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Etruria in the S. In each of these districu
there were 12 principal cities or states, which
formed a confederacy for mutual protection.
Through the attacks of the Gauls in the N.,
and of the Sabines, Samnites, and Greeks in
the S., the Etruscans became confined within
the limits of Etruria Proper, and continued
long to flourish in this country, after they had
disappeared from the rest of Italy. The 12
cities which formed the confederacy in Etruria
Proper were most probably Ck)RTONA, A&re-


Veii, Caere, more anciently called Agrylla.
Each state was independent of all the others.
The government was a close aristocracy, and
was strictly confined to the family of the
Lucumones, who united in their own persons
the ecclesiastical as well as the civil functions.
The people appear to have been In a state of
vassalage or serfdom. A meeting of the con-
federacy of the 12 states was held annually in
the spring, at the temple of Yoltumna, near
Volsinii. The Etruscans were a highly civilised
people, and from them the Romans borrowed
many of their religious and political institu-
tions. The 3 last kings of Rome were un-
doubtedly Etruscans, and they left in the city
' enduring traces of Etruscan power and great-
ness. The later history of the Etruscans is a
struggle against the rising power of Rome, to
which they became subject, after their deci-
sive defeat by Cornelius Dolabella in b.c. 283.
In 91 they received the Roman franchise.
The numerous military colonies established
in Etruria by Sulla and Augustus destroyed
to a great extent the national character of the
people, and the country thus became in course
of time completely Romanised.

EUBOEA (-ae: liegropont), the largest
island of the Aegaean sea, about 90 miles in
length, lying along the coasts of Attica,
Boeotia, and the S. part of Thessaly, from
which countries it is separated by the Eu-
boean sea, called the Euripus in its narrowest
part. Throughout the length of the island
runs a lofty range of mountains ; but it con-
tains many fertile plains. In Homer the
inhabitants are called Abantes. In the N. of
Euboea dwelt the Histiaei ; below these were
the Ellopii, and in the 8. were the Dryopes.
The centre of the island was inhabited chiefiy
by lonians. It was in this part of Euboea
that the Athenians planted the colonies of
Chaix;is and Eretria, which were the 2
aunt important cities in the island. After

the Persian wars, Euboea became subject to
the Athenians. Since Cumae, in Italy, was a
colony from Chalcis. in Euboea, the adjective
£uboieus is used by the poets in reference to
the former city.

EUCLIdES (-is). (1) The celebrated
mathematician, lived at Alexandria in the
time of the first Ptolemy, d.c. 323 — 283, and
was the founder of the Alexandrian mathe-
matical school. It was his answer to
Ptolemy, who asked if geometry could not be
made easier, that there was no royal road.
Of the numerous works attributed to Euclid,
several are still extant of which by far the
most noted is "The Elements." — (2) Of
Megara, one of the disciples of Socrates,
quitted Athens on the death of Socrates
(B.C. 399), and took refuge in Megara, where
he founded a school, which distinguished itself
chiefly by the cultivation of dialectics. This
school was called sometimes the Megaric,
sometimes the Dialectic or Eristic.

EUCTEMON, the astronomer. [Meton.]

EUDOXUS (-1), of Cnidus, a celebrated
astronomer and geometer, lived about b.c.
366. He studied at Athens and in Egypt,
but probably spent some of his time at his
native place, where he had an observatory.
He is said to have been the first who taught
in Greece the motions of the planets. His
works are lost.

EUGANEI (-firum), a people who formerly
inhabited Yenetia, on the Adriatic sea, and
were driven towards the Alps and the Lacus
Benacus by the Heneti or Yeneti.

EUHEMERUS (-1), a Greek writer, who
lived at the court of Cassander, in Macedonia,
about B.C. 316, and the author of a work, in
which he attempted to show that all the
ancient myths were genuine historical events.
He represented the gods as originally men
who had distinguished themselves either aa
warriors or benefactors of mankind, and who
after their death received divine worship
from the grateful people.

EULAEUS (-i : O. T. Ulai), a river in
Susiana, rising in Great Media, passing E. of
Susa, and falling into the head of the Persian
Gulf. Some of the ancient geographers make
the Eulaeus fall into the Choaspes, and others
identify the two rivers.

EUMAEU8 (-i), the faithful swineherd
of Ulysses.

EUMENfiS (-is). (1) Of Cardia, served
as private secretary to Philip and Alexander ;
and on the death of the latter (b.c 323),
obtained the government of Cappadocia,
Paphlagonia, and Pontus. Eumenes allied
himself with Perdiccas, and carried on war
for him in Asia Minor against Antipater and
Craterus. On the death of Perdiccas, iu

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Egypt, Antigonos employed the whole force
of the Macedonian army to crush Eumenes.
Notwithstanding the numerical inferiority of
his forces, Eumenes maintained his ground
agaictft his enemies for some years, till he
was surrendered by the Argjraspids to Anti-
^nus, by whom he was put to death, 316.
He was a great general and statesman, and
had he been a native Macedonian would pro-
bably have occupied a more important position
among the. successors of Alexander. — (2) I.
King of Pbroamus, reigned b.c. 263 — 241 ;
and was the successor of his uncle Phile-
taerus. — (3) II> King of Peroamus, reigned
B.C. 197 — 159; and was the son and sue
cessor of Attains I. He inherited from his
predecessor the friendship and alliance of the
Romans, which he took the utmost pains to
cultivate. Pergamus became under his rule
a great and flourishing city, in which he
founded that celebrated library which rose to
be a rival even to that of Alexandria.

EUMENIDES (-um), also called ERINtES
(-um), not Erinnyes, and by the Romans
FURIAE or DIRAE (-arum), the Avenging

Deities. The name Erinyen Is the more
ancient one ; the form Eumenides, which
signifies " the well-meaning," or " soothed
goddesses," is a mere euphemism, because
people dreaded to call these fearful god-
desses by their real name. It was said to
have been first given them after the acquittal
of Orestes by the Areopagus, when the anger
of the Erinyes had been soothed. They
are represented as the daughters of Earth
or of Night, and as fearful winged maidens,
with serpents twined in their hair, and with
blood dripping from their eyes. They dwelt
in the depths of Tartarus, dreaded by gods
and men. With later writers their number is
usually 3, and their names are TisiphSne,
Alecto, and Meoabra.. They punished men
both in this world and after death. The
sacrifices offered to them consisted of black
sheep and nephalia, i.e. a drink of honey mixed
with water. The crimes which they chiefly
punished were disobedience towards parents,
violation df the respect due to old age, perjury,
murder, violation of the laws of hospitality,
and improper conduct towards suppliants.

Furies. (From a Painted Vase.)

Fury. (From a Paiuted Vase.}

EUMOLPUS (-i), that is "the good
ftingcr," a Thracian bard, son of Poseidon
(Neptune) and Chione, the daughter of
Boreas. As soon aa he was born he was

thrown Into the sea by his mother, who
was anxious to conceal her shame, but was
preserved by his father Poseidon, who had
him educated in Lthiopia by his daughter
• u2

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Benthesicyma. After dwelling for a time in
Ethiopia, and afterwards at the court of the
Thracian king Tegyrins, he came to Eleusis
in Attica, where he formed a friendship with
the Eleusinians. Subsequently he Joined
them in an expedition against Athens, but
was slain by Erechtheus. Eumolpus was
regarded as the founder of the Eleusinian
mysteries, and as the first priest of Demeter
(Ceres) and Dionysus (Bacchus). He was
succeeded in the priestly office by his son
Ceyx ; and his family, the Munolpidae, con.
tinned till the latest times the priests of
Demeter at Eleusis.


EUNUS (.1), a Sicilian slave, and a native
of Apamea in Syria, was the leader of the
Sicilian slaves in the servile war (b.c. 134

EUPlLIUM or EUPOLIum (4), a town of
the Locri Ozolae, N. of Naupaotus.

EUPHEMUS (-i), son of Poseidon (Nep-
tune), and ancestor of Battus, founder of

EUPH0RBU8 (-i), son of Panthous, one
of the bravest of Uie Trojans, slain by Mene-
laus, who dedicated his shield in the temple
of Hera (Juno), near Mycenae. Pythagoras
asserted that he had once been Euphorbus,
and in proof of his assertion took down at
first sight the shield from the temple of

EUPHORION (-6nis), of Chalcis in Euboea,
an eminent grammarian and poet, was the
librarian of Antiochus the Great, and flourished
B.C. 221. All his works are lost.

EUPHRlNOR (.5ris), a distinguished
statuary and painter, was a native of Co-
rinth, but practised his art at Athens about
B.C. 336.

EUPHRlTfiS (-is : 0. T. Phrat : MFrat),
a great river of Asia, consists, in its upper
course, of 2 branches, both of which rise in
the moimtains of Armenia. The northern
branch is the true Euphrates : the southern
was called by the ancients the Arsanias.
After their junction the river breaks through
the main chain of the Taurus between Meli-
tene and Samosata, and then flows through
the plain of Babylonia, till it joins the
Tigris about sixty miles above the mouth
of the Persian Gulf.

EUPHROStNE (-es), one of the Charites
or Graces. [Charites,]

EUPOLIS (-is), one of the most celebrated
Athenian poets of the old comedy, and a con-
temporary of Aristophanes, was born about
B.C. 446, and died about 411. The common
story that Alcibiades threw him into the sea
out of revenge is not true.
EURIPIDES (-is), the distinguished tragic i

poet, was bom at Salamis, b.c. 480, on the
very day that the Greeks defeated the Per-
sians off that island, whither his parents had
fled from Athens on the invasion of Xerxes.
In his youth he cultivated gymnastic pursuits,
and won the prize at the Eleusinian and
Thesean contests. But he soon abandoned
these pursuits, and studied philosophy under
Anaxagoras, and rhetoric xmder Prodicos.
He lived on intimate terms with Socrates,
and traces of the teaching of Anaxagoras
have been remarked in many passages of his
plays. In 441 he gained for the first time
the first prize, and he continued to exhibit
plays until 408, the date of the Orestes.
Soon after this he left Athens for the court of
Archelaas, king of Macedonia, where he died
in 406, at the age of 75. He is said to have
been torn in pieces by the king's d<^. Eu-
ripides in his tragedies brought down the
ancient heroes and heroines to the ordinary
standard of men and women of his own times.
He represented men, according to the remark
of Aristotle, no^ as they ought to be, but as
they are. Hence the preference given to his
plays by the practical Socrates. The most
serious defects in his tragedies, as works of art,
are the disconnexion of the choral odes from
the subject of the play, and the too frequent
introduction of philosophical maxims. His
great excellency is the tenderness and pathos
with which some of his characters are in-
vested. 18 of his tragedies are extant, if
we omit the BhesuSf which is probably

EURIPU8 (-i), any part of the sea where
the ebb and flow of the tide were remarkably
violent, is the name especially of the narrow
strait which separates Euboea from Boeotia.
At Chalcis there was a bridge over the
Euripus, uniting Euboea with the main-

EUROPA (-ae). (1) Daughter of the
Phoenician khig, Agenor, or, according to
the Iliad, daughter of Phoenix. Her beauty
charmed Zeus (Jupiter), who assumed the
form of a bull and mingled with the herd as
Europa and her maidens were sporting on
the sea-shore. Encouraged by the tameness
of the animal, Europa ventured, to mount his
back; whereupon the god rushed into the
sea, and swam with her to Crete. Here
she becan;ie by Zeus the mother of Minos,
Rhadamanthus, and SarpSdon. — (2) One
of the 3 divisions of the ancient world,
said to have been named after the daughter
of Agenor. In earlier times the river Phasis
was usually supposed to be the boundary
between Europe and Asia, and sometimes even
the Araxes and the Caspian sea ; but at a
later period the river Tanais and the Pal us

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Maeotis were generally regarded as the
boundaries between the two continents.

The, north of Europe was little known to the

Earopa. (SohlichterRroll, Stosch Collection.)

EUHOPUS. [Titaresits.]

EURUS (-i), the S.E. wind, sometimes the
E. wind.

EUROTAS (-ae), the chief river in Laconia,
on which Sparta stood, rises in Mt. BorSum,
in Arcadia, and flows into the I^conian gulf.

EURtBATES, the herald of Ulysses, whom
he followed to Troy.

EUR^BATCs (4), an Ephesian, whom
Croesus sent with a large sum of money to
th6 Peloponnesus to hire mercenaries for him
in his war with Cyrus. He, however, went
over to Cyrus, and betrayed the whole matter
to him. In consequence of this treachery,
his name passed into a proverb amongst
the Greeks.

EURtDICfi (-es). (i.) wife of Orpheus.
For details see Orpheus. — (2.) The name of
several Illyrian and Macedonian princesses.
The most celebrated was the wife of Philip
Arrhidaeus, who succeeded Alexander the
Great. She was put to death by Olympias,
B.C. 317.

EURtLSCHUS (4), a companion of Ulysses
was the only one that escaped from the house
of Circe, when his friends were metamor-
phosed into swine.

EURtMEDON (-ontis). (1.) Son of Thu-
cles, an Athenian general in the Peloponnesian
war. — (2.) A small river in Pamphylia, cele-
brated for the victory which Cimon gained
over the Persians on its banks (b.c. 469).

EURtMUS (-i), father of the seer Telemus,
who is hence called EvrpmXdea.

CURtNOMC (-es), daughter of Oceanus,
and mother of Leucothofi.

EURtPON, otherwise caUed EUBtTiON,
grandson of Procles, was the third king of
that house at Sparta, and thenceforward gave
it the name of Eurvpontidae.

EURtPtLUS (4). (1) Son of Euaemon,
and leader of a body of troops before Troy. —
(2) Son of Poseidon (Neptune) and Asty-
palaea, king of Cos, killed by Hercules.

EURYSTHENES (-is) and PROCLES (-is),
the twin sons of Aristodemus, bom before
their father's return to Peloponnesus and
occupation of his allotment of Laconia. He
died immediately after the birth of his chil-
dren, and in accordance with the command
of the oracle at Delphi both were made kings,
but the precedence given to Eurysthmes and
his descendants. From these 2 brothers the
2 royal families in Sparta were descended,
and were called respectively the JEwytthenidae
and Proelidae. The former were also called
the Affidae^ from Agis, son of Eurysthenes ;
and the latter Hur^pontidae, trom Eurypon,
grandson of Procles.

EURY8THEU8. [Hbrculw.]

EURtTUS (-i), king of Oechalia^ and fother
of lole. For details see Heroulbs.

EUTERPE, one of the Muses. [Musax.]

EUTROPIUS (-i), a Roman historian,

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contemporary of Constantine the G^,eat,
Julian, and Valens, and the author of a brief
compendium of Roman history in 10 books,
from the foundation of the city to the accession
of Yalens, a.d. 364, to whom it is inscribed.
This work is extant, and is drawn up with
care. Hie style is in keeping with the nature
of the undertaking, being plain, precise, and

EUXiNUS P0NTU8. [Pontts Euxi-

£VADN£ (-es), daughter of Iphis (hence
called Iphias), and wife Of Capaneus. For
details sec Capaneus.

EVAGOraS (-ae), king of Salamis, in Cy-
prus, from about B.C. 410 to 374. He was
assisted by the Athenians in his wars against
the Persians.

fiVANDER (-dri) and EVANDRU8 (-i), son
of Hermes (Mercury), by an Arcadian nymph,
called in Roman traditions Carmenta or
Tiburtis. About 60 years before the Trojan
war, Evander is said to have led a colony from
Pallantium, in Arcadia, into Italy, and there
to have built a town, Pallantium, on the
Tiber, at the foot of the Palatine Hill, which
town was subsequently incorporated with
Rome. Evander taught his neighbours milder
laws and the arts of peace and of social life,
and especially the art of writing ; he also in-
troduced among them the worship of the
Lycaean Pan, of Demeter (Ceres), Poseidon
(Neptune), and Hercules.

EVENUS (-i). (1) {Fidhart), a river of
Aetolia, rising in Mt. Oeta, and flowing into
the sea, 120 stadia W. of Antirrhium. It
derived its name from Evenus, the father of
Marpessa, who was carried off by Idas, the
son of Aphareus ; and Evenus being unable to
overtake the latter, threw himself into the
river, which was henceforth called after him.
— (2) A river of Mysia, falling into the Sinus
Elatticus near Pitane.

EVERGETE8, the " Benefactor," a title of
honour conferred by the Greek states upon
those from whom they had received benefits.
It was assumed by many of the Greek kings in
Egypt^and elsewhere. [Ptolkmaeus.]

EViuS, an epithet of Bacchus, given him
from the animating cry wo«, in the festivals
of the god.

"plBlRIS or FARFARUS (.1), a small river
•*- in Italy, in the Sabine territory, between
Reate and Cures.

FABII (-oruto), one of the most ancient
patrician gentes at Rome, which traced its
origin to Hercules and the Arcadian Evander.
Its most important members are : (1) K.
Fabius ViBULAMvs, 3 times consul, b.c.

484, 481, 479. In his third consulship he
espoused the cause of the plebeians ; but as
his propositions were rejected by the patri-
cians, he and his house resolved to quit Rome
altogether, where they were regarded as
apostates by their own order. Accordingly
806 Fabii, sdl patricians, marched with the
consul at their head through the Carmental
Gate, and proceeded to the banks of the
Cremera, where they erected a fortress.
Here they took up their abode along with
their fandlies and clients, and for 2 years
continued to devastate the territory of
Veii. They were at length destroyed by the
Yeientes in 477, on the 18th of June, the
day on which the Romans were subsequently
conquered by the Gauls at the Allia. The
whole gens perished with the exception of
one individual, from whom all the later
Fabii were descended. — (2) Q. Fabius
Maxihus Rullianus, 6 times consul (b.c.
322 — 296), and the most eminent of the
Roman generals in the 2nd Samnite war.
— (3) Q. Fabius Maximus Gurobs, or the
Glutton, from the dissoluteness of his youth,
son of the last, 3 times consul (292—265). —
(4) Q. Fabius Maximus, with the agnomens
VerrucSsus, ftrom a wart on his upper lip,
OvicuLA, or the Lamb, from the mildness or
apathy of his temper, and Cunctator, from
his caution in war, was grandson of Fabius
Gurges. He was 5 times consul (b.c. 233 —
209). In 217, immediately after the defeat
at Trasimenus, Fabius was appointed dic-
tator. From this period, so long as the war
with Hannibal was merely defensive, Fabius
became the leading man at Rome. On taking
the field he laid down a simple and immutable
plan of action. He avoided all direct encoun-
ter with the enemy ; moved his camp from
highland to highland, where the Numidian
horse and Spanish tnfantry could not follow
him ; watched Hannibal's movements with
unrelaxing vigilance, and cut off his stragglers
and foragers. His enclosure of Hannibal in
one of the upland valleys between Cales and
the Tultumus, and the Carthaginian's adroit
escape by driving oxen with blazing faggots
fixed to their horns, up the hill-sides, are well-
known facts. But at Rome and in his own
camp the caution of Fabius was misinter-
preted ; and the people in consequence divided
the command between him and M. Miyucius
Rufus, his master of the horse. Minucius
was speedily entrapped, and would have been
destroyed by Hannibal, had not Fabius hast-
ened to his rescue. In the closing years of
the 2nd Punic war Fabius appears to less ad-
vantage. The war had become aggressive
under a new race of generals. Fabius dis-
approved of the new tactics ; he dreaded the

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political supremacy of Scipio, and was his
opponent in his scheme of invading Africa.
He died in 203. — (5) C. Fabius Piotor, re-
ceired the surname of Pictor, hecause he
nainted the walls of the temple of Salus, which
the dictator C. Junius Brutus Bubulcus dedi-
cated in 302. This is the earliest Roman
painting of which we have any record. —
(6) Q. Fabius Pictor, grandson of the last,
the most ancient writer of Roman history in
prose. He served in the Gallic war 225, and
also in the 2nd Punic war. His history,
which was written in Greek, began with the
arrival of Aeneas in Italy, and came down to
his own time. ^

FABRATERIA {Fahaterra), a Volscian
town in Latium, on the right bank of the
Trerus, subsequently colonised by the Romans.
FABRICIUS (-i), the name of a Roman
family the chief members of which were : —
(1) C. Fabricivs, one of the most popular
heroes in the Roman annals. He was consul
B.C. 282, and two years afterwards was
one of the Roman ambassadors lent to Pyr-
rhus at Tarentum to negotiate a ransom or
exchange of prisoners. Pyrrhus used every
eflfort to gain the favour of Fabricius ; but
the sturdy Roman was proof against all his
seductions, and rejected all his offers. In
278 Fabricius was consul a second time, when
he sent back to Pyrrhus the traitor who had
offered to poison him. Negotiations were
then oi)ened, which resulted in the evacuation
of Italy by Pyrrhus. Ho was censor in 275,
and distinguished himself by the severity
with which he repressed the growing taste
for luxury. Ancient writers love to tell of
the frugal way in which Fabricius and his
contemporary Curius Dentatus lived on their
hereditary farms, and how they refused the
rich presents which the Samnite ambassadors
offered them« Fabricius died as poor as he
had lived, and left no dowry for his daughters,
which the senate furnished. — (2) L. Fabri-
cius, curator viarum in b.c. 62, built a
new bridge of stone, connecting the city
with the island in the Tiber, and called after
him pons Fabricius. This bridge still re-
mains, and bears the name of ponte guattro

FAESCXAE (-arum: Fiesole), a city of
Etruria, situated on a hill 3 miles N.E.
of Florence. It was the head quarters of
Catiline's army.

FALfiRII (-orum) or FALfiRIUM (-1), a
town in Etruria, situated on a height near
Mt. Soracte, was originally a Pelasgic town,
but was afterwards one of the 12 Etruacan
cities. Its inhabitants were called Falisci,
and were regarded by many as of the same
race as the Aequi, whence we find them often

called Aequi FaliscL After a lontr strusrTle
with Rome, the Faliscans yielded to Camillas
B.C. 394. The Faliscans revolted again at
the close of the 1st Punio war (b.c. 241),
when the Romans destroyed their city. A
new town was built on the plain. The white
cows of Falerii were valued at Rome for

FALERNUS ACER, a district in the N.
of Campania, extending from the Classic hills
to the river Vultumus. It produced some of
the finest wine in Italy, which was reckoned
only second to the wine of Setia.

FALISCI. [Falkrii.]

FANNIUS (-i) STRABO (-Snis), C, son-in-
law of Laelius, introduced by Cicero as a
speaker in his i>0 Republiea and his Laelius,

FANUM FORTCNAE (Fano), a town in
Umbria at the mouth of the Metanrus, with
a celebrated temple of Fortuna, whence the
town derived its name.

FARFARU8. [Fabaris.]

FAULA or FAUNA. [Faunus.]

FAUNUS (-i), son of Picus, grandson of
Satumus, and father of Latinus, was the
third in the series of the kings of the Lau.
rentes. He was worshipped as the protecting
deity of agriculture and of shepherds, and
also as a giver of oracles. After the intro-
duction of the worship of the Greek Pan
into Italy, Faunus was identified with Pan,
and represented, like the latter, with horns

Fannas. (Qon, Oem. Ant. Flor. vol. I, pL M.)

and goats' feet. At a later time we find
mention of Fauni in the plural. What

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Faunus was to the male sex, his wife Faula
or Fauna was to the female. As the god
manifested himself in various ways, the idea
arose of a plurality of Fauns (Fauni), who

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