William Smith.

A smaller classical dictionary of biography, mythology, and geography ... online

. (page 31 of 90)
Online LibraryWilliam SmithA smaller classical dictionary of biography, mythology, and geography ... → online text (page 31 of 90)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

of Elagabalus.

EMPEDOCLES (-is), a philosopher of Agri-
gentum, in Sicily, flourished about b.c. 444.
He was learned and eloquent ; and, on ac
count of his success in curing diseases, was
reckoned a magician. His death is said to
have been as miraculous as his life. One
tradition related that he threw himself into
the flames of mount Aetna, that by his sudden
disappearance he might be believed to be a
god ; but it was added that the volcano threw
up one of his sandals, and thus revealed the
manner of his death. His works were all in
verse; and some fragments of them have
come down to us. Empedocles was chosen
as a model by Lucretius.

EMPORIAE (-arum) or EMPORIUM (-i :
Ampurias)^ a town of the Indigetes, in His-
pania Tarraconensis, near the Pyrenees,
situated on the river Clodianus, foimded by
the Phocaeans from Massilia.

EMPtJSA (-ae), a monstrous spectre, which
was believed to devour htmian beings.

ENCELAdUS (-i), son of Tartarus and
Ge (Earth), and one of the hundred-armed
griants who made war upon the gods. He
was killed by Zeus (Jupiter), who buried him
under mount Aetna.

ENDI'MION (-onis), a youth renowned
for his beauty and his perpetual sleep. As
he slept on mount Latmus, in Caria, his sur-
prising beauty warmed the cold heart of
Selene (the Moon), who came down to him,
kissed him, and lay by his side. His eternal
sleep on Latmus is assigned to different
causes ; but it was generally believed that

Digitized by





Selene bad sent him to sleep that she might
be able to kiss him without his knowledge.

ENGt'UM (4), a town in the interior of
Sicily, possessing a celebrated temple of
the great mother of the gods.

ENIPEUS (-Cos or -6i), a river in Thessaly,
rising in Mt. Othrys, receiving the Apidanus,
near Pharsalus, and flowing into the Peneus.
Poseidon (Neptune) assumed the form of the
god of this river in order to obtain possession
of Tyro, who was in love with Enipeus. She
became by Poseidon the mother of Pelias and

ENNA or HENNA (-ae), an ancient town
of the Siculi, in Sicily, on the road from
Catana to Agrigentum, said to be the centre
of the island. It was surrounded by fertile
plains, which bore large crops of wheat ; it
was one of the chief seats of the worship of
Demeter (Ceres) ; and according to later tra-
dition, it was in a flowery meadow near this
place that Pluto carried off Proserpine.

ENNIUS (-i), Q., the Roman poet, was
bom at Rudiae, in Calabria, B.C. 239. He
was a Gfoek. by birth, but a subject of Rome,
and served in the Roman armies. In 204
Cato, who was then quaestor, found Ennius
in Sardinia, and brought him in his train to
Rome. In 180 Ennius accompanied M. Ful-
vius Nobilior during the Aetolian campaign,
and shared his triumph. Through the son
of Nobilior, Ennius, when far advanced in
life, obtained the rights of a Roman citizen.
He maintained himself by teaching the youths
of the Roman nobles. He lived on terms of
the closest intimacy with the elder Scipio
Africanus. He died 169, at the age of 70,
and was bnried in the sepulchre of the Sci-
piw. Ennius was regarded by the Romans
as the father of their poetry, but all his works
are lost with the exception of a few fragments.
His most important work was an epic poem
in dactylic hexameters, entitled ^nna/««, being
a history of Rome, from the earliest times to
his own day.

ENTELLA (-ae), a town of the Sicani in
the interior of the island on the W. side, said
to have been founded by Entellus, one of the
companions of the Trojan Acestes.

ENtALiUS (-i), the Warlike, ftrequently
occurs in the Iliad (never in the Odyssey) as
an epithet of Ares (Mars). At a later time
Enyalios and Ares were distinguished as 2
different gods of war. The name is evidently
derived from Ento.

ENf (-lis), the goddess of war, who de-
lights in bloodshed and the destruction of
towns, and accompanies Ares in battles.
Respecting the Roman goddess of war, see

EORDAEA (-ae), a district and town in

the N. W. of Macedonia, inhabited by the


EOS (and E6s), in Latin AURORA (-ae),
the goddess of the dawn, daughter of HyjK;-
rlon and Thia or Eurj^phassa ; or of Pallas,
according to Ovid. At the close of every
night she rose from the couch of her spouse
Tithonus, and in a chariot drawn by swift
horses ascended up to heaven from the river
Oceanus, to announce the coming light of the
sun. She carried off several youths distin-
guished for their beauty, such as Orion,
Cephaltjs, and Tithonus, whence she is called
by Ovid Tithonia cot^jux. She bore Memnon
to Tithonus.

EPAMINONDAS (-ae), the Theban general
and statesman, son of Polymnis, was bom
and reared in poverty, though his blood was
noble. He saved the life of Pelopidas in
battle B.C. 385, and lived in close friendship
with him afterwards. After the Spartans
had been expelled from Thebes, 379, Epami-
nondas took an active part in public affairs.
He gained a great victory over the Spartans at
Leuctra (b.c. 37 l),which destroyed the Spartan
supremacy in Greece. Four times he suc-
cessfully invaded Peloponnesus at the head of
the Theban armies. In the last of these cam-
paigns he gained a brilliant victory over the
Lacedaemonians at MantinSa ; but, in the full
career of victory, died. He is said to have fallen
by the hands of Gryllus, the son of Xenophon.
Epaminondas was one of the greatest men of
Greece. He raised Thebes to the supremacy
of Greece, which she lost almost as soon as he
died. Both in public and in private life he
was distinguished by integrity and upright-
ness, and he carried into daily practice the
lessons of philosophy, of which he was an
ardent student. *

EPAPHIJ8 (-i), son of Zeus (Jupiter) and
lo, bom on the river Nile, after the long
wanderings of his mother. He became
king of Egypt, and built Memphis.

EPEI. [Eijs.]

EPEU8 (-i), son of Panopeus, and builder
of the Tlt)jan horse.

EPHESUS (-i), the chief of the 12 Ionian
cities on' the coast of Asia Minor. In the
plain beyond its walls stood the celebrated
temple of Artemis (Diana), which was built
in the 6th century b.c, and, after being
burnt down by Herostratus in the night on
which Alexander the Great was bom (b.c.
356), was restored by the joint efforts of all
the Ionian states, and was regarded as one of
the wonders of the world. With the rest of
Ionia, Ephesus fell under the power succes.
sively of Croesus, the Persians, the Macedo-
nians, and the Romans. It was always very
flourishing, and became even more so as the

Digitized by





other Ionian cities decayed. In the eaily
history of the Christian Church it is con-
8picaoiu as having heen visited hoth hy St.
Paul and St. John, who also addressed epis-
ties to' the church established at Ephesus.

EPfflALTES (-is).— <1) One of the Aloldae.
[Alobvs.] — (2) A Malian, who in b.c. 480,
when Leonidas was defending the pass of
Thermopylae, guided a body of Persians over
the mountain path, and thus enabled them to
fall on the rear of the Greeks. — (3) An
Athenian statesman, and a friend and partisan
of Pericles, whom he assisted in carrying his
political measures.

EPHORUS (-i), of Cymae in Aeolis, a
celebrated Greek historian, a contemporary
of Philip and Alexander, flourished about b.c.
340. He wrote a universal history, the first
that was attempted in Greece. The work
however has perished with the exception of a
few fragments.

EPHt^RA (-ae), the ancient name of Co-
rinth, whence £phpreltu is used as equivalent
to Corinthian. [Corinthus.]

EPICASTfi, commonly called Jocaste.

EPICHARMUS (-i), the chief comic poet
among the Dorians, bom in the island of Cos,
about B.C. 540, was carried to Megara in
Sicily in Ms infancy, and spent the latter part
of his life at Syracuse at the court of Hieron.
He died at the age of 90 (450), or 97 (443).
Epicharmus grave to comedy a new form, and
introduced a regular plot. His language was
elegant, and his productions abounded in
philosophical and moral maxims.


EPICTETUS (-i), of HierapoUs in Phrygia,
a celebrated stoic philosopher, was a freed-
man of Epaphroditus, who was himself a
freedman of Nero. Being expelled fh)m
Rome by Domitian, he took up his residence
at Nicopolis in Epirus. He did not leave any
works behind him ; and the short manual
{SnchiHdion)f which bears his name, was
compiled from his discourses by his pupil
Arrian. [Arbianus.]

EPIcCRUS (-i), a celebrated Greek philo-
sopher, was born b.c. 342, in the island of
Samos, and took up his permanent residence
at Athens, in 306. Here he purchased the
garden, afterwards so noted, in which he
established the philosophical scliool, called
after him the Epicurean. He died in 270,
at the age of 72, after a long and painful
illness, which he endured with truly philo-
sophical patience and courage. Epicurus is
the great leader of that philosophical school
which teaches that the aummum bonum^ or
highest good, is happiness. The happiness
that he taught his followers to seek after was
not sensual enjoyment, but peace of mind aa

the result of the cultivation of all the vir.
tues. According to the teaching of his
school virtue should be practised because
it leads to happiness; whereas the Stoics
teach that virtue should be cultivated for her
own sake, irrespective of the happiness it
will ensure. In the physical part of his
philosophy he followed the atomistic doctrines
of Democritus and Diagoras. The pupils of
Epicurus were very numerous, and were
excessively devoted to him. His system has
been most violently attacked, partly because
after the days of Epicurus men who pro-
fessed to be bis followers gave themselves
over to mere sensual enjoyment, partly be-
cause it has been but imperfectly understood,
and partly because it waa really founded on
an erroneous principle, in making virtue
dependent upon consequent happiness.


EPIDAURUS (-i) . (DA town in ArgoUs on
the Saronic gulf, formed, with its territory
Epidauria, a district independent of Argos,
and was not included in Argolis till the time
of the Romans. It was the chief s^t of the
worship of Aesculapius, whose temple was
situated about 5 miles from the town.— -<2) Sur-
named Limera, a town in Laconia, on the E.
coast, said to have been founded by Epidaurus
in Argolis.

EPIGONI (-6rum), that is, " the Descend-
ants," the name of the sons of the 7 heroes
who perished before Thebes. [Adrastus.I
Ten years after their death, the descendants
of the 7 heroes marched against Thebes,
which they took and razed to the ground.
The names of the Epigoni are not the same
in all accounts; but the common lists con.
tain Alcmaeon, Aegialeus, Diomedes, Pro-
machus, Sthenelus, Thersander, and Eurvalus.

EPIMENIDfiS (-is), a celebrated poet and
prophet of Crete, whose history is, to a great
extent, mythical. There is a legend that
when a boy he was sent out by his father in
search of a sheep ; and that, seeking shelter
from the heat of the midday sun, he went
into a cave, and there fell into a deep sleep,
which lasted 57 years. On waking and re-
turning home, he found, to his great amaze,
ment, that his younger brother had, in the
mean time, grown an old man. His visit to
Athens, however, is an historical fact, and
determines his date. The Athenians, who
were visited by a plague in consequence of
the crime of Cylon [Cylon], invited Epime.
nides to come and undertake the pnrilication
of the city. Epimenides accordingly came to
Athens, about b.c. 596, and performed the
desired task by certain mysterious rites and
sacrifices, in consequence of which the plagnie
ceased. Many works were Attributed to hinti

Digitized by





by the ancients, and the Apostle Paul has
preserved {Titw, i. 12) a celebrated verse of
his against the Cretans.

EPIMETHEUS. [Pkombthkus and Pan-

EPIPHANES (-is), tf surname of Antio-
chus IV., king of Syria.

EPIPHANlA or -£a (-ae). (1) In Syria
(O. T. Hamath), in the district of Cassiotis,
on the left bank of the Orontes. — (2) In
Cilicia, elose to the Pylae Amanides, formerly
called Oeniandus.

EPIPOLAE. [Syracusae.]

EPIRUS (-i), that. is, "the mainland," a
country in the N.W. of Greece, so called to
distinguish it from Corcyra, and the other
islands off the coast. Homer gives the name
of Epirus to the whole of the W. coast of
Greece, thus including Acamania in it.
Epirus was bounded by lUyria and Mace-
donia on the N., by Thessaly on the E., by
Acamania and the Ambracian gulf on the S.,
and by the Ionian Sea on the W. Its inhabit-
ants were numerous, but were not of pure
Hellenic blood. They appear to have been
a mixture of Pelasg^ians and lUyrians. The
ancient oracle of Dodona in the country was
of Pelasgic origin. Epirus contained 14
dif^ent tribes. Of these the most important
were the Chaonbs, Thesproti, and Molossi,
who gave their names to the S principal
divisions of the coimtry, Chaonia, Thes-
PKOTiA, and MoLOssis. The different tribes
were originally governed by their own
princes. The Molossian princes, who traced
their descent from Pyrrhus (Neoptolemus),
son of Achilles, subsequently acquired the
sovereignty over the whole country, and took
the title of kings of Epirus. The most cele-
brated of these was Pyrehus, who carried on
war with the Romans.


EPOREDIA (-i : Ivrea)^ a town In Gallia
Cisalpina, on the Duria, in the territory of
the Salassi, colonised by the Romans, b.c.
100, to serve as a bulwark against the neigh-
bouring Alpine tribes.

EPOREDORIX (-Tgis), a noble Aeduan,
who served in Caesar's army.

OUM (-i), a small town of the Hirpini, in
Samnium, 21 miles from Beneventum.

ERAE (-arum), a small but strong seaport
town on the coast of Ionia, N. of Teos.

ERANA (-ae), a town in M. Amanus, the
chief seat of the Eleutherocilices, in the time
of Cicero.

ERASlNUS (-i), the chief river In Argolis,
rising in the lake Stymphalus, and, after dis-
appearing under the earth, flo-vving through
the Lemaean marsh into the Argolic gulf.

ERASISTRATUS (-i), a celebrated phy-
sician and anatomist, a native of lulls, in the
island of Ceos, flourished from b.c. 300 to
260, and was the founder of a medical school
at Alexandria.

ERATO (-us), one of the Muses. [Musax.]
ERItOSTHENES (-is), of Cyrene, bom
B.C. 276, was placed by Ptolemy Euergetes
over the library at Alexandria. He died at
Alexandria at the age of 80, about b.c 196,
of voluntary starvation, having lost his sight,
and being tired of life. He was a man of
extensive learning, and wrote on almost all
the branches of knowledge then cultivated —
astronomy, geometry, geography, philosophy,
history, and grammar. His works have
perisheid, with the exception of some frag-
ments. His most celebrated work was a
systematic treatise on geography, of which
Strabo^made great use.

EREBUS (-i), son of Chaos, begot Aether
and Hemera (I>ay) by Njrx (Night), his sister.
The name signiftes cUurkness, and is therefore
applied to the dark and gloomy space under
the earth, through which the shades pass
into Hades.

ERECHTHfiUM. [Erichthoneus.]
ERECHTHEtJS. [Erichthonius.]
ERE8US or ERESSU8 (-i), a town on the
W. coast of the island of Lesbos, the birth-
place of Theophrastus, and, according to some,
of SapphOj^

ERETRIa (-ae), one of the chief towns
of Euboea, situated on the Euripus, with a
harbour, Porthmos, was founded by the Athe-
nians, but had a mixed populaUon, among
which was a considerable number of Dorians.
Its commerce and navy raised it in early
times to importance; it contended with
Chalcis for the supremacy of Euboea ; and it
planted colonies in Macedonia and Italy. It
was destroyed by the Persians, b.c. 490, and
mof^. of its inhabitants were carried away
into slavery.

(-65s or €i). In the ancient myths these two
names indicate the same person ; but later
writers mention 2 heroes, one called Erich-
thonius or Erechtheus I., and the other Erech-
theus II. — (1) Erichthonius or Erechtheus
I., son of Hephaestus (Vulcan) and Atthis, the
daughter of Cranaus. Athena (Minerva)
reared the child without the knowledge of the
other gods, and entrusted him to Agraulos,
PandroBos, and Herse, concealed in a chest,
which they were forbidden to open. But
disobeying the command, they saw the child
in the form of a serpent, or entwined by •
serpent, whereupon they were seized with
madness, and threw themselves down the
rock of tho acropolis. Erichthonius after-

Digitized by





wards became king of Athene, and was suc-
ceeded in the kingdom by his son Pandion.
He is said to have introduced the worship
of Athena, to have instituted the festival of
the Panathenaea, and to have built a temple
of Athena on the acropolis. When Athena
and Poseidon (Neptune) disputed about the
possession of Attica, Erichthonius declared
in favour of Athena. He was ^a^the^ the
ilrst who used a chariot with 4 horses, for
which reason he was placed among the stars
as auriga. He was worshipped as a god after
his dftath : and a temple, called the Erech-
tfieumy was built to him on the acropolis.
— (2) Erechtheus II., grandson of the for-
mer, and mn of Pandion whom he succeeded
as king of Athens. He was father of Cecrops,
Procris, Creusa, Chthonia, and Orith via. In the
war between the Eleusinians and Athenians,
Eumolpua, the son of Poseidon, was slain ;
whereupon Poseidon demanded the sacrifice
of one of the daughters of Erechtheus. When
one was drawn by lot, her 3 sisters resolved
to die with her ; and Erechtheus himself was
killed by Zeus with a flash of lightning at
the request of Poseidon.

ERICIITHONIUS (-i), son of Dardanus,
father of Tros, and king of Troy.

ERIDANUS (-i), a river god, on whose
banks amber was found. In later times the
Kridanus was supposed to be the same as the
Padus (Po), because amber was found at its
mouth. Hence the Jilectrides InstUae or
** Amber Islands " are placed at the mouth
of the Po, and here Phaethon was supposed
to have fallen when struck by the lightning
of Zeus (Jupiter.)

ERIgoNE (-es). — (1) Daughter of Icarius,
beloved by Bacchus. For details, see Icarivs.
— (2) Daughter of Aegisthus and Clytaem-

ERINNA (-ae), a Lesbian poetess, a con-
temporary and friend of Sappho (about b.c.
612), who died at the age of 19, but left
behind her poems which were thought worthy
to rank with those of Homer.


ERIpHYlE (-es), daughter of Talaufl and
wife of Amphiaraus, whom she betrayed for
the sake of the necklace of Harmonia, for
which she was slain by her son Alcmaeon.
For details see Amphiakavs, Alcmaeon.

ERIS (-Idos) in Latin, DISCORDIA (-ae),
the goddess of Discord, the friend and sister
of Aree (Mars), who delighted with him in
the tumult of war. It was Eris who threw
the apple into the assembly of the gods, the
cause of so much suffering and war. [Pabis.]

EROS (-Otis), in Latin, AMOR (-oris), or
CCpIDO (-Inis), the god of Love, son of
Aphrodite f Venus), by either Ares (Majrs),

Zeus (Jupiter), or Hermes (Mercury). He
was represented as a wanton boy, of whom a
thousand tricks and cruel sports were related,
and from whom neither gods nor men were
safe. His arms consist of arrows, which he
carries in a golden quiver, and of torches

Eros (Copld) whetting his Darts. (De la
Gemme Antiche.)

which no one can touch with impunity. His
arrows are of different power : some are
golden, and kindle love in the heart they
wound; others are blunt and heavy with
lend, and produce aversion to a lover. Eros
is further represented with golden wings, and
as fluttering about like a bird. His eyes are
sometimes covered, so that he acts blindly.

Eros. (FromaOem.)
He is the usual companion of his motnor.

Digitized by





Aphrodite. Anteros, literally, return-love,
is usually represented as the god who pun-
ishes those who do not return the love of
others : thus he is the avenging Eros, or a
deu» ultor. But in some accounts he is de-
scribed as a god opposed to Eros and strug.
^ling against him. — Respecting the connec-
tion between Eros and Psyche, see Psychk.
The later poets speak of a number of Erotes.

Eros (Cupid). (Maseum Capitoiinum, voL 4, Uv. 67.)

ERtMANTHUS (-1). (1) A lofty moun-
tain in Arcadia on the frontiers of Achaia
and Elis, celebrated in mythology as the
haunt of the savage Erymanthian boar de-
stroyed by Hercules. [Hkbcules]. — The Ar-
cadian nymph Callisto, who was changed
into a she-bear is called JErymanthis w*a^
and her son Areas ErymanthidUt uraae custos.
[AacTOS.] — (2) A river in Arcadia, rising in
the above-mentioned mountain, and falling
into the Alpheus.

ERYSICHTHON (-Snis), son of the Thes-
salian king Triopas, who cut down trees in a
grove sacred to Demeter, for which he was
punished by the goddess with a fearful himger,
that caused him to devour his own flesh.

ERYTHRAE (-&rum). (D An ancient town
in Boeotia, not far from Plataeae and Hysiae,
and celebrated as the mother city of Erythrae
in Asia Minor. — (2) A town of the Locri
Oz51ae, E. of Naupactus. — (3) One of the 12
Ionian cities of Asia Minor, stood at the
bottom of a large bay, on the W. side of the
peninsula which lies opposite to Chios.

ERYTHRAEUM MARE, the name origi-
nally •f the whole expanse of sea between
Arabia and Africa on the W., and India
on the E., including its. two great gulfs
(the JRed Sea and Persian Gulf). In this
sense it is used by Herodotus, who also dis-
tinguishes the Bed Sea by the name of 'A^uCioe
itikft. [AaABicuo SiMUS.] Afterwards the

parts of these seas were distinguished by
different names, the main body of the sea
being called Indicus Oceanus, the JRed Sea
Arabicus Sinus, the Persian Gulf Persicus
Sinus. The name Erythraeum Mare was
generally used as identical with Arabicus
Sinus, or the corresponding genuine Latin
term. Mare Rubrum {Bed Sea).

ERYX (rj^cis), also ERtcUS MONS {S.Oiu.
liano)f a steep and isolated mountain in the
N. W. of Sicily, near Drepanum. On the
summit of this mountain stood an ancient
and celebrated temple of Aphrodite (Venus),
said to have been built by Eryx, king of the
Elymi, or, according to Virgil, by Aeneas,
but more probably by the Phoenicians, who
Introduced the worship of Aphrodite into
Sicily. Hence the goddess bore the surname
ErycIna, under which name her worship was
introduced at Roue about the beginning of
the 2nd Punic war. There was a town of the
name of Eryx on the W. slope of the moun-


ESSUI (-onmi), a people in Gaul, W. of the

ETEOCLES (-is), son of Oedipus and
Jocasta. After his father's flight from Thebes,
he and his brother Polynlces undertook the
government of the city ; but disputes having
arisen between them, Polynices fled to Adras-
tus, who then brought about the expedition
of the Seven against Thebes. [Adrasttjs.!
Eteocles and Polynices perished in single '

ETESIAE (-arum), the Etesian Winds, de-
rived from Iroe " year," signified any peri-
odical windSf but more particularly the
northerly winds which blow in the Aegean
for 40 days from the rising of the dog star.

ETRtJRIA, ETRDr!a, or TUSCIA, called
by the Greeks TYRRHENLA. or TYRSENIA
(-ae), a country in central Italy. The in-
habitants were called by the Romans Et&usci
or Tusci, by the Greeks TY&SHEm or Tyssbni,
and by themselves Rasena. Etruria Proper
was bounded on the N. and N. W. by the Apen-
nines and the river Macra, which divided it
from Liguria, on the W. by the Tyrrhene sea
or Mare Inferum, and on the E. and S. by the
river Tiber, which separated it from Umbria
and Latium. The origin of the Etruscans is
uncertain. The ancients believed that they
were a colony of Lydians, but more modem
writers suppose that the Etruscans were a
Rhaetian race, called Rasena, who descended
from the Alps and the valley of the Po. The
Etruscans were a very powerful nation when
Rome was still in its infancy, and at an early
period their dominions extended over the
greater part of Italy, from the Alps and the

Digitized by





plains of Lombardy on the one hand, to Tesu-
vius and the gulf of Sarento on tiie other.
These dominions may be divided into 3 great
districts : Circumpadane Etruria in the N.,
Etruria Proper in the centre, and Campanian

Online LibraryWilliam SmithA smaller classical dictionary of biography, mythology, and geography ... → online text (page 31 of 90)