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Caesar and of Augustus. In order to collect
materials for his history, he travelled over a
great part of £ irope and Asia, and lived a

long time at Rome. His work was entitled
Bibliotheea Historical The Historical Library^
and was an universal history, embracing th«
period from the earliest mythical ages down
to the beginning of Caesar's Gallic wars. Of
the 40 books into which the work was
divided, 15 have come down to us entire,
namely, the first 5 books, containing the
early history of the Eastern nations, the
Egyptians, Aethiopians, and Greeks ; and
books 11 to 20 inclusive, containing the
history from the 2hd Persian war, b.c. 480,
down to 302. Of the rest, only fragments
have been preserved. In his writings we fijid
neither method, accuracy, nor judgment. As
an authority he cannot be relied upon. — (3) Of
Tyre, .a peripatetic philosopher, a disciple and
follower of Critolaiis, whom he succeeded as
the head of the Peripatetic school at Athens.
He flourished b.c. 110.

niODOTUS (-i), a Stoic philosopher, and
a teacher of Cicero, in whose house he died
BX3. 59.

DlOGENfiS (-is).* (1) Of Apollonia, in
Crete, a celebrated Ionic philosopher, and a
pupil of Anaximenes, lived in the 5th cen-
tury B.C. — (2) The Babylonian, a Stoic
philosopher, was a pupil of Chrysippus, and
succeeded Zeno of Tarsus as the head of the
Stoic school at Athens. He was one of the 3
ambassadors sent by the Athenians to Rome
in B.C. 165. — (3) The celebrated Cynic phi-
losopher was bom at Sinope, in Pontus,
about B.C. 412. His youth is said to have
been spent in dissolute extravagance ; but at
Athens his attention was arrested by the cha-
racter of Antisthenes, and he soon became
distingtiished by his austerity and moroseness.
In summer he used to roll in hot sand, and
in winter to embrace statues covered with
snow ; he wore coarse clothing, lived on the
plainest food, slept in porticoes or in the
streets ; and finally, according to the common
story, took up his residence in a tub belong-
ing to the Mctroum, or temple of the Mother
of the Gods. On a voyage to Aegina he was
taken prisoner by pirates, and carried to
Crete to be sold as a slave. Here, when he
was asked what business he understood, he
answered, "How to command men." He
was purchased by Xeniades, of Corinth, who
gave him his freedom, and entrusted him
with the care of his children. During his
residence at Corinth his celebrated interview
with Alexander the Great is said to have
taken place. The conversation between them
begrun by the king's saying, " I am Alexander
the Great ;" to which the philosopher replied,
" And I am Diogenes the Cynic." Alexander
then asked whether he could oblige him in
any way, and received no answer, except,


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" Yes ; you can stand out of the sunshine.*'
We are further told that Alexander admired
Diogenes so much that .he said, '* If I were
not Alexander, I should wish to be Diogenes."
Diogenes died at Corinth, at the age of
nearly 90, b.c. 823. — (4) LAKHiius, of
Laerte, in Cilicia, probably lived in the 2nd
century after Christ. He wrote the Lives of
the Philosophers in 10 books, which work is
still extant.

DIOMEDEAE INSULAE, 5 small islands
in the Adriatic sea, N. of the promontory
Garganum, in Apulia, named after Diomedes.
[DioMEDKS.] The largest of these, called
Diomedea Insula or Trimerus (TVemt^'), was
the place where Julia, the granddaughter of
Augustus, died.

DiOMfiDES (-is). (1) Son of Tydeus and
Deipyle, whence he is constantly called Ty-
dldes, succeeded Adrastus as king of Argos.
— Romeric Story, Tydeus fell in the expe-
dition against Thebes, while his son Diomedes
was yet a boy ; but Diomedes was afterwards
one of the Epigoni who took Thebes. He
went to Troy with 80 ships, and was next to
Achilles, the bravest hero in the Greek army.
He enjoyed the especial protection of Athena
(Minerva) ; he fought against the most dis.
tinguished of the Trojans, such as Hector
and Aeneas, and even with the gods who
espoused the cause of the Trojans. He thus
wounded both Aphrodite (Venus), and Ares
(Mars). — Later Stories. Diomedes and
Ulysses carried oflf the palladium from the
city of Troy, since it was believed that Troy
could not be taken so long as the palladium
was within its walls. After the capture of
Troy, he returned to Argos, wliere he found
his wife Aegialea living in adultery with
Hippolytus, or, according to others, with
Cometes or Cyllabarus. This misfortune
befell him through the anger of Aphrodite.
He therefore quitted Argos, and went to
Aetolia. He subsequently attempted to re-
. turn to Argos ; but on his way home a storm
threw him on the coast of Daunia, in Italy.
He married Evippe, the daughter of Daunus,
and settled in Daunia, where he died at an
advanced age. He was buried in one of the
islands off Cape Crarganum, which were
called after him the Diomedean islands. His
companions were inconsolable at his loss, and
were metamorphosed into birds (Aves Dio-
medeae), which, mindful of their origin,
used to fly joyfully towards the Greek ships,
but to avoid those of the Romans. A number
of towns in the E. part of Italy were believed
to have been fotmded by Diomedes. A plain
of Apulia, near Salapia and Canusium, was
called Diomedei Oampi, after him. — (2) King
of the Bistones, in Thrace, killed by Hercules

on aecoimt of his mares, which he fed with
human flesh.

DION (-5nis), a Syracusan, son of Hippa-
rinus, and a relation of Dionysius, who
treated him with the greatest distinction,
and employed him in many services of trust
and confidence. On the visit of Plato to
Syracuse, Dion became an ardent disciple of
the philosopher ; and when the younger Diony-
sius succeeded his father, Dion watched with
undisguised contempt his dissolute conduct,
and so became an object of suspicion to the
youthful tyrant. Dion, aided by Plato, en-
deavoured to withdraw him from his vicious
courses, but failed, and was banished. He
then retired to Athens. Plato visited Syra-
cuse a third time, that he might secure the
recall of Dion ;' but failing- in this, Dion de-
termined on expelling the tyrant by force.
In this he succeeded ; but since his own con-
duct towards the Syracusans was equally
tyrannical, a conspiracy was formed against
him, and he was assassinated in his own
house B.C. 358.

DION CASSiUS (-i), the historian, son
of a Roman senator; bom a.d. 155, at Ni-
caea, in Bithynia. He held several important
offices under Commodus, Caracalla, and
Alexander Severus, 180 — 229, and after-
wards retired to Campania ; subsequently he
returned to Nicaea, his native town, where
he passed the remainder of his life, and died.
The chief work of Dion was a History of
Rome, in 80 books, from the landing of
Aeneas in Italy to a.d. 229. Unfortunately,
only a comparatively small portion of this
work has come down to us entire. From the
36th book to the 54th the work is extant
complete, and embraces the history from the
wars of Lucullus and Cn. Pompey against
Mithridates, down to the death of Agrippa,
B.C. 10. Of the remaining books we have
only the epitomes made by Xiphilinus and
others. Dion Cassius consulted original
authorities, and displayed g^i'eat judgment and
discrimination in the use of them.

DION CHRYSOSTOMUS (-i), that is, the
golden-mouthed, a surname given him on
account of his eloquence, was bom at Prusa,
in Bithynia, about the middle of the first
century of our era. He was well educated,
and increased his knowledge by travelling.
The emperors Nerva and Trajan entertained
for him the highest esteem. He was the
most eminent of the Gteek rhetoricians and
sophists in the time 'of the Roman empire.
There are extant 80 of his orations ; but they
are rather essays on political, moral, and
philosophical subjects than real orations, of
which they have only the form.


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DIOXE (-es), a female Titan, by Zeus
(Jupiter), by whom she became the mother of
Aphrodite (Venus), who is hence called Dio-
naea, and sometimes even IHone. Hence
Caesar is called Dionaeus Caesar, because he
claimed descent from Venus.

DIONTsiUS (-i). (1) The Elder, tyrant
of Syracuse, son of Hermoorates, bom b.c.
.430. He began life as a clerk in a public
office. Prompted by ambition, and pos-
sessing natural talent, he gradually raised
himself to distinction; and in b.c. 405,
though only 25 years of age, was appointed
sole general at Syracuse, with full powers.
Prom this period we may date the commence-
ment of his reign, or tyranny, which con-
tinned without interruption for 38 years.
He strengthened himself by the increase of
the army, and by converting the island Or-
tygia into a fortified residence for himself ;
and when thoroughly prepared, commenced
the execution of his ambitious plans. These
embraced the subjugation of the rest of
Sicily, the humiliation of Carthage, and the
annexation of part of Southern Italy to his
dominions. In all these projects he succeeded.
Daring the last 20 years of his life he pos-
sessed an amount of power and influence far
exceeding that enjoyed by any other Greek
before the time of Alexander. His death
took place at Syracuse, 367, in the middle of
a war with Carthage. He was succeeded by
bis eldest 9on, Dionysius the younger. The
character of Dionysius has been drawn in the
blackest colours by many ancient writers ; he
appears, indeed, to have become a type of a
tyrant, in its worst sense. In his latter
years he became extremely suspicious, and
appreher^tive of treachery, even from his
nearest firiends, and is said to have adopted
the most excessive precautions to guard
against it. He buUt the terrible prison called
Lautomiae, which was cut out o( the solid
rock in the part of Syracuse named Epipolae.
Dionysius was fond of literature and the arts,
and frequently entertained at his court men
distinguished in literature and philosophy,
among whom was the philosopher Plato. He
was himself a poet, and repeatedly contended
for the prize of tragedy at Athens. —
(2) The Younger, son of the preceding, suc-
ceeded his father as tyrant of Syracuse, b.o. 867.
He was at this time under 30 years of age ;
he had been brought up at his father's court
in idleness and luxury, and was studiously
precluded from taking any part in public
affairs. The ascendancy which Dion, and
through his means Plato, obtained for a time
over his mind was undermined by flatterers
and the companions of his pleasures. Dion,
who had been banished by Dionysius, re-

turned to Sicily in 357, at the head of a small
force, with the avowed object of dethroninij
him. Dionysius finding that he could not
successfully resist Dion, sailed away to Italy,
and thus lost the sovereignty after a reign of
12 years, 356. He now repaired to Locri,
the native city of his mother, Doris, where
he was received in the most friendly man-
ner ; but he made himself tyrant of the ctty,
and treated the inhabitants with the utmost
cruelty. After remaining at Locri 10 years,
he obtained possession again of Syracuse,
where he reigned for the next 3 years until
Timoleon came to Sicily to deliver the Greek
cities there from the dominion of the tyrants.
Being unable to resist Timoleon, he surren-
dered the citadel into the hands of the latter,
on condition of being allowed to depart in
safety to Corinth, 343. Here he spent the
remsdnder of his life in a private condition ;
and according to some writers was reduced to
support himself by keeping a school. — (3)
Of HALiCAaNASsus, a celebrated Greek rheto-
rician, lived many years at Rome in the time
of Augustas, and died b.c. 7. His principal
work was a history of Borne in 22 books,
containing the history of the city from the
mythical times down to b.c 264. Of this
work only the first 1 1 books have come down
to us. These prove that he possessed con-
siderable artistic skill as well as rhetorical
power, but was deficient both as an historian
and as a statesman. He also wrote various
rhetorical and critical works, which abound
with the most exquisite remarks and criti-
cisms on the works of the classical writers of
Greece. Of these several have been pre-
served. — (4) Of HMticlea, a pupil of Zeno,
at first a Stoic and afterwards an Elentic

DIONYSUS (-i), the youthful, beautiful,
but effeminate god of wine. He is also called
both by Greeks and Romans Bacchvs, that is,
the noisy or riotous god, which was originally
only an epithet or surname of Dionysus. He
was the son of Zeus( Jupiter) and Semele, the
daughter of Cadmus of Thebes. Before his
birth, Semele was persuaded by Hera (Juno),
who appeared to her in disguise, to request
the father of the gods to appear to her in the
same glory in which he approached his own
wife Hera. Zeus unwillingly complied, and
appeared to her in thunder and lightning.
Semele, being seiaed by the flames, gave pre-
mature birth to a child ; but Zeus saved the
child, sewed him up in his thigh, and thus
preserved him till he came to maturity. After
his birth Dionysus was brought up by the
nymphs of Mt. Nysa, who were rewarded by
Zeus by being placed as Hyades among the
stars. When he had grown up, Hera drot©

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him mad, in wbich state he -wandered through

Dionysus (Bacchus) . ( From a Faiotlng at FompeiL)
various parts of the earth. He first went to

Egypt* thence proceeded through Syria, then
< traversed all Asia, teaching the inhabitants of
the different countries of Asia the cultivation
of the vine and introducing among them the
elements of civilisation. The most famous
part of his wanderings in Asia is his expe-
dition to India, which is said to have lasted
several years. On his return to Europe, he
passed through Thrace, but was ill received
I by Lycurgus, king of the Edones. [LTcraaus.]
I He then returned to Thebes, where he com-
pelled the women to quit their houses, and to
celebrate Bacchic festivals on Mt. Cithaeron,
and fearfully punished Pentheus, who at-
tempted to prevent his worship. [Pentheus.]
Dionysus next went to Argos, where the
people first refused to acknowledge him, but
after punishing the women with frenzy, he
' was recognised as a god. His last feat was
performed on a voyage from Icaria to Naxos.
He hired a ship which belonged to Tyrrhenian
I pirates ; but the men, instead of landing at
I Naxos, steered toward Asia, to sell him there
as a slave. Thereupon the god changed the
mast and oars into serpents, and himself into
a lion ; ivy grew around the vessel, and the
sound of flutes was heard on every side ; the
' sailors were seized with madness, leaped into
1 the sea, and were metamorphosed into dol-
' phins. After he had thus gradually established
I his divine nature throughout the world, he

Dioaysug (Bacchus) drawn hj Tigers. (Museum Capitolinum, toL 4, tav. ».)

took his mother out of Hades, called her I Various mythological beings are described as
'AiyOne, and rose with her into Olympus. — I the offspring of Dionysus : but among the

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women who won his lore none is more famous
in ancient story than Ariadne. [Amadnb.] —
The worship of Dionysus was no part of the
original religion of Greece. In Homer he
does not appear as one of the great divinities ;
he is there simply described as the god who
teaches man the preparation of wine. As the
cultivation of the vine spread in Greece, the
worship of Dionysus likewise spread farther ;
and after the time of Alexander's expedition
to India, the celebration of the Bacchic festivals
assumed more and more their wild and dis-
solute character. Dionysus may be taken as
the representative of the productive and in-
toxicating power of nature. Since wine is
the natural symbol of this power, it is called
" the fruit of Dionysus." On account of the
close connexion between the cultivation of the
soil and the earlier stages of civilisation, he
is regarded as a lawgiver and a lover of peace.
As the Greek drama had grown out of the
dithyrambic choruses at the festival of Diony-
sus, he was also regarded as the god of tragic
art, and as the protector of theatres. Respect-
ing his festivals and the mode of their cele-
bration, and especially the introduction and
suppression of his worship at Rome, see Diet.

of Ant. art. Dionysia. — In the earliest times
the Graces or Charites were the companions of
Dionysus, but afterwards we find him accom-
panied in his expeditions and travels by Bac-
chantic women, called Lenae, Maenades, Thy-
iades, Mimallones, Clodones, Bassarae or Bas-
sarides, all of whom are represented in works
of art as raging with madness or enthusiasm,
their heads thrown backwards, with dishevel-
led hair, and carrying in their hands thyrsus-
staffs (entwined with ivy, and headed with
pine-cones), cymbals, swords, or serpents.
Sileni, Pans, satyrs, centaurs, and other
beings of a like kind, are also the constant
companions of the god. The animal most
commonly sacrificed to Dionysus was the ram.
Among the things sacred to him, we may
notice the vine, ivy, laurel, and asphodel :
the dolphin, serpent, tiger, lynx, panther,
and ass. In works of art he appears as a
youthful god. The form of- his body is
manly, but approaches the female form by
its softness and roundness. The expression
of the countenance is languid, and his atti-
tude is easy, like that of a man who is
absorbed in sweet thoughts, or slightly in-

Dionyaus (Bacchus) enthroned. (Pouce, Bains de Titus, No. 12.)

DtoSCORIDfiS (-is) PEDXCIUS or PEDI- j sician, who probably Uved in the 2nd century
NIUS, of Anazarba, in Cilicia, a Greek phy- | of the Christian era, the author of an extant

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work on Materia Medica, which for many
ages was received as a standard produc-

DIOSCtTRI (-6nim), that is, sons of Zeus
(Jupiter), the well-known heroes Castor and
Pollux, called by the Greeks Polydeuces.
The two brothers were sometimes called
Cabto&es by the Romans. According to Homer
they were the sons of Leda and Tyndareus,
king of Lacedaemon, and consequently bro-
thers of Helen. Hence they are often called
by the patronymic TyndHridae. Castor was
famous for his skill in taming and managing
horses, and Pollux for his skill in boxing.
Both had disappeared from the earth before
the Greeks went against Troy. Although
they were buried, says Homer, yet they came
to life every other day, and they enjoyed
divine honours. — According to other tradi-
tions, both were the sons of Zeus and Leda,
and were born at the same time with their
sister Helen out of an egg. [Leda.] Accord-
ing to others again, Pollux and Helen only
were children of Zeus, and Castor was the son
of Tyndareus. Hence Pollux was immortal,
while Castor was subject to old age and death
like other mortals. The fabulous life of the
DioscTiri is marked by 3 great events. 1 . Their
expedition against Athens, where they rescued
their sister Helen, who had been carried off
by Theseus, and placed in Aphidnae, which
they took. 2. Their part in the expedition
of the Argonauts, during which Pollux killed,
in a boxing-match, Amycus, king of the Be-
bryces. During the Argonautic expedition they
founded the town of Dioscurias, in Colchis.
3. Their battle with the sons of Aphareus, Idas
and Lynceus. Castor, the mortal, fell by the
hands ot Id{«s, but Pollux slew Lynceus, and
Zeus killed Idas by a flash of lightning. At
the request of PoUxix, Zeus allowed him to
share his brother's fate, and to live alter-
nately one day under the earth, and the other
in the heavenly abodes of the gods. Accord-
ing to a different form of the story, Zeus re.
warded the attachment of the two brothers
by placing them among the stars as Oemini, —
These heroic youths received divine honours
at Sparta, from whence their worship spread
over other parts of Greece, and over Sicily
and Italy. They were worshipped more
especially as the protectors of sailors, for
Poseidon (Neptune) had rewarded their
brotherly love by giving them power over
winds and waves. Hence they are called
by Horace, " Fratres Helenae, lucida si-
dera." Whenever they appeared they were
seen riding on magnificent white steeds.
They were regarded as presidents of the
public games, as the inventors of the war
dance, and the patrons of poets and bards.

They are usually represented in works of
art as youthful horsemen, with eg^-shaped
helmets, crowned with stars, and with spears
in their hands. — At Rome, the worship of
the Dioscuri was introduced at an early time.
They were believed to have assisted the Bo-

Dioscuri (Cwtor and Pollux). (From a Coin in the
firitish Museum.}

mans against the Latins in the battle of Lake
Regillus; and the dictator A. Postumiua
Albinus during the battle vowed a temple to
them. This temple was erected in the forum,
opposite the temple of Vesta. The equites
regarded the Dioscuri as their patrons, and
went every year, on the 15th of July, in a
magnificent procession on horseback, to visit
their temple.

DioBCuri (Castor and Pollux). (MUlin. Oal. Myth.,
pi. 108.)

DIRAE (-arum), a name of the Furiae.


DIRCE (-es), wife of Lycus, who married
her, after divorcing his former wife Antifipe.
Dirce treated Antiope with great cruelty;
and accordingly, when Amphion and Zethus,
the sons of Antiope, by Zeus (Jupiter), ob-
tained possesion of Thebes, they took a
signal vengeance upon Dirce. They tied her
to a wild bull, which dragged her about till
she perished. They then threw her body
into a fountain near Thebes, which was
henceforth called the fountain of Dirce. The

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adjective Dircaeus is frequently used as
equivalent to Boeotian.

Dirce. broup at iNapie*. (Maffei, pi. 48.)

DIS {-gen. Ditis), contracted from Dives,
a name sometimes given to Pluto, and hence
also to the lower world.


DIUM. (1) An important town in Mace-
donia on the Thermaic gulf. — (2) A town
in Chalcidice in Macedonia, on the Strymonic
Ifulf. ^

DIVICO (-onis), the leader of the Hel-
vetians in the war against L. Cassius in b.c.
107, was at the head of the embassy sent to
Julius Caesar, nearly 50 years later, b.c. 58,
when he was preparing to attack the Hel-

DIVITIACU8 (-i), an Aeduan noble and
brother of Dunmorix, was a warm adherent
of the Romans and of Caesar, who, in con-
sideration of his entreaties, pardoned the
treason of Dunmorix in b.c. 58.

DIVODDRUM (-i: Metz), subsequently
Mediomatrici, and still later Metis or Mettis,
the capital of the Mediomatrici in Gallia

DIVONA. [Cadurci.]

DOBERUS (-i), a town in Paeonia in Ma-
cedonia, E. of the river Echedorus.

DODONA (-ac), the most ancient oracle in
Greece, situated in Epirus, founded by the
Pelasgians, and dedicated to Zeus (Jupiter).
The responses of the oracle were given from
lofty oaks or beech trees. The will of the
god was declared by the wind rustling through

the trees, and in order to render the sounds
more distinct, brazen vessels were suspended
on the branches of the trees, which being set in
motion by the wind came in contact with one
another. These sounds were interpreted in
early times by men, but afterwards by aged
women. The priests, who had the manage,
raent of the temple were called Selli or HellL
The oracle of Dodona had less influence in
historical times than, in the heroic age, and
was supplanted to a great extent by the
oracle of Delphi.

DOLABELLA (-ae), the name of a cele-
brated patrician family of the Cornelia gem.
Those most deserving of notice are : — (1) Cn.
Cornelius Dolabella, consul b.c. 81, whom
the young Julius- Caesar accused in 77 of
extortion in his province. — (2) Cw. CoRMKLrcs
Dolabblla, praetor urbanus 81. WithVerres
as Lis legate, he plundered his province in
Cilicia, and upon his return was accused,
betrayed by Verres, and condemned. — (3) P.
I Cornelius Dolabeli^, the son-in-law of
I Cicero, whose daughter Tullia he married in
I 51. He was one of the most profligate men
I of his age, and his conduct caused Cicero
great uneasiness. On the breaking out of the
civil war he joined Caesar and fought on his
side at the battle of Pharsalia (48), and was
raised by him to the consulship in 44.- He
afterwards received from Antony the pro-
vince of Syria. On his way to Ms province

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