the Homeric
poems. This work, which was undoubtedly
the composition of a sophist, is lost; but
there is extant a Latin work in prose in 44
chapters, on the destruction of Troy, bearing
the title Daretis Phrygii d^ Excidio Trqjae
Eistoria, and purporting to be a translation



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DARIUS.



138



DECIUS.



of the work of Dares by Cornelius Nepos.
But the Latin work is evidently of much later
origin ; and it is supposed by some to have
been written even as late as the 12th century.
DARIUS (-i). (1) King of Persia, b.c. 521
— i85, son of Hystaspes, was one of the 7
Persian chiefs who destroyed the usurper
Smerdis. The 7 chiefs agreed that the one
of them whose horse neighed first at an ap-
pointed time and place, should become king ;
and as the horse of Darius neighed first, he
was declared king. He divided the empire
into 20 satrapies, assigning to each its amount
of tribute. A few years after his accession
the Babylonians revolted, but after a siege of
20 months, Babylon was taken by a stratagem
of ZopYRUS, about 516. He then invaded
Scythia and penetrated into the interior of
modern Russia, but after losing a large num-
ber of men by famine, and being unable to
meet with the enemy, he was obliged to re-
treat. On his return to Asia, he sent part of
his forces, under Megabazus, to subdue
Thrace and Macedonia, which thus became
subject to the Persian empire. The most
important event in the reign of Darius was
the commencement of the great war between
the Persians and the Greeks. The history of
this war belongs to the biographies of other
men. [Aristaooras, Histiaeus, Mardonius,
MiLTiAi>F,R.] In 501 the Ionian Greeks re-
volted ; they were assisted by the Athenians,
who burnt Sardis, and thus provoked the
hostility of Darius. Darius sent against the
Greeks Mtirdonius in 492, and afterwards
Datis and Artaphemes, who sustained a
memorable defeat by the Athenians at Mara-
thon, 490. Darius now resolved to call out
the whole force of his empire for the purpose
of subduing Greece ; but, after 3 years of
preparation, his attention was called off by
the rcbellian of Egj'pt. He died in 485,
leaving the execution of his plans to his son
Xerxks. — (2) King of Persia, 424 — 405,
named Ochus before his accession, and then
sumamed Nothus, or the Bastardy fi-om his
being one of the bastard sons of Artaxerxcs I.
He obtained the crown by putting his brother
Sogdianus to death, and married Parysatis, by
whom he had 2 sons^ Artaxerxes II., who
succeeded him, and Cyrus the younger. Darius
was governed by eunuchs, and the weakness
of his government was shown by repeated
insurrections of his satraps. — (3) Last king
of Persia, 336 — 331, named Codomanus be-
fore his accession, was raised to the throne
by Bagoas, after the murder of Arses. The
history of his conquest by Alexander the
Great, and of his death, is given in the life

of ALEXANnER.

DASSARETII C-orum). or DASSARITAE.



DASSARETAE (-firum), a people in Greek
lUyria on the borders of Macedonia : their
chief town was Lychnidvs on a hill, on the
N. side of the lake Lychnitis, which was so
called after the town.

DATAMES (-is), a distinguished Persian
general, a Canan by birth, was satrap of
Cilicia under Artaxerxes II. (Mnemon), but
revolted against the king. He defeated the
grenerals who were sent against him, but was
at length assassinated, b.c. 862. Cornelius
Nepos, who has written his life, calls him the
bravest and most able of all barbarian gene-
rals, except Hamilcar and Hannibal.

DATIS (-is), a Mede, commanded, along
with Artaphemes, the Persian army which
was defeated at Marathon, b.c. 490.

DATUM or DATUS (-i), a Thracian town,
on the Strymonic gulf, subject to Macedonia,
with gold mines in Mt. Pangaeus, in the
neighbourhood, whence came the proverb,
a " Datum of good things."

DAULIS (-Tdis) or DAULIA. (-ae), an
ancient town in Phocis, situated on a lofty
hill, celebrated in mythology as the residence
of the Thracian king Tereus, and as the
scene of the tragic story of Philomela and
PROCNE. Hence Daulias is the surname both
of Procne and Philomela. ,

DAUNIA. [Apulia.]

DAUNUS (-i), son of Pilunmus and Danae,
wife of Venilia, and ancestor of Tumus.

DECEBALUS (-i), a celebrated king of the
Dacians, to whom Domitian paid an annual
tribute. He was defeated by Trajan, and put
an end to his own life; whereupon Dacia
became a Roman province, A.n. lOG.

DECELEA or -Ta (-ae), a demus of Attica,
N.W. of Athens, on the borders of Boeotia,
near the sources of the Cephissus, seized and
fortified by the Spartans in the Peloponnesian
war.

. DECETIA (-ae: Desize), a city of the
Aedui, in Gallia Lugduuensis, on an island
in the Lif^r {Loire).

DECIDIUS SAXA. [Saxa.]

DECIUS (-i) MUS (MQris), P., plebeians.
(1) Consul B.C. 340 with T. Manlius Torqua-
tus, in the great Latin war. Each of the
consuls had a .vision in the night before
fighting with the Latins, announcing that the
general of one side and the army of the other
were devoted to death. The consuls there-
upon agreed that the one whose wing first
began to waver should devote himself and the
army of the enemy to destruction. Decius
commanded the left wing, which began to
give way ; whereupon he devoted himself and
the army of the enemy to destruction, then
rushed into the thickest of the enemy, and
was slain, leaving the victory to the Romans.



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DECTUS.



139



DELPHI.



— (2) Son of the preceding, 4 times consnl,
imitated the example of his father hy devot-
ing himself to death at the battle of Senti-
num, B.C. 295. — (3) Son of No. 2, consul
279, Jn the -war against Pyrrhus.

DECiUS (-i), Roman emperor, a.d. 249 —
251, a native of Pannonia, and the successor
of Philippus, whom he slew in battle. He
fell in battle against the Goths, together with
his son, in 251. In his reign the Christians
were persecuted with great severity.

DECUMATES AGRI. [AoHi Decumates.]

DEIANIRA (-ae), daughter of Althaea and
Oeneus, and sister of Meleager. Achelous
and Hercules both loved Deianira, and
fought for the possession of her. Hercules
was victorious, and she became his wife. She
was the unwilling cause of her husband's
death by presenting him with the poisoned
robe which the centaur Nessus gave her. In
despair she put an end to her own life. For
details, see Hercules.

DEIDAMIa (-ae), daughter of Lycomedes,
in the island of Scyrus. When Achilles was
concealed there in maiden's attire, she be-
cfimc by him the mother of Pyrrhua or
Neoptolcmus.

DEIOCES (-is), first king of Media, after
the Medes had thrown off the supremacy of
the Assyrians, reigned b.c. 709 — 656. He
built the city of Ecbatana, which he made
the royal residence. He was succeeded by
his son, PnRAonTES.

DfilONIDES (-ae), son of Deione, by
Apollo, i.e., Miletus.

DEIOTARUS (-i), Tetrarch of Galatia, ad-
hered to the Romans in their wars against
Mithridates, and was rewarded by the senate
xrith the titie of king. In the civil war he
sided with Pompey, and was present at the
battle of Pharsalia, b.c 48. He is remark-
able as having been defended by Cicero before
Caesar, in the house of the latter at Rome, in
the speech {pro Rege Deiotaro) still extant.

DElPHOBfi (-es), the Sibyl at Cumae,
daughter of Glaucus. [Sibylla.]

DfilPHOBUS (-i), son of Priam and He-
cuba, who married Helen after the death of
Paris. On the capture of Troy by the Greeks
he was slain and fearfully mangled by
Menelaus.

DELIUM (-i), a town on the coast of
Boeotia, in the territory of Tanagra, near the
Attic frontier, named after a temple of
Apollo similar to that at Delos. Here the
Athenians were defeated by the Boeotians,
B.C. 424.

DELITJS (-i) and DELIA (-ae), surnames
of Apollo and Artemis (Diana) respectively,
firom the island of Dklos.

D£L0S or D£LUS (-i), the smallest of the



islands called Cyclades, in the Aegean Sea.
According to a legend, it was called out of
the deep by the trident of Poseidon (Neptune),
but was a floating island until Zeus (Jupiter),
fastened it by adamantine chains to the
bottom of the *ea, that it might be a secure
resting-place to Leto (Latona) for the birth of
Apollo and Artemis (Diana), Hence it
became the most holy seat of the worship of
Apollo. We learn from history that Delos
was peopled by Ionians,'for whom it was the
chief centre of political and religious union,
in the time of Homer. It was afterwards
the common treasury of the Greek confede-
racy for carrying on the war with Persia
but the treasury was afterwards transferred
to Athens. It was long subject to Athens ;
but it possessed an extensive commerce
which was increased by the downfal of
Corinth, when Delos became the chief empo-
rium for the trade in slaves. The city of
Delos stood on the W. side of the island at
the foot of Mt. Cynthus (whence the god's
surname of Cynthius). It contained a temple
of Leto, and the great temple of Apollo.
With this temple were connected games,
called Delia, which were celebrated every 4
years, and were said to have been founded by
Theseus. A like origin is ascribed to the
sacred embassy {Theoria), which the Athe-
nians sent to Delos every year. The greatest
importance was attached to the preservation
of the sanctity of the island ; and it» sanctity
secured it, though wealthy and unfortified,
from plunder.

DELPHI (-6rum : Kastri), a small town in
Phocis, but one of the most celebrated in
Greece, on account of its oracle of Apollo. It
was situated on a steep declivity on the S.
slope of Mt. Parnassus, and its site resembled
the cavea of a great theatre. It was shut in
on the N. by a barrier of rocky mountains,
which were cleft in the centre into 2 great
cliffs with peaked summits, between which
issued the waters of the Castalian spring.
It was regarded as the central point of the
whole earth, and was hence called the " navel
of the earth." It was originally called Pytho,
by which name it is alone mentioned in
Homer. Delphi was colonised at an early
period by Doric settlers from the neighbour-
ing town of Lycor6a, on the heights of Par-
nassus. The government was in the hands
of a few distinguished families of Doric origin.
From them were taken the chief magistrates
and the priests. The temple of Apollo con-
tained immense treasures ; for not only were
rich offerings presented to it by kings and
private persons, but many of the Greek states
had in the temple separate thesauri, in which
they deposited, for the sake of security, many



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DEMETER.



of their valuable treasures. In the centre of
the temple there was a small opening in the
ground, from which, from time to time, an
intosdcating vapour arose. Over this chasm
there stood a tripod, on which the priestess,
called Pythia, took her seat whenever the
oracle was to be consulted. The words which
she uttered after exhaling the vapour were
believed to contain the revelations of Apollo.
They were carefully written down by the
priests, and afterwards communicated in
hexameter verse to the persons who had come
to consult the oracle. If the Pythia spoke in
prose, her words were immediately turned
into verse by a poet employed for the purpose.
The oracle is said to have been discovered by
its having thrown into convulsions some goats
which had strayed to the mouth of the cave.
The Pythian games were celebrated at Delphi,
and it was one of the 2 places of meeting of
the Amphictyonic council.

DELTA. [Aeoyptus.]

D£MADES (.is), an Athenian orator, who
belonged to the Macedonian party, and was a
bitter enemy of Demosthenes. He was put
to death by Antipater in b. c. 318.

DEMARATUS or DiMABATUS (-i). (1)
King of Sparta, reigned from about b. c. 510
to 491. He was deposed by his colleague
Cleomenes, b.c. 491, and thereupon repaired
to the Persian coast, where he was kindly
received by Darius. He accompanied Xerxes
in his ii^asion of Greece, and recommended
the king not to rely too confidently upon his
countless hosts. — (2) A merchant noble of
Corinth, who settled afterwards in Etruria,
und became the father of Anms and Lucumo
(Tarquinius Priscius).

DEMfiTER, called CERES (-^ris) by the Ro-
mans, one of the great divinities of the Greeks,
was the goddess of the earth, and her name
probably signified Mother-Earth {irn /u^mj).
She was the protectress of agriculture and of
all the fruits of the earth. She was the
daughter of Cronus (Saturn) and Rhea, and
Hsterof Zeus (Jupiter), by whom she became



Online LibraryWilliam SmithA smaller classical dictionary of biography, mythology, and geography ... → online text (page 27 of 90)