William Smith.

A smaller classical dictionary of biography, mythology, and geography ... online

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GALINTHIA8 (-&dis) or GXlANTHIS
(-Idis), daughter of Proetus of Thebes, and a
friend of Alomene. When Alcmene was on
the point of giving birth to Hercules, and the
Moerae and Ilithyiae, at the request of Hera
(Juno), were endeavouring to delay the birth,
Galinthias suddenly rushed in with the false
report that Alcmene had given birth to a son.
The hostile goddesses were so surprised at
this information that they dropped their
arms. Thus the charm was broken, and
Alumeuc was enabled to give birth to Her*



cules. The deluded goddesses avenged the
deception practised upon them by metamor-
phosing Galinthias into a weasel {y»kij),
Hecate, however, took pity upon her, and
made her her attendant, and Hercules after-
wards erected a sanctuary to her.

GALLAECIa (-ae), the country of the
Gallaboi or Callabci, in the N. of Spain,
between the Astures and the Durius. Its
inhabitants were some of the most uncivilised
in Spain. They were defeated with great
slaughter by D. Brutus, consul b.c. 138, who
obtained in consequence the surname of
Gallaecus.

GALLIA (-ae), in its widest acceptation,
indicated all the land inhabited by the Galli or
Celtae, but, in its narrower sense, was applied
to two countries: — (1) Gallia, also called
Gallia Transalpina or Gallia Ulterior, to
distingtiish it from Gallia Cisalpina, or the N.
of Italy. In the time of Augustus it was
bounded on the S. by the Pyrenees and the
Mediterranean ; on the E. by the river Varus
and the Alps, which separated it from Italy,
and by the river Rhine, which separated it
from Germany ; on the N. by the German
Ocean and the English Channel ; and on the
W. by the Atlantic : thus including not only
the whole of France and Belgium, but a part
of Holland, a great part of Switzerland, and
all the provinces of Germany W. of tlie Rhine.
The Greeks, at a very early period, became
acquainted with the S. coast of Gaul, where
they founded, in b.c. 600, the important town
of Massilia. The Romans commenced the
conquest of Gaul b.c. 125, and a few years
afterwards made the south-eastern part of the
country a Roman province. In Caesar's
Commentaries the Roman province is called
simply Provinciat in contradistinction to the
rest of the country ; hence comes the modem
name of Frovence, The rest of the cduntrj'
was subdued by Caesar after a struggle of
several years (58 — 50). At this time Gaul
was divided into 3 parts, Aquittmia, CelticOf
and BelfficOf according to the 3 different
races by which it was inhabited. The Aqui-
tani dwelt in the S.W., between the Pyrenees
and the Garumna ; the Celtae, or Galli proper,
in the centre and W., between the Garumna
and the Sequana and the Matrona ; and the
Belgae in the N.E., between the two last
mentioned rivers and the Rhine. Of the
many tribes inhabiting Gallia Celtica none
were more powerful than the Aedui, the
Sequani, and the Helvetii. Augustus divided
Gaul into 4 provinces. 1. Oallia Narbonengis,
the same as the old Provincia. 2. G. Aqui-
tanicaf which extended from the Pyrenees to
the Liger. 8. O. LugdunensiSy the country
between the Liger, the Sequana, and the



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OAI.LIENUS.



174



GANYMEDE8.



Arar, so called ft-om the colony of Lugdunum |
{Lyor^s)^ founded by Munatiua Plancus. 4. 0, '
Belgica, the country between the Sequana, I
the Arar, and the Rhine. Shortly afterwards
the portion of Belgica bordering on the Rhine,
and inhabited by German tribes, was subdi.
vided into 2 new provinces, called Oertnania
Vrima and Secunda, or Oertnania Superior and
Inferior, The Latin language gradually be-
came the language of the inhabitants, and
Roman civilisation took deep root in all parts
of the country. The rhetoricians and poets
of Guul occupy a dietinguished place in the
later history of Roman literature. On the
dissolution of the Roman empire, Gaul, like
the other Roman provinces, was overrun
by barbarians, and the greater part of it
finally became subject to the Franci or Franks,
under their king Clovis, about a.d. 496. —
(2) Galua Cisalpina, also called G. Citbrios
and G. Togata, a Roman province in the N.
of Italy, was bounded on the W. by Liguria
and Gallia Narbonensis (from which it was
separated by the Alps), and on the N. by
Rhaetia and Noricum; on the E. by the
Adriatic and Venetia (from which it was
separated by the Athesis), and on the S. by
Etruria and Umbria (ft-om which it was
separated by the river Rubicon). It was
divided by the Po into Gallia Transpadana,
also called Italia Transpadama, in the N.,
and Gallia Cispadama in the S. It was
originally inhabited by Ligurians, Umbrians,
Etruscans, and other races ; but its fertility
attracted the Gauls, who at different periods
crossed the Alps, and settled in the country,
after expelling the original inhabitants.
After the 1st Punic war the Romans con-
quered the whole country, and formed it into a
Roman province. The inhabitants, however,
did not bear the yoke patiently, and it was
not till after the final defeat of the Boii in
191 that the coiintry became submissive to
the Romans. The most important tribes
^ire : In Gallia Transpadana, in the direction
of W. to E., the Taurini, Salassi, Libici,
Insubres, Cenomani ; in G. Cispadana, in the
same direction, the Boii, Linoonbs, Sbmones,
GALLIENUS (-i), Roman emperor a.d.
260 — 268, succeeded his father Valerian,
when the latter was taken prisoner by the
Persians in 260. Gallienus was indolent,
profligate, and indifferent to the public wel-
fare ; and his reign was one of the most
ignoble and disastrous in the history of Rome.
Numerous usurpers spnmg up in different
parts of the empire, who are commonly dis-
tinguished as The Thirty Tyrants, Gallienus
was slain by his own soldiers in 268, while
besieging Milan, in which the usurper Au-
reolus had token refuge.



GALLINARIA (-ae). (1) An island off
the coast of Lignuria, celebrated for its number
of hens, whence its name. — (2) Silva, a
forest of pine-trees near Cumae in Campania.

GALLOGRA^CIA. [Galatia.]

GALLU8, C. CORNfilJUS (4), a Roman
poet, bom in Forum Julii (Fr^us) in Gaul,
about B.C. 66, went to Italy at an early age,
and rose to distinction under Julius Caesar
and Augustus. He was appointed by the
latter the first prefect of the province of
Egypt ; but having incurred the displeasure
of Augrustus, while he was in Egypt, the
senate' sent hini into exile ; whereupon he put
an end to his life, e.g. 26. Galhis lived on
intimate terms with Asinius PoUio, Virgil,
Varus, and Ovid, and the latter assigns to
him the first place among the Roman elegiac
poets. All his productions have perished.

GALLU8, TREBONIANUS (-i), Roman
emperor, a.d. 251 — 254, and the successor of
Decius, purchased a peace with the Goths on
very dishonourable terms, and was after-
wards put to death by his own soldiei-s.

GALLU8 (-i), a river in Galatia, falling
into the Sangarius, near Pessinus. From it
the priests of Cybele are said to have ob-
tained their name of Galli.

GANDARIDAE, GANDARITAE, or GAN-
DARAE (-&rum), an Indian people, in the
middle of the Punjab, between the rivers
Acesines {Cfhenab) and Hydraotes {Itavee)^
whose king, at the time of Alexander's
invasion, was a cousin and namesake of the
celebrated Poms.

GANG£s (-is), the greatest river of India,
which it divided into the 2 parts named by
the ancients India intra Gangem (iTmcfes/an),
and India extra Gangem {Burnuihf Cochin
China f Sianiy and the Malay Peninmla). It
rises in the highest part of the Emodi
Montes {Himalaya) ^ and flows by several
mouths into the head of the Gangeticus
Sinus {Bay of Bengal). The knowledge of
the ancients respecting it was very imperfect.

GANtMEDES (-is), son of Tros and
Cailirrhoe, and brother of Ilus and Assaracus,
was the most beautiful of all mortals, and
was carried off by the gods that he might fill
the cup of Zeus (Jupiter), and live among the
immortal gods. This is the Homeric account ;
but other traditions give different details.
He is called son either of Laomedon, or of
Ilus, or of Erichthonius, or of Assaracus.
Later writers state that Zeus himself carried
him off, in the form of an eagle, or by means of
his eagle. There is, ftirther, no agreement as
to the place where the event occurred ; though
later writers usually represent him as
carried off ttom Mount Ida. Zeus compen
sated the father for his loss by a pair of



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GABAMANTES.



175



GELLIUS.



divine horses. Astronomers placed Gany-
medes among the stars under the name of



GanymedM. (VUcouti, lius. Pio. Clem., vol. S, tav. 49.)

Aquarius. His name was sometimes cor-
rupted in Latin into Catamltus.



Ganymedet. (Zannoni, Gal. di Fireuze, aerie 4,
. vol. 2, pL 101.)

GARAM ANTES (-um), the S.-most people
known to the ancients in N. Africa, dwelt far
S. of the Great Syrtis in the region called
Phazania {Fezzan)y where they had a
capital city, G&r^m&. They are mentioned,
by Herodotus as a weak unwarlike people.

GARGANUS M0N8 {Monte Gargano), a
mountain and promontory in Apulia, on
which were oak forests.



GAEGARA (^rum), the S. summit of M.
Ida, in the Troad, with a city of the same
name at its foot.

GARGETTUS (4), a demus in Attica, on
the N.W. 8l<jpe of Mt. Hymettus ; the birth-
place of the philosopher Epicurus.

GARITES (-um), a people in Aquitania,
neighbours^ of the Ausci.

GAROCELI (.o/um), a people in Gallia
Narbonensis, near Mt. Cenis.

GARUMNA (-ae: Garonne)^ one of the
chief rivers of Gaul, rising in the Pyrenees,
flowing N.W. through Aquitania, and be-
coming a bay of the sea below Burdigalu
{Bordeaux),

GARUMNI (-6rum), a people in Aqui-
tania, on the Garumna.

GAUGAMELA (-orum), a village in As-
syria, the scene of the last battle between
Alexander and Darius, b.c. 331, commonly
called the battle cf Arbela.

GAURUS MONS, GAURANUS or -NI M.,
a volcanic range of mountains in Campania,
between Cumae and Neapolis, in the neigh.
bourhood of Puteoli, producing good wine,
and memorable for the defeat of the Samnites
by M. Valerius Corvus, b.c. 343.

GiZA (-ae), the last city on the S. W.
frontier of Palestine, and the key of the
country on the side of Egypt, stood on an
eminence about 2 miles from the sea, and
was very strongly fortified. It was one of
the 5 cities of the Philistines, and was taken
by Alexander the Great after an obstinate
defence of several months.

GEBENNA MONS. [Cebenna.]

GEDROSIA (-ae), the furthest province of
the Persian empire on the S.E., and one of
the subdivisions of Ariana, bounded on the
W. by Carmania, on the N. by Drangiaha
and Arachosia, on the E. by India, or, as the
country about the lower course of the Indus
was called, Indo-Scythia, and on the S. by
the Mare Erythraeum, or Indian Ocean. It
is known in history chiefly through the
distress suffered for want of water, in
passing through it, by the army.of Alexander.

GELA (-ae), a city on the S. coast of
Sicily, on a river of the same name, founded
by Rhodians from Lindos, and by Cretans,
B.C. 690. It soon obtained great power and
wealth ; and, in 682, it founded Agrigentum.
Gelon transported half of its inhabitants to
Syracuse; the place gradually fell into
decay, and in the time of Augustus was not
inhabited. The poet Aeschylus died here.

GELDUBA (-ae : Gelb^ below Cologne), a
fortified place of the Ubii^ on the Rhine, in
Lower Germany. /

GELLiUS, AULU8 (-i), a Latin gram-
marian, who lived about a.d. 117 — ISO. U«



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GELON.



176



GENIUS.



wrote a work, still extant, containing nume-
rous extracts from Greek and Roman
writers, which he called Noctes Attieae^
because it was composed near Athens, during
the long nights of winter.

GELON (-onls), tyrant of Gela, and after-
wards of Syracuse, became master of his
native city, b.c. 491. In 485 he obtained
the supreme power in Syracuse, and hence,
forth endeavoured, in every possible way, to
enlarge and enrich it. In 480 he gained a
brilliant victory at Himera over the Cartha-
ginians, who had invaded Sicily with an
immense army on the very same day as that
of Salamis. He died in 478, after reigning
7 years at Syracuse. He is represented as a
man of singular leniency and moderation,
and as seeking in every way to promote the
welfare of his subjects.

GELONI (-orum), a Scythian people,
dwelling in Sarmatia Asiatica, to the E. of
the river Tanals {Don),

GEMONIAE (scalae) or GEMONII (gra-
tlus),. a flight of steps cut out of the
Aventine, down which the bodies of crimi.



nals strangled in the prison were dragged,
and afterwards thrown into the Tiber.

GENABUM or CENABUM (-i : Orlearu),
a town in Gallia Lugdunensis, on the N.
bank of the Ligeris, the chief town of the
Camutes, subsequently called Civitas Aure-
lianorum, or Aurelianensis Urbs, whence its
modem name.

GENAUNI (-firum), a people in Vindelicia,
the inhabitants of the Alpine valley, now
called Valle di Non^ subdued by Drusus.

GENEVA or GENAVA (-ae : Geneva), the
last town of the Allobroges, on the frontiers
of the Helvetii, situated on the S. bank of
the Ehone, at the spot where the river
flowed out of the Lacus Lemannus. There
was a bridge here over the Rhone.

GENITRIX (-Icis), that is, " the mother,"
used by Ovid, as a surname of Cybele, in the
place of tnateTt or magna mater ; but it is
better known as a surname of Venus, to
whom Caesar dedicated a temple at Rome,
as the mother of the Julia Gens.

GENIUS (-i) a protecting spirit, analogous
to the guardian angels invoked by the Church



Wine Genius. (A Mosaic, from Pompeii.)



of Rome. The belief in such spirits existed I
both in Greece and at Rome. The Greeks



called them Daemons {ietffMtte)', aind the poets
represented them as dwelling on earth, un-



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GENSERIC.



177



GERMANIA.



seen by mortals, as the ministers of Zeus
(Jupiter), and as the guardians of men and
of justice. The Greek philosophers took up
this idea, and taught that daemons were
assigned to men at the moment of their
birth, that they accompanied men' through
life, and after death conducted their souls to
Hades. The Romans seem have to received
their notions respecting the genii from the
Etruscans, though the name Genius itself is
Latin (connected with gi-gn-o, gen-uif and
equivalent in meaning to generator^ or
father). According to the opinion of the
Romans, every human being at his birth
obtained a genius, whom he worshipped as
sanctus et sanetissimtts detu^ especially on his
birthday, with libations of wine, incense, and
garlands of flowers. The bridal bed was
sacred to the genius, on account of his con-
nection with generation, and the bed itself
was called lecttts genialis. On other merry
occasions, also, sacrifices were oflfered to the
genius, and to indulge in merriment was
not unfreqnently expressed by genio tn-
dulgercy genium curare or plaeare. Every
place had also its genius. The genii are
usually represented in works of art as
winged beings. The genius of a place
appears in the form of a serpent eating fruit
placed before him.

GENSERIC, king of the Yandals, and the
most terrible of all the barbarian invaders of
the empire. In a.d. 429 he crossed over
from Spain, and made himself master of
the whole of N. Africa. In 455 he took
Rome and plundered it for 14 days. He
died in 477, at a great age. He was an
Arian, and persecuted his Catholic sub-
jects.

GENTIUS (-i), king of the Illyrians,
conquered by the Romans, b.c. 168.

GENUA (-ae : Genoa), an important com-
mercial town in Liguria, situated at the
extremity of the Ligurian gulf {Oulf of
Genoa), and subsequently a Roman muni-
cipium.

GENUSUS (-i), a river in Greek lUyria,
N. of the Apsus.

GEPIDAE (-&nmi), a Gothic people, who
fought under Attila, and afterwards settled
in Dacia, on the banks of the Danube. They
were conquel^ by the Langobardi or Lom-
bards.

GERAESTUS (-i), a promontory and har-
bour at the S. extremity of Euboea, with a
celebrated temple of Poseidon (Neptune).

GERAN£A (-ae), a range of mountains,
running along the W. coast of Megaris,
terminating in the promontory Olmiae in the
Ciorinthian territory.

GERENIA (-ae), an ancient town in



Messenia, the birthplace of Nestor, who is
hence called Gerenian.

GERGOVIA (-ae). (1) A fortified town
of the Arvemi in Gaul, situated on a high
and inaccessible hill, W. or S.W. of the
Elaver (Allier), probably in the neighbour-
hood of the modern Clermont. — (2) A town
of the Boil in Gaul, of uncertain site.

GERMANIA (-ae), a country bounded by
the Rhine on the W., by the Vistula and the
Carpathian mountains on the E., by the
Danube on the S., and by the German Ocean
and the Baltic on the N. It thus included
much more than modern Grermany on the N.
and E., but much less in the W. and S. The
N. and N.E. of Gallia Belgica were likewise
called Germania Prima and Secunda under
the Roman emperors [Gallia] ; and it was
in contradistinction to these provinces that
Germania proper was also called Gebuania
Magna or G. T&ansbhbnama or G. Babbaba.
The inhabitants were called Germami by the
Romans. Tacitus says that Germani was the
name of the Tungri, who were the first German
people that crossed the Rhine ; and as these
were the first German tribes with which the
Romans came into contact, they extended the
name to the whole nation. The Germans were
a branch of the great Indo-Germanic race, who,
along with the Celts, migrated into Europe
from the Caucasus and the countries around
the Black and Caspian seas, at a period long
anterior to historical records. They are
described as a people of high stature and of
great bodily strength, with fair complexions,
blue eyes, and yellow or red hair. Many of
their tribes were nomad, and every year
changed their place of abode. The men
found their chief delight in the perils and
excitement of war. The women were held
in high honour. Their chastity was without
reproach. Both sexes were equally distin-
guished for their unconquerable love of
liberty. In each tribe we find the people
divided into 4 classes : the nobles ; the free-
men ; the freedmen or vassals ; and the
slaves. A king or chief was elected from
among the nobles — ^his authority was very
limited, and in case of war breaking out was
often resigned to the warrior that was chosen
as leader. The Germani first appear in his-
tory in the campaigns of the Cimbri and
Teutones (b.c. 113), the latter of whom were
undoubtedly a Germanic people. [Tbutonbs.]
Campaigns against the Germans were carried
on by Julius Ceesar, 58 — 53 ; by Drusus,
12 — 9 ; by Varus most unsuccessfully, a.d. 9 ;
and by Germanicu?, who was gaining con-
tinned victories when recalled by Tiberius,
A.D. 16. No further attempts were made by
the Romans to conquer Germany. They had



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GEKMANICUS.



178



GLAUCUS.



rather to defend their OTm empire from the
InTasions of the variouB German tribes, espe-
eially againbt the 2 powerful confederacies of
the Alemanni and Franks [Ai.zMAKia :
Fkanci] ; and in the 4th and 5th centuries
the Germans obtained possession of some of
the fairest provinces of the empire. — The
Germans are divided by Tacitus into 3 great
tribes : 1. Ingaevones, on the Ocean. 2. Rer-
mioneSf inhabiting the central parts. 3. Is-
taevone»t in the remainder of Germany,
consequently in the £. and S. parts. To
these we ought to add the inhabitants of the
Scandinavian peninsula, the Hilleviones, di-
Tided into the Sinones and Sitones.

GERMlNICUS (-i), CAESAR (-Uris), son
of Nero Claudius Drusus and Antonia, daugh.
ter of the triumvir Antony, was bom b.c. 15.
He was adopted by his uncle Tiberius in the
lifetime of Augustus, and was raised at an
early age to the honours of the state. He
assisted Tiberius in Ms war against the Pan-
nonians and Dalmatians (▲.n. 7 — 10), and
Germans (11, 12). He had the command of
the legions in Germany, when the alarming
mutiny broke out among the soldiers in
Germany and niyricum, upon the death of
Augustus (14). After restoring order among
the troops, he devoted himself to the conquest
of Germany, and carried on the war with
such vigour and success, that he needed only
another year to reduce completely the whole
country between the Khine and the Elbe.
But the jealousy of Tiberius saved Germany.
He recalled Germanicus to Rome (17), and
gave him the command of all the eastern
provinces ; but at the same time he placed
Cn. Piso over Syria, with secret instructions
to check and thwart Germanicus. Germani-
cus died in Syria in 19, and it was believed
both by himself and by others that he had
been poisoned by Piso. He was deeply
lamented by the Roman people; and Ti-
berius was obliged to sacrifice Piso to the
public indignation. [Piso.] By Agrippina
he had 9 children, of whom the most no-
torious were the emperor Caligula, and
Agrippina, the mother of Nero. Germani.
CUB was an author of some repute. He
wrote several poetical works, most of which
are lost.

GERRA, one of the chief cities of Arabia,
and a great emporium for the trade of Arabia
and India, stood on the N. E. coast of Arabia
Felix. The inhabitants, called Gerraei, were
said to have been originally Chaldaeans, who
were driven out of Babylon.

GERtON (.5nis), or GERtONfiS (-ae),
son of Chrysaor and Callirrhoe, a monster
with 3 heads, or according to others, with 3
bodies united together, was a king in Spain,



and possessed magnificent oxen, which Her-
cules carried away. [Hercules.]

GESORIACUM (-i : Bwlogne), a port of
the Morini in Gallia Belgica, at which persons
usually embarked to cross over to Britain :
it was subsequently called Bononia, whence
its modem name.

GETA (-ae), SEPTIMIuS (-i), brother of
Caracalla, by whom he was assassinated, a.d.
212.^ [Cauacalla.]

GETAE (-arum), a Thracian people, called
Daci by the Romans. Herodotus and Thucy-
dides place them S. of the Ister (Danvbe)
near its mouths ; but in the time of Alexan-
der the Great they dwelt beyond this river
and N. of the Triballi.

GIGANTES (-um), the giants, sprang from
the blood that fell from Uranus upon the
earth, so that Ge (the earth) was their
mother. They are represented as beings of
a monstrous size, with fearful countenances
and the tails of dragons. They made an
attack upon heaven, being armed with huge
rocks and trunks of trees ; but the gods with
the assistance of Hercules destroyed them
all, and buried many of them under Aetna
and other volcanoes. It is worthy of remark,
that most writers place the giants in volcanic
districts ; and it is probable that the story
of their contest with the gods took its origin
from volcanic convulsions.

GIGONUS, a town and promontory of
Macedonia on the Thermaic gulf.

GLIbRIO (-6nis), ACILIUS ' (-i). (1)
Consul, B.C. 191, when he defeated Antiochus
at Thermopylae. — (2) Praetor urbanus in
70, when he presided at the impeachment of
Verres, and consul in 67, and subsequently
the successor of L. Lucullus in the command
of the war against Mithridates, in which
however he was superseded by Cn. Pompey.

GLANIS (-is), more usually written
Clanis.

GLlPHfRA. [Abchklaus, No. 6.]

GLAUCE (-es). (1) One of the Nereides,
the name Glauce being only a personification
of the colour of the sea. - -(2) Daughter of
Creonof Corinth, also called Creusa. [C&eon.]

GLAUCUS (-i). (1) Of Potniae, son of
Sisyphus and father of Bellerophontes, torn
to pieces by his own mares, because he had
despised the power of Aphrodite (Venus).
— (2) Son of Hippolochus, and grandson of
Bellerophontes, who was commander of the
Lycians in the Trojan war. He was con-
nected with Diomedes by ties of hospitality ;
and when they recognised one another in the
battle, they abstained from fighting, and ex-
changed arms. Glaucus was slain by Ajax.
— (3) One of . the sons of the Cretan
king Minos by Pasiphae or Crete. When



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GLYCERA.



179



GORGONES.



a boy, he fell into a cask fall of honey,
and was smothered. He was discovered by
the soothsayer Polyidos of Argos, who was
pointed out by Apollo for this purpose.
Minos then required him to restore his son
to life. Being unable to do this he was
buried with Glaucus, when a serpent revealed
a herb which restored the dead body to life.
— (4) Of Anthedon ih Boeotia, a fisher,
man, who became a sea-god by eating a part
of the divine herb which Cronos (Saturn)
had sown. It was believed that Glaucus
visited every year all the coasts and islands
of Greece, accompanied by marine monsters,
and gave his prophecies. Fishermen and



Online LibraryWilliam SmithA smaller classical dictionary of biography, mythology, and geography ... → online text (page 34 of 90)