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are described as half men, half goats, and
with horns. Faunus gradually came to he
identified with the Arcadian Pan, and the
Fauni with the Greek Satyrs.

FAUSTA, CORNELIA (-ae), daughter of
the dictator Sulla, wife of Milo, and infamous
for her adulteries.

FAUSTINA (-ae). (1) Sbnior, wife of the
emperor, Antoninus Pius, notorious for her
licentiousness. — (2) Junior, daughter of the
elder Faustina, and wife of the emperor
M. Aurelius, also notorious for her profligacy.

FAUSTULUS. [Romulus.].

FAVENTIA (-ae), a town in Gallia Cisal-
pina on the river Anemo and on the Via

M. FAV5NIU8 (-ae), an imitator of Cato
Uticensis, whose character and conduct he
copied so servilely as to receive the nickname
of Cato's ape.

FEBRIS (-is), the goddess, or rather the
averter, of fever.

FEBRUUS (-i), an ancient Italian divinity,
to whom the month of February was sacred.
The name is connected with februart (to

FELICItaS (-atis), the personification of
happiness, is frequently seen on Roman
medals, in the form of a matron, with the
staff of Mercury and a cornucopia.

FfiLIX (-Icis), ANTONIUS (-i), procurator
of Judaea, in the reigns of Claudius and
Nero. He induced Drusilla, wife of Azizus,
king of Emesa, to leave her husband ; and she
was still living with him in a.d. 60, when St.
Paul preached before him " of righteousness,
temperance, and judgment to come."


FENNI (-6rum), a savage people, reckoned
by Tacitus among the Germans. They pro-
bably dwelt in the further part of E. Prussia,
and were the same as the modem Finns.

FERENTiNUM (-i). (1) A town of Etru-
ria, S. of Volsinii, birthplace of the emperor
Otho. — (2) An ancient town of the Hemici,
in Latium, S.W. of Anagnia, colonised by the
Romans in the 2nd Punic war.

FERENTUM. [FoeentUm.]

FERSTRIUS (-i), a surname of Jupiter,
derived from ferire^ to strike ; for persons
who took an oath called upon Jupiter to
strike them if they swore falsely, as they
struck the victim which they sacrificed.
Others derived it from ferrey because people
dedicated [ferehant) to him the spolia opima.

FERDNIA (-ae), an ancient Italian di-
vinity, whose chief sanctuary was at Ter-

racina, near mount Soracte. At her festival
at this place a great fair was held.

a town of the Falisci, in Etruria, and conse-
quently, like Falerii, of Pelasgio origin.
[FALKsn.] From this town the Romans are
said to have derived the Fescennine songs.

Roman grammarian, in the 4th century of
our era, the author of a dictionary or glossary
of Latin words and phrases, of which a con-
siderable portion is extant.

FESTUS, P0RCIU8 (4), succeeded Anto-
nius Felix as procurator of Judaea, in a.d.
62. It was he who bore testimony to the
innocence of St. Paul, when he defended
himself before him in the same year.

FICANA (-ae), one of the ancient Latin
towns destroyed by Ancus Martins.

FICULEA (-ae), an ancient town of the
Sabines, E. of Fidenae.

FIDENAE (-arum), sometimes fIdENA
(-ae: Coitel Oiubileo)^ an ancient town in
the land of the Sabines, 5 miles N.E. of
Rome, situated on a steep hill, between the
Tiber and the Anio. It is said to have been
conquered and colonised by Romulus; but
it was probably colonised by the Etruscan
Veil, with which city we find it in close
alliance. It frequently revolted, and was
frequently taken by the "Romans. Its last
revolt was in b.g. 438, and in the following
year it was destroyed \ty the Romans, but was
afterwards rebuilt.

fIDENTIA (-ae), a town in Cisalpine
Gaul, on the Via Aemilia, between Parma

FIDES (-ei), the personification of faith-
fulness,^worshipped as a goddess at Rome.

FIDIUS, an ancient form otfilius, occurs
in the connection of i>tu« Fidius^ or Medius^
MdirtSf that is, me Dius {^'^) filius^ or the son
of Jupiter, that is, Hercules. Hence the expres-
sion mediusjidius is equivalent to me Hercules
scil. Juvet, Sometimes Fidius is used alone.
Some of the ancients cormectedjidius ynthfides.

FIGOLUS, p. NIGIDIUS (-i), a Roman
senator, and Pythagorean philosopher, of
high reputation, who flourished about b.c. 60.

FIMBRIA (-ae), C. FLAVIUS (-i). (1)
A jurist and an orator, consul b.o. 104. —
(2) Son of the preceding, and one of the most
violent partizans of Marius and Cinna during
the civil war with Sulla. In b.c. 86 he was
sent into Asia as legate of Talerius Flaccus,
whom he induced the soldiers to put to death.
He then carried on war against Mithridates ;
but in 84 he was attacked by Sulla, and being
deserted by his troops, put an end to his life.

FIRMUM (-i), a town in Picenum, 3 miles
from the coast.

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FLACCU8, FULVIU8 (-i), the name of
two distinguished families in the Fulvia and
Valeria gentes. Many of the memhers of
both families held the highest offices in the
state ; but the best known are : — (1)
M. FuLvirs Flaccus, the friend of the
Gracchi, consul b.c. 125, and one of the
triumvirs for carrying into execution the
agrarian law of Tib. Gracchus. He was
slain, together with C. Gracchus, in 121.
— (2) L. Valerius Flaccus, consul b.c. 100,
with C. MariuA, when he took an active part
in putting down the insurrection of Satur-
ninus. In 86 he was chosen consul in place
of Marius, and was sent into Asia against
Mithridates, but was put to death by his
soldiers at the instigation of Fimbria. — (3)
L. Valerius Flaccus, a native of Padua, who
lived in the time of Vespasian, and wrote the
Argonautiea, an unfinished heroic poem, in
8 books, on the Argonautic expedition, which
is extant.

B.C. 198, had the conduct of the war against
Philip of Macedonia, whom he defeated at
the battle of Cynoscephalae, in Thessaly, in
197, and compelled to sue for peace.

FLAMINIUS, C, (-i), consxU for the first
time B.C. 223, when he gained a victory over
the Insubrian Gauls ; and censor in 220, when
he executed two gpreat works, which bore his
name, viz., the Circus Flaminiua and the
Via Flaminia. In his second consulship
(217) he was defeated and slain by Hannibal,
at the battle of the Trasimene lake.

'FLiVIA GENS, celebrated as the house
to which the emperor Vespasian belonged.
During the later period of the Roman em-
pire, the name Flavius descended from one
emperor to another, Constantius, the father
of Gonstantine the Great, being the first in
the series.

FLAviUS FIMBRIA. [Fimbria.]
FLA VI 08 JOSEPHUS. [Josephus.]
FLEVUM (-i), a fortress in Germany, at
the mouth of the Amisia {Ems),
FLEVUM, FLEVO. [Rhenus.]
FLORA (-ae), the Roman goddess of

Flora. (From a Roman Coin.)
flowers and spring, whose annual festival

{Floralia) was celebrated from the 28th of
April till the Ist of May, with extravagant
merriment and lasciviousness.

Flora. (From an ancient Statue.)

FLORENTIA (-ae: Firenze^ Florence) ^ n
town in Etruria, and subsequently a Roman
colony, situated on the Arnus ; but its great-
ness as a city dates from the middle ages.

FLORUS, L. ANNAEUS (-i), a Roman
historian, lived under Trajan and Hadrian,
and wrote a summary of Roman history,
which is extant, divided into 4 books, ex-
tending from the foundation of the city to
the time of Augustus.

FLORUS, JOLIUS (-i), a poet and an
orator, addressed by Horace in 2 epistles.

FONTEIUS, M., (-i), propraetor in Nar-
bonese Gaul, between b.c. 76 — 73, accused in
69 of extortion in his province and defended by
Cicero in an oration, part of which is extant.

FORENTUM or FERENTUM (-i), a town
in Apulia, surrounded by fertile fields and in
a low situation, according to Horace.

FORMIAE (-ftrum: nr. Mola di Gaeta^
Ru.), a very ancient town in Latium, on the
Appia Via, in the innermost comer of the
beautiful Sinus Caietanus ( Gulf of Oaeta) . It
was founded by the Pelasgic Tyrrhenians,
and was the fabled abode of Lamus and the
Laestrygones. Near this place were numer-
ous villas of the Roman nobles : of these the
best known is the Formianum of Gicero, in
the neighbourhood of which he was killed.
The hills of Formiae produced good wine.

FORNAX (-acis), a Roman goddess, who
presided over baking the com in the oven
{fomax), and who was worshipped at the
festival of the Fomacalia.

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FORTCNA (-ae), called Ttchk by the
Greeks, the goddess of fortune, worshipped
both in Greece and Italy, She was repre-
sented with different attributes. With a
rudder, she was conceived as the divinity
fniiding and conducting the affairs of the
world ; with a ball, she represented the
varying unsteadiness of fortune ; with Plutus,
or the horn of Amalthea, she was the symbol
of the plentiful gifts of fortune. She was
more worshipped by the Romans than by the
(; reeks. Her worship was of great import-
ance also at Antium and Praeneste, whero her
sftrtea or oracles were very celebrated.

Fortumu (BronM, in the British Muaenm.)

"the Islands of the Blessed." The early
Greeks, as we learn from Homer, placed the
Elysian fields, into which favoured heroes
passed without dying, at the extremity of the
earth, near the river Oceanus. [Elysium . ] In
poems later than Homer, an island is spoken
of as their abode; and though its position
was of course indefinite, the poets, and the
geographers who followed them, placed it
beyond the pillars of Hercules. Hence when
certain islands were discovered in the Ocean,
off the W. coast of Aftica, the name of For-
tvmatae Insulae were applied to them. They
are now called the Canary and Madeira

FURULI (-orum), a tmall town of the

Sabines, near the junction of the Himella
with the Tiber.

FORUM (-i), an open space of ground, in
which the public met /or the transaction of
public business, and for the sale and purchase
of provisions. The number of fora increased
at Rome with the growth of the city. They
were level pieces of ground of an oblong form,
and were surrounded by buildings, both pri-
vate and public. The principal fora at Rome
were : — (1) FoRUMRoMANUM,also called simply
the Jbrwrn, and at a later time distinguished
by the epithets vetus or magnum. It lay be-
tween the Capitoline and Palatine Hills, and
ran lengthwise from the foot of the Capitol or
the arch of Septimius Severus in the direction
of the arch of Titus ; but it did not extend
quite so far as to the latter. The origin of the
forum is ascribed to Romulus and Tatius, who
are said to have filled up the swamp or marsh
which occupied its site, and to have set it
apart as a place for the administration of jus-
tice and for holding the assen^blies of the
people. The forum, in its widest sense, in-
cluded the forum properly so called, and the
Comitium. The Comitium occupied the nar-
row or upper end of the forum, and was the
place where the patricians met in their comitia
curiata : the forum, in its narrower sense, was
originally only a market-place, and was not
used for any political purpose. At a later
time, the forum in its narrower sense was the
place of meeting for the plebeians in their
comitia tributa, and was separated from the
comitium by the Rostra or platform, from
which the orators addressed the peopXe. In the
time of Tarquin the forum was surroimded
by a range of shops, probably of a mean
character, but they gradually underwent a
change, and were eventually occupied by
bankers and money-changers. As Rome grew
in greatness, the forum was adorned with
statues of celebrated men, with temples and
basilicae, and with other public buildings.
The site of the ancient forum is occupied by
the Oampo Vaeeino. — (2) Forum Julium or
FoRUM Caksarir, built near the old forum by
Julius Caesar, because the latter was foimd too
small for the transaction of public business. —
(3) FoRUJi AuGUSTi, built by Augustus, behind
the Forum Julium. — (4) Forum Nekvax or
Forum Trajtsitorium, was a small forum lying
between the Temple of Peace and the fora of
Julius Caesar and Augustus. It was built by
Nerva, and was intended to serve as a passage
between the Temple of Peace and the fora of
Caesar and of Augustus. Hence its name. —
(5) Forum Trajani, built by the emperor
Trajan, between the forum of Augustus and
the Campus Martins.

FORind, the name of several towns, ori-

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finally simply markets or places for the ad-
ministration of justice. (1) Appii, in Latiura,
on the Appia Via, in the midst of the Pomp-
tine marshes, 43 miles S. £. of Rome, founded
by the censor Appius Claudius when he made
the Appia Via. Here the Christians from
Rome met the Apostle Paul. — (2) Julii or
JuLiuir {Fr^us)t a Roman colony founded by
Julius Caeaar, B.C. 44, in Gallia Narbonensis,
on the coast; the birthplace of Agricola. —
(3) JcLixjM. See Iluturgis.

FOSI (-orum), a people of Germany, the
neighbours and allies of the Cherusci, in
whose fate they shared. [Chkrusci.]

FOSSA (-ae) or FOSSAE (-Srum), a canal.
(1) Cluilia or Clthliab, a trench about 5
miles from Rome, said to have been the ditch
with which the Alban king Cluilius protected
his camp, when he marched against Rome in
the reign of TullusHostilius. — (2) Drusianab
or Drusinab, a canal which Drusus caused his
soldiers to dig in b.c. 11, uniting the Rhine
with the Yssel. — (3) Mariana or Marian ab,
a canal dug by command of Marius during
his war with the Cimbri, in order to connect the
Rhone with the Mediterranean. — (4) Xbrxis.
See Athos.

FRANCI (-orum), t. e. " the Free men," a
confederacy of German tribes, formed on the
liOwer Rhine in the place of the ancient league
of the Cherusci. After carrying on frequent
wars with the Romans, they at length settled
permanently in Gaul, of which they became
the rulers under their king Clovis, a.d. 496.

FREGELLAE (-arum: Ceprano)^ a town of
the Volsci on the t^iris in Latium, conquered
by the Romans, and colonised b.c. 328.^

FREGENAE, sometimes called FREGEL-
LAE (-arum), a town of Etruria, on the
coast between Alsium and the Tiber, colo-
nised by the Romans, b.c. 245.

FRENTANI (-orum), a Samnite people
dwelling on the coast of the Adriatic, h'om the
river Sagrus on the N. (and subsequently
almost as far N. as from the Atemus) to the
river Frento on the 8., from which they
derived their name. They submitted to the
Romans in b.c. 804.

FRENTO (-6nis : Fortore), a river in Italy
forming the boimdary between the Frentani
and Apulia, and falling into the Adriatic sea.

FRlsil (-orum), a people in Germany,
inhabiting the coast from the E. mouth of
the Rhine to the Amisia {jEms)^ and bounded
on the S. by the Bructeri. In the 5th cen-
tnry they joined the Saxons and Angli in their
invasion of Britain.

FRONTlNUS, SEX. JtLIUS (-1), governor
of Britain (a.d. 75 — 78) where he dis-
tinguished himself by the conquest of the
SUures. He was the author of two treatises

that are still extant — one on the art of war,
and another on the Roman aqueducts. He
was nominate Curator Aquarum^ or Super-
intendent of the Aqueducts, in 97 ; died 106.
FRONTO (-onis), M. CORNELIUS (-i),
a celebrated rhetorician in the reigns of
Hadrian and M. Aurelius, bom at Cirta in
Numidia. He was entrusted with the edu-
cation of M. Aurelius and L. Verus, and was
rewarded with wealth and honours. A few
fragments of his works are extant.

FRUSINO (-onis), a town of the Hemici in .
Latium, and subsequently a Roman colony.
FtCENTIS, FtJCENTIA. [Alba, No. 1.]
FtJCINUS LACUS {Logo di Celano or
Capistrano)f a largp lake in the centre of
Italy and in the country of the Marsi, about
30 miles in circumference, into which all the
mountain streams of the Apennines flow.
As the waters of this lake frequently inun-
dated the surrounding country, the emperor
Claudius constructed an emissarium or arti-
ficial channel for carrying oflf the waters of
the lake into the river Liris. This emissarium
is nearlv perfect : it is almost 3 miles in length.
FCfIUS CALENUS. [Calenus.]
FULVIA (-ae). (1) The mistress of Q.
Curius, one of Catiline's conspirators, who
divulged the plot to Cicero. — (2) A daughter
of M. Fulvius Bambalio of Tusculum, and
successively the wife of P. Clodius, C. Scri-
bonius Curio, and M. Antony ; died b.c. 40.
FUNDINIUS (-i), a writer of comedies,
praised by Horace.

FUNDI (-orum : Fondfj^ an ancient town ,
in Latium on the Appia Via, at the head of a
narrow bay of the sea, running a considerable
way into the land, called the Lacus Fundanus.
The surrounding country produced good wine.*


FtJRlU^S BIBACULUS. [Bibacultts.]
FUSCUS ARISTIUS (-1), a friend of the

poet Horace, who addressed to him an ode

and an epistle.

/?[. ABALI (-6rum), a people in Gallia Aqui-
^^ , tanica, whose chief town was Anderitum

GABII (-drum), a town in Latium, on the
Lacus Gabinus between Rome and Praeneste,
a colony from Alba Longa ; and the place,
according to tradition, where Romulus was
brought up. It was taken by Tarquinius
Superbus by stratagem, and was in ruins in
the time of Augustus. The cinetus Oabinus^
a peculiar mode of wearing the toga at Rome,

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appears to hare been deriyed from this town.
In its neighbourhood are the stone quarries,
from which a part of Rome was built.

GABINIUS, A., (-i), tribune of the plebs
B.C. 66, when be carried a law conferring
upon Pompey the command of the war against
the pirates, and consul in 58, when he took
part in the banishment of Cicero. In 57 he
went to Syria as proconsul, and restored
Ptolemy Aiiletes to the throne of Egypt, in
opposition to a decree of the senate. On his
. return to Rome in 54 he was accused both
of nuyesteu and repetttndae. He was de-
fended by Cicero. He was condemned on the
latter charge, and went into exile. In the
civil war he fought on .the side of Caesar.
He died about the end of b.c. 48.

GADARA, a large fortified city of Pales-
tine, situated on an eastern tributary of the

GADES (-lum : Au^iz), a very ancient town
in Hispania Baetica, founded by the Phoe-
nicians, and one of the chief seats of their
commerce in the W. of Europe, situated on a
small island of the same name (J. de Leon),
separated from the mainland by a narrow
channel. Herodotus says (iv. 8) that the
island of Erythia was close to Gadeira;
whence most later writers supposed the
island of Gades to be the same as the
mythical island of Erythia, from which
Hercules carried off the oxen of Geryon.
Its inhabitants received the Roman franchise
from Julius Caesar.

GAEA (-ae), or Gfi (-es), called TELLUS by
the Romans, the personification of tiie earth,
is described as the first being that sprang from
Chaos, and gave birth to Uranus (Heaven),
and Pontus (Sea). By Uranus she became
the mother of the Titans, who were hated
by their father. Ge therefore concealed them
in the bosom of the earth ; and she made a
large iron sickle, with which Cronos (Saturn)
mutilated Uranus. Ge or Tellus was re-
garded by both Greeks and Romans as one of
the gods of the nether world, and hence is
frequently mentioned where they are invoked.

GAETULIA (-ae), the interior of N. Africa,
S. of Mauretania, Numidia, and the region
bordering on the Syrtes, reaching to the
Atlantic Ocean on the W., and of very inde-
finite extent towards the E. and 8. The
pure Gaetuli were not an Aethiopic («. e.
negro), but a Libyan race, and were most
probably of Asiatic origin. They are probably
the ancestors of the Berbers.

GAIUS or CAlUS (-i), a celebrated Roman
jurist, who wrote under Antoninus Pius and
M. Aurelius. One of his chief works was an
elementary treatise on Roman law, entitled
TmtitutioneSf in 4 books, which was the or.

dinary text book used by those who were
commencing the study of the Roman law,
until the compilation of the Institutiones of
Justinian. It was lost for centuries, until
discovered by Niebuhr in 1816 at Verona.

GALANTHIS. [Galimthias.]

GALATEA (-ae), daughter of Nereus and
Doris. [Acis,]

GALATIA or Ia (-ae), a country of Asia
Minor, composed of partsuof Phrygia and Cap-
padocia, and bounded on the W., S., and S.E.
by those countries, and on the N.E., N., and
N.W. by Pontus, Paphlagonia, and Bithyuia.
It derived its name from its inhabitants, who
were Gauls that had invaded and settled In
Asia Minor at various periods during the
3d century b.c. They speedily overran all
Asia Minor within the Taurus, and exacted
tribute from its various princes ; but Attains
I. gr&ined a complete victory over them (b.c.
280), and compelled them to settle down
within the limits of the country thenceforth
called Galatia, and also, on account of the
mixture of Greeks with the Celtic inha-
bitants, which speedily took place, Graeco-
Galatia and Gallograecia. The people of
Galatia adopted to a great extent Greek
habits and manners and religious observances,
but preserved their own language. They
retained also their political divisions and
forms of government. They consisted of 3
great tribes, the Tolistobogi, the Trocmi, and
the Tectosages, each subdivided into 4 parts,
called by the Greeks Tetrarchies. At the
head of each of these 12 Tetrarchies was a
chief, or Tetrarch. At length one of the
tetrarchs, Dsiotarus, was rewarded for his
services to the Romans in the Mithridatio
War by the title of king, together with a
grant of Pontus and Armenia Minor; and
after the death of his successor, Amyntas,
Galatia was made by Augustus a Roman pro.
vince (b.o. 25). Its only important cities
were, in the S.W. Psssimrs, the capital of
the Tolistobogi ; in the centre Anct&a, the
capital of the Tectosages ; and in the N.E.,
Tavtom, the capital of the TrocmL From the
Epistle of St. Paul to the Galatians, we learn
that the Christian churches in Galatia con-
sisted, in great part, of Jewish converts.

GALBA (-ae), the name of a distinguished
family in the Sulpicia gens. (1) P. Sul-
piciusGalba, twice consul, b.c. 211 and 200,
and in both consulships carried on war
against Philip, king of Macedonia. — (2) Ssa.
SuLPicnjs Galba, praised by Cicero on ac-
count of his oratory, praetor 151, when he
treacherously murder^ a large number of
Lusitanians, and consul 144. — (3) Ssb. 8vtj-
picius Galba, Roman emperor, June a.d. 68
to January a.d. 69, was bom b.c. 3. After

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his consulship he had the goTemment of
Gaul, A.D. 89, where he carried on a successful
war against the Germans, and restored dis-
cipline among the troops. Nero gave him,
in A.D. 61, the government of Hispania
Tarraconensis, where he remained for 8
years. When Nero was murdered Galba
proceeded to Borne, where he was acknow-
ledged as emperor. But his severity and
avarice soon made him unpopular with the
soldiers, by whom he was murdered, at the
instigation of Otho.

GALlNUS, CLAUDIUS (-i), commonly
called Galkn, a very celebrated physician,
bom at Pergamum, ▲.d. 1 30. He was care-
fuUy educated by his father Nicon, who, in
consequence of a dream, chose for him the
profession of medicine. This subject he first
studied at Pergamum, afterwards at Smyrna,
Ck>rinth, and Alexandria. He practised in
his native city, and at Rome, where he at-
tended the emperors M. Aurelius and L.
Yerus. He died about a.i>. 200, at the age
of 70, in the reign of Septimius Severus.
He wrote a great number of works on me-
dical and philosophical subjects. There are
still extant 83 treatises which are acknow-
ledged to be his, besides many that are spu-
rious or doubtful.

GALEPSU8 (-i), a town in Macedonia, on
the Toronaic gulf.


GALESUS (-i), a river in the 8. of Italy,
flowing into the gulf of Tarentum through
the meadows where the sheep grazed whose
wool was so celebrated in antiquity.

GALEU8 (-i), that is, " the lizard," son
pt Apollo and Themisto, from whom the
Galeotae, a family of Sicilian soothsayers,
derived their origin. The principal seat of
the Galeotae was the town of Hybla, which
was hence called Galbotis or Galeatis.

GALILAEA (-ae), at the birth of Christ
was the N.-most of the 3 divisions of Pales-
tine W. of the Jordan. Its inhabitants were
a mixed race of Jews, Syrians, Phoenicians,
Greeks, and others, and were therefore
despised by the Jews of Judaea.

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