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sailors paid particular reverence to him, and
watched his oracles, which were believed to
be very trustworthy. — (5) Of Chios, a statu,
ary in metal, distinguished as the inventor
of the art of soldering metals, flourished
B,o. 490.

GLYCERA (.ae), " the sweet one,*' a fa-
Tourite name of courtesans.

G5fOSUS, GNOSSUS. [Cnosus.]

GOLGI (.drum), a town in Cyprus, of
uncertain site, a Sicyonian colony, and one
of the chi^ seats of the worship of Aphrodite

GOMPHI (.orum), a town in Hestiaeotis
in Thessaly, a strong fortress on the confines
of Epirus, commanding the chief pass between
Thessaly and Epirus.

GONNI (.6rum), GONNUS (-i), a strongly
fortified town of the Ferrhaebi in Thessaly,
on the river Peneus and at the entrance of
the vale of Tempo.

GORDIANUS, M. ANTONIUS;(-i), the name
of 3 Roman emperors, father, son, and grand,
son. The father was a man distinguished by
intellectual and moral excellence, and had
governed Africa for many years, when he was
proclaimed emperor at the age of 80. He
associated his son with him in the empire,
but reigned only two months. His son was
slain in battle, and he thereupon put an end
to his own life, a.d. 238. His grandson
was proclaimed emperor by the soldiers in
Rome A.D. 238, after the murder of Balbinus
and Pupienus, although he was not more
than 12 years old. He reigned 6 years, from
238 to 244, when he was assassinated by
* Misitheus in Mesopotamia.

GORDIUM (.i), the ancient capital of
Phrygia, situated on the Sangarius, the royal
residence of the kings of the dynasty of
Gordius, and the scene of Alexander's cele.
brated exploit of " cutting the Gordian knot."


GORDIUS (.1), an ancient king of Phrygia,
and father of Midas, was originally a poor
peasant. Internal disturbances having broken

out in Phrygia, an oracle informed the in.
habitants that a waggon would bring them a
king, who would put an end to their troubles.
Shortly afterwards Gordius suddenly appeared
riding in his waggon in the assembly of the
people, who at once acknowledged him as
king. Gordius, out of gratitude, dedicated
his chariot to Zeus (Jupiter), in the acropolis
of Gordium. The pole was fastened to the
yoke by a knot of bark ; and an oracle de.
Glared that whosoever should untie the knot
should reign over all Asia. Alexander, on
his arrival at Gordium, cut the knot with hia
sword, and applied the oracle to himself.

GORDtENE or CORDUENE (.es), a moun-
tainous district in the S. of Armenia Major,
between the Arsissa Palus {Lake Van) and
the Gordyaei Montes {Mountains of Kur.
distan). Its warlike inhabitants, called
Gordyaei, or Cordueni, were no doubt the
same people as the Cabduchi of the earlier
Greek geographers, and the modem Kurds.

G0RG£ (.es), daughter of Oeneus and
sister of Deianira, both of whom retained
their original forms, when their other sisters
were metamorphosed by Artemis (Diana) inU^

GORGIAS (.ae). (1) Of Leontinl, in SicUy,
a celebrated rhetorician and sophist, bom
about B.C. 480, and lived upwards of 100
years. In b.o. 427 he was sent by his fellow,
citizens as ambassador to Athens, for the
purpose of soliciting its protection against
Syracuse. A dialogue of Plato bears his
name. Gorgias wrote several works, which
are lost, with the exception of two decla.
mations — the Apology of Palamedes, and the
Encomium on Helena, the genuineness of
which, however, is doubtful. — (2) Of Athens,
gave instruction in rhetoric to young M.
Cicero, when he was at Athens.

GORGONES (-um), the name of 3 frightful

The Gorron Meduaa. (Marble Uead, at Munich.)

maidens, Sthsmo, Evkyalx, and MrntSA,
V 2

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daughters of Phorcys and Ceto, whence they
are sometimes called Phorctdes. Later
traditions placed them in Libya. Instead of
hair their heads were covered with hissing
serpents ; and they had wings, brazen claws,
and enormous teeth. Medusa, who alone of
the sisters was mortal, was, according to
some legends, at first a beautiful maiden, but
her hair was changed into serpents by Athena
(Minerva), in consequence of her having
become by Poseidon (Neptune) the mother of
Chrysaor and Pegasus, in one of Athena's
temples. Her head now became so fearful
that every one who looked at it was changed
into stone. Hence the great difficulty which
Perseus had in killing her. [Pekseus.]
Athena afterwards placed the head in the
centre of her shield or breastplate.

The Gorgon Medtunu (Florentine Oem.)

GORTYN, GORTYNA, one of the most
ancient cities in Crete, on the river Lethaeus,
90 stadia from its harbour Leben, and 130
stadia from its other harbour Matalla.

GORTYNIA (-ae), a town in Emathia in
Macedonia, of uncertain site.

(-xmi), a powerful German people, who origi-
nally dwelt on the Prussian coast of the Baltic
at the mouth of the Vistula, but afterwards
migrated S. At the beginning of the 3rd
century they appear on the coasts of the
Black Sea, and in a.d. 272 the emperor
Aurelian surrendered to them the whole of
Bacia. About this time we find them sepa-
rated into 2 great divisions, the Ostrogoths
or E. Goths, and the Visigoths or W. Goths.
The Ostrogoths settled in Moesia and Pan-
nonia, while the Visigoths remained N. of the
Danube. The Visigoths under their king
Alaric invaded Italy, and took and plundered
Rome (410). A few years afterwards they

settled permanently in the S.W. of Gaul, and
established a kingdom of which Tolosa was
the capital. From thence they invaded
Spain, where they also founded a Idngdom,
which lasted for more than 2 coituries, till
it was overthrown by the Arabs. The Ostro-
goths meantime extended theif dominions
almost up to the gates of Constantinople ; and
under their king, Theodoric the Great, they
obtained possession of the whole of Italy
(493). The Ostrogoths embraced Christianity
at an early period ; and it was for their use
that tJlphilas trai^lated the sacred Scriptures
into Gothic, in the 4th century.

GOTHINI, a Celtic people in the S.E. of
Germany, subject to the Quadi.

GRACCHUS (4), the name of a celebrated
family of the Sempronia gens. Q) Tib. Sex.
PROious Gracchus, a distinguished general in
the 2nd Punic war. In b.c. 21 2 he fell in battle
against Mago, at Campi Veteres, in Lncania.
His body was sent to Hannibal, who honoured
it with a magnificent burial.-— (2) Tm. Sem.
PRONius Gracchus, distinguished as the
father of the tiibunes Tiberius and Caius
Gracchus. For public services rendered
when tribune of the plebs (187) to P. Scipio
Africanus, he was rewarded with the hand of
his youngest daughter, Cornelia. He was
twice consul and once censor. He had 12
children by Cornelia, all of whom died at
an early age, except the 2 tribunes, and a
daughter, Cornelia, who was married to P.
Scipio Africanus the yoimger. — (3) Tib. Sem-
PRONius Gracchus, elder son of No. 2, lost
his father at an early age, and was educated,
together with his brother Caius, by his illus-
trious mother, Cornelia, who made it the
object of her life to render her sons worthy
of their father and of her own ancestors.
The distressed condition of the Roman people
deeply excited the sympathies of Tiberius,
He had observed with grief the deserted state
of some parts of the country, and the im-
mense domains of the wealthy, cultivated
only by slaves ; and he resolved to use every
cfibrt to remedy, this state of things by en-
deavouring to create an industrious middle
class of agriculturists, and to put a check
upon the unbounded avarice of the ruling
party. "With this view, when tribune of the
plebs, 133, he proposed a bill for the renew-
ing and enforcing of the Licinian law, which
enacted that no citizen should hold more than
500 jugera of the public land. He added
a clause, permitting a father of 2 sons
to hold 250 jugera for each; so that a
father of two sons might hold in all 1000
jugera. To this measure the aristocracy
offered the most vehement opposition ; never-
theless, through the vigour and energy of

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Tiberius, it was passed, and trium-virs were
appointed for carrying it into execution.
These were Tib. Gracchus; App. Claudius, his
father-in-law ; and his brother, G. Gracchus.
About this time Attains died, and on the
proposition of Gracchus his property was
divided among the poor, that they might
purchase farming implements, &c. When
the time came for the election of the tribunes
for the following year, Tiberius again offered
himself as a candidate ; but in the very midst
of the election he was publicly assassinated
by P. Scipio Nasica» He was probably about
35 years of age at the time of his death.
Tib. was a sincere friend of the oppressed,
and acted from worthy motives, whatever his
political errors may have been. Much of the
odium that has been thrown upon him and
his brother has risen Arom a misunderstanding
of the Boman agrarian laws. — (4) C. Sbm-
paoKixjs GaACCHU"*, brother of the preceding,
was tribune of the plebs, 123. His reforms
were far more extensive than his brother's, and
such was his influence with the people that he
carried all he proposed ; and the senate were
deprived of some of their most important pri-
vileges. His first measure was the renewal
of the agrarian law of his brother. He also
enacted that the judices, who had hitherto
been elected from the senate, should in future
be chosen from the equites ; and that in every
year, before the consuls were elected, the
senate should determine the 2 provinces
which the consuls should have. Gains was
elected tribune a second time, 122. The
senate, finding it impossible to resist the
measures of Gains, resolved to destroy his
influence with the people. For this purpose
they persuaded M. Livius Drusus, one of the
colleagues of Cains, to propose measures still
more popular than those of Cains. The
people allowed themselves to be duped by the
treacherous agent of the senate, and the
popularity of Cains gradually waned. He
failed in obtaining the tribuneship. for the
following year (121) ; and when his year of
office expired, his enemies began to repeal
several of his enactments. Cains appeared
in the forum to oppose these proceedings,
upon which a riot ensued, and while his
friends fought in his defence, he fled to the
grove of the Furies, where he fell by the
hands of his slave, whom he had commanded
to put him to death. About 3000 of his
firiends were slain, and many were thrown
into prison, and there strangled.

GRADIVUS (-i), i.e. the marching (pro-
bably from gradior)f a surname of Mars, who
is hence called graditna pater and rex gra-
dwus, Numa appointed 12 Salii as priests of
this god.

GBAEAE (.&rum), that is, "the old
women," daughters of Phorcys and Ceto,
were 8 in nxmiber, P^hredOy Enyo, and Dino,
also called Phorcydes, They had grey hair
from their birth ; and had only one tooth and
one eye in common, which they borrowed
from each other when they wanted them.

GRAECIA (-ae) or HELLAS (-&dos), a
country in Europe, the inhabitants of which
were called Graeci or Hbulenes. Among
the Greeks Hellas did not signify any par.
ticular country, bounded by certain geogra-
phical limits, but was used in general to
signify the abode of the Hellenes, wherever
they might happen to be settled. Thus the
Greek colonies of Gyrene in Africa, of Syra-
cuse in Sicily, of Tarentum in Italy, and of
Smyrna in Asia, are said to be in Hellas.
In the most ancient times Hellas was a small
district of Phthiotis in Thessaly. As the
inhabitants of this district, the Hellenes,
gradually spread over the surrounding
country, their name was adopted by other
tribes, till at length the whole of the N. of
Greece from the Ceraunian and Cambunian
mountains to the Corinthian isthmus was
designated by the name of Hellas. Pelopon.
nesus was generally spoken of, during the
flourishing times of Greek independence, as
distinct from Hellas proper ; but subsequently
Peloponnesus and the Greek islands were also
included under the general name of Hellas,
in opposition to the land of the barbarians.
The Romans called the land of the Hellenes
Oraecia (whence we have derived the name
of Greece), probably from their flrst becom-
ing acquainted with the tribe of the Graeci,
who appear at an early period to have dwelt
on the W. coast of Epirus. The greatest
length of Greece proper from Mt. Olympus
to Cape Taenarus is about 250 English miles ;
its greatest breadth from the W, coast of
Acamania to Marathon in Attica is about
180 miles. Its area is somewhat less than
that of Portugal. On the N. it was separated
by the Cambunian and Ceraunian mountains
from Macedonia and Illyria; and on the
other 3 sides it ia bounded by the sea, namely,
by the Ionian sea on the W., and by the
Aegaean on the £. and S. It is one of the
most mountainous countries of Europe, and
possesses few extensive plains and few con-
tinuous valleys. The inhabitants were thus
separated from one another by barriers which
it was not easy to siirmount, and were natu-
rally led to form separate political commu-
nities. At a later time the N. of Greece was
generally divided into 10 districts ; Epihus,
Thessalia, Acaknania, Aetolia, Doris, Lo-
CRis, Phocis, Boeotia, Attica, and Megauis.
The S. of Greece or Peloponnesus was usually

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divided into 10 districts likewise : Ck)siirrHiA,
SicTOMiA, Phliasia, Achaia, Bus, Messenia,
Laconia, Cyntj&ia, Aaoous, and Abcadia.
An account of the geogmphyf early inha-
bitants, and history of each of these districts
is given in separate articles. The most oele-
brated of the original inhabitan£s of Greece
were the Pelasgians, firom whom a consi-
derable part of the Greek population was
undoubtedly descended. [Pelasoi.] The
Hellenes traced their origin to a mythical
ancestor Hellen, from whose sons and grand-
sons they were divided into the 4 great tribes
of Dorians, Aeolians, Achaeans and lonians.

GRAEc!a magna or G. MAJOR, a name
given to the districts in the S. of Italy, in-
habited by the Greeks. This name was never
used simply to indicate the S. of Italy ; it
was always confined to the Greek cities and
their territories, and did not include the
surrounding districts, inhabited by the
Italian tribes. It appears to have been ap-
plied chiefly to the cities on the Tarentine
gulf, Tarentum, Sybaris, Croton, Caulonia,
Siris (Heraclea), Metapontum, Locri and
Rhegium; but it also included the Greek
cities on the W. coast, such as Cumae and
Neapolis. Strabo extends the appellation
even to the Greek cities of Sicily.

GRAMPIUS MONS {Grampian HilU), a
range of mountains in Britannia Barbara or
Caledonia, separating the Highlands and Low-
lands of Scotland. Agricola penetrated as far
,as these mountains and defeated Galgacus at
their foot.

GRAnICUS (-i), a small river of Mysia,
rising in Mt. Ida, and falling into the
Propontis {Sea of Marmara) E. of Priapus:
memorable as the scene of the victory of
Alexander the Great over the Persians (b.c.
334), and, in a less degree, foi: a victory of
Lucullus over Mithridates, b.c. 73.

GRiTIAE. [Charites.]

GRlTliNUS (-i), emperor of the Western
Empire, a.d. 867 — 883, son of Valentinian I.
He was deposed and slain by the usurper

GRATIUS FALISCUS (-i), a contemporary
of Ovid, and the author of an extant poem on
the chase.

GRAVISCAE (-arum), an ancient city of
Etruria, subject to Tarquinii, and colonised
by the Romans b.c. 183. It was situated in
the Maremma, and its air was imhealthy,
whence Virgif-calls it intempeatae Oraviscae.

GRUDII (-6rum) , a people in Gallia Belgica,
subject to the Nervii, N. of the Scheldt.

GRUMENTUM (-i), a town in the interior
of Licania, on the road from Beneventum to

GRYLLUS (-i), elder son of Xenophon,
fell at the battle of Mantinea, b.c. 362, after
he had, according to some accounts, given
Epaminondas his mortal wound.

GRTNIA (-ae) or -lUM (-i), an ancient
city in the S. of Mysia, celebrated for its
temple and oracle of Apollo, who is hence
called Grynaeus Apollo,

GRYPS (-jTis) or GRtPHUS (-i), a giiffln,
a fabulous animal, with the body of a lion, and
the head and wings of an eagle, dwelling in
the Rhipaean mountains, between the Hy-
perboreans and the one-eyed Arimaspians,
and guarding the gold of the north. The
Arimaspians mounted on horseback, and at-
tempted to steal the gold, and hence arose
the hostility between the horse and the griffin.
The belief in griffins came from the East,
where they are mentioned among the fabulous
animals which guarded the gold of India.

GUGERNI or GUBERNI (-drum), a people
of Germany, who crossed the Rhine, and
settled on its left bank, between the Ubii and

GULUSSA (-ae), a Numidian, 2nd son of
Masinissa, and brother to Micipsa and Mas-
tanabaL He left a son, named Massita.

GUTTONES. [Gothi.]

GtARUS (-i) or GtARA (-6rum), one of
the Cyclades, a small island S. W. of Andros,
poor and unproductive, and inhabited only by
fishermen. Under the Roman emperors it
was a place of banishment.

GtAS or Gt£S, or GtGfiS (-ae), son of
Uranus (Heaven) and Ge (Earth), one of the
giants with 100 hands, who made war upon
the gods.

GYGAEUS LACUS, a small lake in Lydia,
N. of Sardis.

GYGfiS (-ae), first king of Lydia of the
dynasty of the Mermnadae, dethroned Can-
daules, and succeeded to the kingdom, as re*
lated under Gamdaules. He reigned b.c. 716
—678. He sent magnificent presents to
Delphi, and " the riches of Gyges " became a

GtLIPPUS (-1), a Spartan, son of aean-
dridas, sent as the Spartan commander to
Syracuse, to oppose the Athenians, b.c. 414.
Under his command the Syracusans annihi-
lated the great Athenian armament, and took
Demosthenes and Nicias prisoners, 413. In
404 he was commissioned by Lysander, alter
the capture of Athens, to carry home the
treasure ; but by opening the seams of the
sacks imdemeath, he abstracted a consider-
able portion. The theft was discovered, and
Gylippus went into exile.

GYMNESLAE. [Baleares.]

GYNDES (-ae), a river of Assyria, rising
in the country of the Matieni (in the moun-

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tains of Kurdistan), and flowing into the
Tigris, celebrated through the story that
Cyrus the Great drew oflf its waters by 360

GYItTON (-6nis), GYRTONA (-ae), an an-
cient town in Pelasgiotis in Thessaly, on the
Pen eus.

GYTHEUM, GYTHIUM (-i), an ancient
8ea.port town of Laconia, situated near the
head of the Loconian bay, S. W. of the mouth
of the river Eurotas.

TJ ADES or AIDES (-ae) or PLUTO (-onis),
■"- the god of the nether world. In ordi-
nary life he was usually called Pluto (the
giver of wealth), because people did not like
to pronounce the dreaded name of Hades or
Aides. The Roman poets use the names Dis,
Orcvs, and Tabta&us, as synonymous with
Pluto. Hades was son of Cronus (Saturn)
and Rhea, and brother of Zeus (Jupiter) and
Poseidon (Neptune). His wife was Per-
sephGne or Proserpina, the daughter of
Demeter, whom he carried off from the upper
world, as is related elsewhere. [See p. 140.]
In the division of the world among the 3
brothers, Hades obtained the nether world,
the abode of the shades, over which he ruled.
His character is described as fierce and in-
exorable, whence of all the gods he was most

hated by mortals. The sacrifices offered to

Hades. (From a Statue in the Vatican.)
him and Pers^hone consisted of black sheep ;

Hermes (Mercuiy) presentins a Soul to Hades (Pluto) and Persephone (Proserpina).
(Pict. Ant. Sepolcri Nasonum, pi. 8.)

and the person who offered the sacrifice had i power was a staff, with which, like Hermes,
to turn away his face. The ensign of his | he drove the shades into the lower world.

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There he sat upon a throne -with his consort
Persephone. He possessed a helmet which
rendered the wearer invisible, and which he
sometimes lent to both gods and men. Like
the other gods, he was not a faithful husband ;
the Furies are called his daughters; the
nymph Mintho, whom he loved, was meta-
morphosed by Persephone into the plant called
mint ; and the nymph Leuce, whom he like-
wise loved, was changed by him after death
into a white poplar. Being the king of the
lower world, Pluto .is the giver of all the
blessings that come from the earth : hence
he gives the metals contained in the earth,
and iB called Pluto. In works of art he
resembles his brothers Zeus and Poseidon,
except that his hair falls over his forehead,
and that his appearance ia dark and gloomy.
His ordinary attributes are the key of Hades
and Cerberus.

HADRIa. [Adua.]

HADRUnOPOLIS (-is: Adrianople), a
town in Thrace on the right bank of the He-
brus, in an extensive plain, founded by the
emperor Hadrian.

HADRIANUS, P. AELIU8 (4), usually
called Hadrian, Roman empeior, a.d. 117 —
138, was bom at Rome, a.d. 76. He enjoyed
the favour of Plotina, the wife of Trajan, and
mainly through her influence succeeded to the
empire. He spent the greater part of his
reign in travelling through the provinces of
the empire, in order that he might personally
inspect their condition. He resided for some
time at Athens, which was his favourite city,
and with whose language and literature he
was intimately acquainted. In his reign the
Jews revolted, and were not subdued till after
a fierce struggle, which lasted 3 years. Ha-
drian was succeeded by Antoninus Pius,
whom he had adopted a few months pre-
viously. The reign of Hadrian was one of
the happiest periods in Roman history. His
policy was to preserve peace with foreign
nations, and to promote the welfare of the
provinces. He erected many magnificent
works in various parts of the empire, and
more particularly at Athens. There are still
extensive remains of his magnificent villa
atTibur, where numerous works of ancient
art have been discovered. His mausoleum,
which he built at Rome, forms the ground,
work of the present castle of St. Angelo.

HADRtJMfiTUM or ADRtJMfiTUM (-i), a
flourishing city founded by the Phoenicians
in N. Aftrica, and the capital of Bycazena under
the Romans.

ilAEMON (-finis). (1) Son of Pelasgus
and father of Thessalus, fh)m whom the an-
cient name of Thessaly, Haeuonia, or
Abmonia, was believed to be derived. The

Roman poets firequently use the adjective
Saetnonius as equivalent to Thessalian. — (2)
Son of Creon of Thebes, was in love with An-
tigone, and killed himself on hearing that she
was condemned by his father to be entombed

HAEMONIA. [Haxmon, No. 1.]

HAEMUS (-i : Balkan), a lofty range of
mountains, separating Thrace and Moesia. The
name is probably connected with the Greek
XUfc^v, and the Latin hiems , and the moun-
tains were so called on account of their cold
and snowy climate. The pass over them
most used in antiquity was in the W. part of
the range, called " Succi " or " Succorum
angustiae,'* also "Porta Trajani" {Ssulu
Derbend), between Philippopolis and Serdica.

HALCSA (-ae), a town on the N. coast of
Sicily, on the river Halxsus, founded by the
Greek mercenaries of Archonides, a chief of
the Siculi, and originally called Abchonidion.

HALfiSUS (-i)j a chief of the Auruncans
and Oscans, the son of a soothsayer, and an
ally of Tumus, shiin by Evander. He came
to Italy from Argos in Greece, whence he is
called Affatnemrumius, Atrides, or Argolieut,
He is said to have founded Falerii.

HALIACMON (-5nis : Vistriza), an impor-
tant river in Macedonia, rising in the Tym-
phaean mountains, forming the boundary
between Eordaea and Pieria, and falling into
the Thermaic gulf. Ciesar incorrectly makes
it the boundary between Macedonia and Thes-

hIiIaRTUS (-i), an ancient town in
Boeotia, S. of the lake Copais, destroyed by
Xerxes in his invasion of Greece (b.c. 480),
but afterwards rebuilt. Under its walls Ly*
sander lost his life (395).

HALIaS (.&dos), a district on the coast of
ArgoliB between Asine and Hermione, so
called because Ashing was the chief occupa-
tion of its inhabitants. Their town was called
Katjak or Halixs.

HALICARNASSUS (-i: Budrum), a cele-
brated city of Asia Minor, stood in the S. W.
part of Caria, opposite to the island of Cos.
It was founded by Dorians from Troezene.
With the rest of the coast of Asia Minor,
it fell under the dominion of the Persians, at
an early period of whose rule Lygdamis made

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