William Smith.

A smaller classical dictionary of biography, mythology, and geography ... online

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he plundered the cities of Greece and Asia
Minor, in consequence of which the senate
sent against him Cassius, who took Caesarea,
in which Dolabella had taken refuge. That
he might libt fall into the hands of his ene-
mies, he committed suicide, 43.

DOLON (-onis), a spy of the Trojans in the
Trojan war, slain by Diomedes.

DOLOPES (-um), a powerful people in
Thessaly, dwelt on the Enipeus, and fought
before Troy. At a later time they dwelt at
the foot of Mt. Pindus ; and their country,
called D8l8pIa, was reckoned part of Epirus.
DOMITIANUS (-i), or with his fuU name
T. Flavius Domitianus Augustus, Roman
emperor a.d. 81 — 96, was the younger son of
Vespasian, and was born at Rome a.d. 51.
During the reigns of Vespasian (69 — 79) and of
his brother Titus (79 — 81) he was not allowed
to take any part in public affairs. During the
first few years of his reign his government
was much better than had been expected.
But his conduct was soon changed for the
worse. His wars were mostly unfortunate ;
and his want of success both wounded his
vanity and excited his fears, and thus led
him to delight in the misfortunes and suf-
ferings of others. In 83 he undertook an
expedition against the Chatti, which was at-

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tended with no result, though on his retnm
to Rome in the following year, he celebrated
a triumph, and assumed the name of Ger-
manicus. In 85 Agricola, whose success and
merits excited his jealousy, was recalled to
Rome. [Agricola.] After his war with the
Dacians, which terminated very unfavourably
[Dkcebalits], he gave full sway to his cruelty
and tyranny. The silent fear which prevailed
in Rome and Italy during the latter years of
Domltian's reign is briefly but energetically
described by Tacitus in the introduction to
his Life of Agricola, and his vices and tyranny
are exposed in the strongest colours by the
withering satire of Juvenal. Many con-
spiracies had been formed against his life,
which had been disco vere<f; but he was at
length murdered by the connivance of his
wife, Doraitia.




DdMITIUS CORBClO. [Corbulo.]
DOMITIUS ULPllNUS. [Ulpianus.]
DOnATUS (.i).— (1) A celebrated gram,
marian, who taught at Rome in the middle of
the 4th century, and was the preceptor of
St. Jerome. His most famous work is a
systeni of Latin Grammar, which has formed
the groundwork of most elementary treatises
upon the same subject, from his own time to
the present day. — (2) Tibkrius CLAunrus, the
author of a life of Virgil in 25 chapters,
prefixed to many editions of Virgil.

d6n0SA or DONOSIA (-ae), one of the
smaller Sporades in the Aegean sea, near
Naxos. It produced green marble, whence
Virgil calls the island viridia. Under the
Roman emperors it was used as a place of

DORA (-ae), DORUS, DORUM (-1), called
Dor in the O. T., the most southerly town of
Phoenicia on the coast, on a kind of penin-
sula at the foot of Mt. Carmel.

DORIS (-Idis). (1) Daughter of Oceanus
and Thetis, wife of her brother Nereus, and
mother of the Nereides. The Latin poets
sometimes use the name of this divinity for
the sea itself. — (2) One of the Nereides,
daughter of the preceding. — (3) A small and
mountainous country in Greece, formerly
called Dry5pi8, bounded by Thessaly on the
N., by Aetolia on the W., by Locris on the 8.,
and by Phocis on the £. It contained 4
towns. Boom, Citinium, Erineus, and Pindus,
which formed the Dorian tetrapolis. These
towns never attained any consequence ; but
the country is of importance as the home
of the Dorians (Dores), one of the great
Hellenic races, who conquered Peloponnesus.

It was related that Aegimius, king of the
Dorians, had been driven from his dominions
by the Lapithae, but was reinstated by
Hercules; that the children of Hercules
hence took refuge in this land when they
had been expelled ttom. Peloponnesus; and
that It was to restore them to their rights
that the Dorians' invaded Peloponnesus. Ac
cordingly, the conquest of Peloponnesus by
the Dorians is usually called the Return of
the Heraclidae. [Hbracudae.] The Dorians
were divided into three tribes : the ffylleis,
Pamphyli, and Dymanes. They were the
ruling class throughout Peloponnesus; the
old inhabitants were reduced to slavery, or
became subjects of the Dorians under the
name of Perioeci. — (4) A district in Asia
Minor consisting of the Dorian settlements
on the coast of Caria and the neighbouring
islands. 6 of these towns formed a league,
called the Dorian hexapolis, consisting of
Lindus, lalysus, and Camlrus in the island of
Rhodes, the island of Cos, and Cnidus and
Halicarnassus on the mainland.

DORISCUS (-1), a town in Thrace at the
mouth of the Hebrus, in the midst of an ex-
tensive plain of the same name, where Xerxes
reviewed his vast forces.

DORUS (-1), a son of Hellen, and the
mythical ancestor of the Dorians.

DORtLAEUM (-i), a town in Phrygia
Epictetus, on the river Thymbris, with warm
baths, which are used at the present day.

ancient Latin comic dramatist, censured oy
Horace on account of the exaggerated buf-
foonery of his characters.

DRABESCUS (-1), a town in the district
Edonis in Macedonia, on the Strymon.

DRACON (-6nis), the author of the first
written code of laws at Athens. In this code
he afl^ed the penalty of death to almost all
crimes — to petty thefts, for instance, as well
as to sacrilege and murder — which gave
occasion to the remark that his laws were
written not in ink, but in blood. His legis-
lation is placed in b.c. 621. After the legis-
lation of Solon (594), most of the laws of
Dracon ffeU into disuse.

DRANGIlNA (-ae), a part of Ariana,
bounded by Gedrosia, Carmania, Arachosia,
and Aria. It sometimes formed a separiu*
satrapy, but was more usually united to the
satrapies either of Arachosia or of Gedrosia,
or of Aria. In the N. of the country dwelt
the Dranoab, a warlike people, from whom
the province derived its name. The Ariaspae
inhabited the S. part of the province.

DRAVUS (-i : Drave), a tributary of the
Danube, flowing through Noricum and
Pannonia; and after receiving the Muriua

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{Muhr)y falling into the Danube £. of Morsa

DREPANUM (4), that is, a sickle. (1) Also
D&BPANA (-orum), more rarely Drepane (-68 :
Trapani)t a seaport town in the N.W. comer
of Sicily, founded by the Carthaginians. It
was here that Anchises died, according to
Virgil. — (2) Also Drepaiie, a town in Bithy-
nia, the birth-place of Helena, mother of
Constantine the Great, in whose honour it
was called Helemopolis, and made an im-
portant place.

DRUENTIA (-ae: Durance) ^ a large and
rapid river in Gallia Narbonensis, rising in
the Alps, and flowing into the Rhone near
Avenio {Aviffnon).

DRU8ILLA (-ae).— (1) Livia (-ae), mo-
ther of the emperor Tiberius and wife of
Augustus. [LrviA.] — (2) Daughter of Ger-
manicus and Agrippina, lived in incestuous
intercourse with her brother Caligula, who
loved her most tenderly and deified her at
her decease a.d. 38. — (3) Daughter of He-
rodes Agrippa I., king of the Jews, married
Felix, the procurator of Judaea, and was
present with her husband ^hen St. Paul
preached before Felix in a.d. 60.

DRtSUS (-i), the name of a distinguished
family of the Livia gens. It is said that one
of the Livii acquired the cognomen Drusus
for himself and his descendants by having
slain in combat one Drausus, a Gallic chief-
tain ; — (1) M. Lrvnjs Dausus, tribime of the
plebs with C. Gracchus, B.C. 122. He was a
staunch adherent of the aristocracy, and
gained popularity for the senate by proposing
almost the same measures as he had opposed
when brought forward by Gracchus. He
was consul 111. — (2) M. Livius Drvsus, son
of No. 1, an eloquent orator, was tribune of
the plebs, 91. Although, like his father, he
belonged to the aristocratical party, he medi-
tated the most extensive changes in the
Roman state.' .He proposed and carried some
portion of his scheme ; but eventually his
measures became very unpopular. The senate,
perceiving the dissatisfaction of all parties,
voted that all the laws of Drusus, being
carried against the auspices, were nuU and
void from the beginning. Drusus now began
to organise a formidable conspiracy against
the government ; but one evening, as he was
entering the hall of his own house, he was
stabbed and died a few hours afterwards.
The death of Drusus destroyed the hopes of
the Socii, to whom he had promised the Roman
citizenship, and was thus immediately fol-
lowed by the Social War. — (3) Lnrius Drusus
Claudiamus, father of Livia, who was the
mother of the emperor Tiberius. He was
one of the gens Claudia, and was adopted by

a Livius Drusus. Being proscribed by tho
triumvirs (42) he put an end to his own life.
— (4) Nero Claudius Drusus, commonly
called by thfe modems Drusus Senior, to dis-
tinguish him from No. 5, was the son of Tib.
Claudius Nero and Livia, and younger bro-
ther of the emperor Tiberius. He was bora
in the house of Augfustus three months after
the marriage of Livia and Augustus, b.c. 38.
Drusus, as he grew up, was more liked by
the people than was his brother. He married
Antonia, the daughter of the triumvir, and
was greatly trusted by Augustus, who em-
ployed him in important offices. He carried
on the war against the Germans, and in the
course of 4 campaigns (b.c. 12 — 9) he ad-
vanced as far as the Albis {Elbe). In his
first campaign he dug a canal {Fossa Dru-
siana) from the Rhine near Amheim to the
Yssel, near Doesberg ; and he made use of
this canal to sail from the Rhine into the
ocean. On the return of the army from the
Elbe to the Rhine, he died in consequence of
a fracture of his leg, which happened through
a fall from his horse. — (5) Drusus Caesar,
commonly called by modem writers Drusuh
Junior, was the son of the emperor Tiberius
by his 1st wife, Yipsania. He married Livia,
the sister of Germanicus. He was poisoned
by Sejanus, the favourite of Tiberius, who
aspired to the empire, a.d. 23. — (6) Dru.
sus, second son of Germanicus and Agrippina,
also fell a victim to the ambition of Sejanus
a few years after No. 6.

DRTADES. [Nymphae.]

DRtAS (-adis) father of the Thracian king
Lycurgus, who is hence called Dryantides.

DRYMAEA (-ae) or DRYMUS (-i), a town
in Phocis, a little S. of the Cephissus.

DRTMUS (-i).— (1) See Drtmara.— <2)
A strong place in Attica, on the frontiers of

DRYMUSSA (-ae), an island off the coast
of Ionia, opposite Clazomenae.

DRl^GPE (-es), daughter of king Dryops,
was beloved by Apollo, by whom she became
the mother of Amphissus/ She was after-
wards carried off by the Hamadryades, and
became a nymph.

DRifOPES (-um), a Pelasgic people, who
dwelt first in Thessaly, from the SperchCus
to Parnassus, and afterwards in Doris, which
was called from them Dryopis. Driven out
of Doris by the Dorians, they migrated to
other countries, and settled in Peloponnesus,
Euboea, and Asia Minor.

DUBIS (-is : Boubs), a river in Gaul,
rising in M. Jurassus (Jiura), flowing past
Yesontio {Besanpon), and falling into the
Arar {Saone) near Cabillonum {Ohdlons).

DUBRIS PORTUS {Dover), a seaport town

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of the Cantli, in Britain : here was a fortress
erected by the Bomans against the Saxon
pirates. ^

DUILIUS (-1), consul b.o. 260, gained a
victory over the Carthaginian fleet by means
of grappling-irons, which drew the enemy's
Rhips towards his, and thus changed the sea-
fignt into a land.fight. This was the first
naval victory that the Romans had ever
gained, and the memory of it was perpetuated
by a column which was erected in the forum,
and adorned witn the beaks of the conquered
ships {Oolumna JRostrata.)

DULGIBINI (-orum), a people in Germany,
dwelling on the W. bank of the Weser.

DOlICHIUM. [Echinades.]

DUMNORIX (-Igis), a chieftain of the
Aedui, and brother of Divitiacus. He was
an enemy of the Romans, and was put to
death by Caesar's order, b.c. 54.


DORIUS (-i : Dttero^ Dowo), one of the
chief rivers of Spain, near Numantia, and
flowing into the Atlantic.

DUROCORTORUM (-i : RheiiM)^ the capital
of the Remi in Gallia Belgica, subsequently
called Remi.

DURONIA, a town in Samnium in Italy,
W. of the Caudine passes.

DUROTRIGES (-urn), a people in Britain,
in Dorsetshire and the W. of Somersetshire :
their chief town was Dunium {Dorchester)^

Canterbury) y a town of the Cantli in Britain,
afterwards called Cantu&ria.

dI'^MAS (.antis), father of Hecuba, who is
hence called Dpmantis.

DYME (-es) or DYMAE (-5rum), a town
in the W. of Achaia, near the coast ; one of
the 12 Achaean towns.

DYRRHACHIUM (-i : Dvrazzo), formerly
sailed Epidamnus, a town in Greek lUyria,
on a peninsula in the Adriatic sea. It was
founded by the Corcyraeans, and received the
name of Epidamnus ; but since the Romans
regarded this name a bad omen, as reminding
them of damnum^ they changed it into Dyrrha-
chium. It was the usual place of landing for
persons who crossed over from Brundisium.

PBORACUM or EBURACUM (-i : T<yrk), a
, *-^ town of the Brigantes in Britain, made
a Roman station by Agricola, and became the
3hief Roman settlement in the island. It was
both a municipium and a colony, and the resi-
dence of the Roman emperors when they
visited Britain. Here the emperors Septi-
mius Severus and Constantius Chlorus died.
EBtJDAEor HEBCDAE (.arum : Hebrides),
islands in the Western Ocean off Britain.

EBURONES (-um), a German people, who
crossed the Rhine and settled in Gallia
Belgica, between the Rhine and the Mosa

EBUR0VICE8. [Aulerci.]

EBtJSUS or EBCSUS (-i : Iviza), the
largest of the Pityusae insulae, off the £.
coast of Spain, reckoned by some writers
among the Baleares.

ECBATANA (-orum: Hamadan), a great
city, most pleasantly situated, near the foot
of Mt. Orontes, in the N. of Great Media,
was the capital of the Median kingdom, and
afterwards the summer residence of the
Persian and Pitrthian kings. It is said to
have been founded by the first king of Media,

ECETRA (-ae), an ancient town of the
Volsci, destroyed by the Romans at an early

ECHEDORUS (-i), a small river in Mace-
donia, flowing through Mygdonia, and falling
into the Thermaic gulf.

ECHEMUS (-i), king of Arcadia, slew, in
single combat, Hyllus, the son of Hercules.

ECHIDNA (-we), a monster, half woman
and half.serpent, became by Typhon the.
mother of the Chimaera, of the many.headed
dog Orthus, of the hundred-headed dragon
who guarded the apples of the Hesperides, of
the Colchian dragon, of the Sphinx, of Cer-
berus (hence called Echidnlus canw), of
Scylla, of Gorgon, of the Lernaean Hydra
{Echidna Lemaea), of the eagle which con-
sumed the liver of Prometheus, and of the
Nemean lion. She was killed in her sleep by ^
Ar^s Panoptes.

ECHINADES (-um), a group of small
islands at the mouth of the Achelous, be-
longing to Arcanania, said to have been
formed by the alluvial deposits of the Ache-
lous. They appear to have derived their
name from their resemblance to the Echinus
or sea-urchin. The largest of these islands
was named DulTcuIum, and belonged to the
kingdom' of Ulysses, who is hence called

ECHION (.6nis) (1) One of the heroes
who sprang up from the dragon's teeth sown
by Cadmus. He was the husband of Agaw
and father of Pentheus, who is hence called
EchlSmdes. — (2) Son of Hermes (Mercury)
and Antianira, took part in the Calydonian
hunt, and in the expedition of the Argc

ECHO (-tls), a nymph who used to keep
J\mo epgaged by incessantly talking to her,
while Jupiter was sporting with the nymphs.
Juno, however, foimd out the trick that was
played upon her, and punished Echo by
changing her into an echo. Echo in thi<)

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state fell in love with NarcisBUs ; but as her
love was not returned, she pined away in
KTief, so that in the end there remained of
her nothing but her voice.

EDESSA (-ae). (1) Also called Aktiochia
Callirrhoe (O.T. Ur), a very ancient city in
the N. of Mesopotamia, the capital of Osroene,
and the seat of an independent kingdom from
B.C. 137 to A.D. 216. [Aboabus.]. — (2) A
city of Macedonia, the burial-place of the

EDfiTANI or SEDETANI (-drum), a people
in Hispania Tarraconensis, E. of the Ceitiberi.

EDONI or EDONES (-um), a Thracian
people, between the N^stus and the Strymon,
celebrated for their orgiastic worship of
Bacchus ; whence Edonis in the Latin poets
signifies a female Bacchante, and Enomis is
used as equivalent to Thracian.

EETION (-onis), king of the Placian Thebe,
in Cilicia, and father of Andromache, the wife
of Hector.

EGERIA. [Aeoeria.]

EGESTA. [Segesta.]

EGNATIA (-ae), a town in Apulia, on the
coast, called Gnatia by Horace. It was cele-
brated for its miraculous stone or altar, which
of itself set on fire frankincense and wood ; a
prodigy which afforded amusement to Horace
and his friends, who looked upon it as a
mere trick. Egnatia was situated on the high
road from Rome to Brimdisium, which from
Egnatia to Brundisium bore the name of the
Via Eoif atia. The continuation of this road
on the other side of the Adriatic from Dyrrha-
chium to Byzantium, also bore the name of
Via Hffnatia. It was the great military road
between Italy and the £. C!ommencing at
Dyrrhachiupi, it passed by Lychnidus, Hera-
cl&a, Lyncestis, Edessa, Thessalonica, Amphi-
polis, Philippi, and traversing the whole of
Thrace, finally reached Byzantitmi.

EION (-onis), a toven in Thrace, at the
mouth of the Strymon, 25 stadia from Amphi-
polis, of which it was the harbour.

ELAEA (-ae), an ancient city on the
coast of Aeolis, in Asia Minor, subsequently
served as the harbour of Pergamus. The
gulf on which it stood was named after it
Sinus Elaiticus.

ELAEtS (-untis), or ELEtS (-untis), a
town on the S. E. point of the Thracian
Chersonese, with a harbour and an heroum
of Protcsilaus.

ELAGABALU8 (-i), Roman Emperor, a.d.
218 — 222, son of Julia Soemias and Yarius
Marcellus, was bom at Emesa about 205, and
was called Elagabalus because in childhood he
was made priest of the Syro-Phoenician Sun-
god at Emesa, bearing that name. He ob-
tained the purple at the age of 13, by the

intrigues of his grandiuuther Juiia iMue&b, wnc
gave out that he was the son of Caracalla-
On his accession he took the name of M.
AuRELius Antokinus. Hc was a prince of
incredible folly, superstition, and vice. He
was slain by the soldiers in 222, and was
succeeded by his cousin Alexander Severus.

ELANA. [Aelana.]

ELATEA (-ae). (1) A toven in Phocis,
situated near the Cephissus in a fertile valley,
which was an important pass from Thessaly
to Boeotia. — (2) A town in Pelasgiotis, in
Thessaly, near Gonni. — (3) Or Elatrea, a
town in Epiius, near the sources of the

ELATUS (-i), one of the Lapithae, and
father of Caeneus, who is hence called J^/i<Hu«.

ELAVER (-€ris, Allier), a river in Aqui-
tania, a tributary of the Liger.

ELEA. [Velia.]

ELECTRA (-ae), t. e. the bright or bril-
liant one. (1) Daughter of Oceanus and
Tethys, wife of Thaumas, and mother of Iris
and the Harpies, Aello and Ocypete. — (2)
Daughter of Atlas and Plei5ne, one of the 7
Pleiades, and by Zeus (Jupiter), mother of
lasion and Dardanus. — (3) Daughter of Aga-
memnon and Clytaemnestra, also called Lao-
dice, sister of Iphigenia and Orestes. After
the murder of her father by her mother, she
saved the life of her young brother Orestes by
sending him to King Strophius until he had
grown up to manhood. Electra then excited
him to avenge the death of Agamemnon, and
assisted him in slaying their mother Clytaem-
nestra. [Orestes.] After the death of the
latter, Orestes gave her in marriage to his
friend Pylades.


ELECTRYON (-onis), son of Perseus and
Andromeda, and father of Alcmene, the wife
of Amphitryon. For details see AHPHriETOM.

ELEON (-onis), a town in Boeotia, near

ELEPHANTINE (-es), an island in the
Nile, with a city of the same name, opiKwito
to Syene, and 7 stadia below the Little Cata-
ract, was the frontier station of Egypt towards
Ethiopia, ahd was strongly garrisoned under
the Persians and the Romans.

ELEUSIS (-Inis), a town and demos of
Attica, situated N. W. of Athens, on the coast
near the frontiers of Megara. It possessed a
magnificent temple of Demeter (Ceres), and
gave its name to the gi-eat festival and mys-
teries of the Eleusinia, which were celebrated
in honour of Demeter and Persephone (Proser-

ELICIUS (-i), a surname of Jupiter at
Rome, because he was invoked to send down

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ELIMEA, -I A (^e), or ELIMIOTIS, a dis-
trict of Macedonia, on the frontiers of Epirus
and Thessaly, originally belong:ing to lUyria.
Its inhabitants, the Elimasi, were Epirots.

£LIS (-Idis), a country on the W. coast of
Peloponnesus, bounded by Achaia on the N.,
Arcadia on the E., Messenia on the S., and
the Ionian sea on the W. It was divided into
3 parts : — (1) Elis Proper or Hollow Elis,
the N. part, watered by the Peneus, of which
the capital was also called Elis. — (2) Pisatis,
the middle portion, of which the capital was
Pisa. — (3) Triphylla., the S.portion,of which
Pylos was the capital, lying between the
AlpheuB and the Neda. — In the heroic times
We find the kingdom of Nestor and thePelldae
in the S. of Elis ; while the N. of the country
was inhabited by the Epeans, with whom
some Aetolian tribes were mingled. On the
conquest of Peloponnesus by the Ileraclidae,
the Aetolian chief Oxylus received Elis as his
share of the conquest ; and it was the union
of Ms Aetolian and Dorian followers with the
Epeans, which formed the subsequent popu-
lation of the country, under the general name
of Eleans. Elis owed its importance in Greece
to the worship of Zeus. (Jupiter) at Olympia,
near Pisa, in honour of whom a splendid fes-
tival was held every 4 years. [Oltmpla..] In
consequence of this festival being common
to the whole of Greece, the country of Elis
was declared sacred, and its inhabitants pos-
sessed priestly privileges.

ELISSA. [Dido.]

ELLOPIA (-ae), (1) A district in the N.
of Euboea, near the promontory Cenaeum,
with a town of the same name : the whole
island of Euboea is sometimes called EUopia.
— (2) An ancient name of the district about
Dodona, in Epirus.

£lONE (-es), a town of the Perrhaebi, in
Thessaly, afterwards called Limone.

ELPENOR (-6ris), one of the companions
of Ulysses, who were metamorphosed by
Circe into swine, and afterwards back into
men. Intoxicated with wine, Elpenor one
day fell asleep on Circe's roof, an^ broke his

ELUSATES (-um), a people in Aquitania,
in the interior of the country.

ELtMAIS (-idis), a district of Susiana,
which derived its name from the Elymaei
or Elymi, a warlike and predatory people.
They are also found in the mountains of
Great Media, and were probably among the
most ancient inhabitants of the country N. of
the head of the Persian Gulf : in the O. T.
Susiana is called Mam.

EL"tMUS (-i), natural son of Anchises,
Uiid brother of Eryx ; one of the Trojans who

fled from Troy to Sicily. With the aid of
Aeneas they built the towns of Aegesta and
Elyme. The Trojans who settU-d in that
part of Sicily called themselves Elymi, after

ElI'SIUM (-i), the JElyaian fields. In
Homer Elysium forms no part of the realms
of the dead ; he places it on the "W. of the
earth, near Ocean, and describes it as a
happy land, where there is neither snow, nor
cold, nor rain. Hither favoured heroes, like
Menelaus, pass without dying, and live happy
under the rule of Rhadamanthus. In the
Latin poets Elysium is part of the lower
world, and the residence of the shades of the

EMATHIA (-ae), a district of Macedonia,
between the Haliacmon and the Axius. The
poets frequently give the name of Emathia to
the whole of Macedonia, and sometimes even
to the neighbouring Thessaly.

EMATHIDES (-um), the 9 daughters of
Pierus, king of Emathia.

EMESA or EMISA (-ae), a city of Syria,
on the E. bank of the Orontes, the native city

Online LibraryWilliam SmithA smaller classical dictionary of biography, mythology, and geography ... → online text (page 30 of 90)