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himself tyrant of the city, and founded a
dynasty which lasted for some generations.
His daughter Artemisia assisted Xerxes in his
expedition against Greece. Halicamassuswas
celebrated for the Mausoleum, a magnificent
edifice which Artemisia II. built as a tomb for
her husband Mausolns (b.c. 352), and which
was adorned with the works of the most
eminent Greek sculptors of the age. Frag-
ments of these sculptures, which were dis-

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coTered built into the walls of the citadel of
Bvdrumj are now in the British Mnsenm.
Halicamassus was the birthplace of the his-
torians Herodotus and Diontsixts.

HALICtAE (-anim), a town in the N. W.
of Sicily, between Entella and Lilybaemn, long
in the possession of the Carthaginians, and in
Cicero's time a municipinm.

HALIRRHStHIUS (-i), son of Poseidon
(Neptune) and Euryte, attempted to violate
Alcippe, daughter of Ares (Mars) and Agrau-
los, but was slain by Ares. Ares was brought
to trial by Poseidon for this murder, on the
hill at Athens, which was hence caUed
Areopagus, or the Hill of Ares.

HALIZONES (-um), a people of Bithynia,
with a capital city Alybe.

HALONESUS (-i), an island of the Aegaean
sea, off the coast of Thessaly, and E. of Scia-
thos and Peparethos, with a town of the same
name upon it. The possession of this island
occasioned great disputes between Philip and
the Athenians : there is a speech on this sub-
ject among the extant orations of Demosthenes,
but it was probably written by Hegesippus.

HlLtCUS (4), a river in the S. of Sicfly,
flowing into the sea near Heraclea' Minoa.

HiLtS (-j^s : Kizil-Irmak, i. e. the Bed
Siver), the greatest river of Asia Minor,
xising in the Anti-Taurus range of mountains,
on the borders of Armenia Minor and Pontus,
and, after flowing through Cappadocia and
Oalatia, and dividingPaphlagonia fromPontus,
falling into the Euxine Sea between Sinope and
Amisus. In early times it divided the Indo-
European races which peopled the W. part of
Asia Minor from the Semitic (Syro-Arabian)
races of the rest of S. W. Asia ; and it sepa-
rated the Lydian empire from the Medo-

HAMADTltADES. [Ntmphae.]

HAMAXITUS (-i), a small town on the
ooast of the Trpad.

HAMAXOBII (-5rum), a people in Euro-
pean Sarmatia, in the neighbourhood of the
Palus Maeotis, were a nomad race, as their
name signifies.

HAMILCAR (-Jlris), the name of several
Carthaginian generals, of whom the most
celebrated was Hamilcar Barca, the father of
Hannibal. The surname Barca probably sig-
nifled " lightning." It was merely a personal
appellation, and is not to be regarded as a
family name, though from the great distinc-
tion that this Hamilcar obtained, we often
find the name of Barcine applied either to his
family or to his party in the state. He was
appointed to the command of the Cartha-
ginian forces in Sicily, in the 18th year of
the Ist Punic War, 247. At this time the
Romans were masters of almost the whole of

Sicily ; but he maintained himself for years,
notwithstanding all the efforts of the Romans
to dislodge him, first on a mountain named
Hereto, in the immediate neighbourhood of
Panormus, and subsequently on the still
stronger position of Mt. Eryx. After the
great naval defeat of the Carthaginians by
Lutatius Catulus (241), which brought the
1st Punic war to an end, he had to carry on
war in Africa with the Carthaginian mer-
cenaries, whom he subdued after a struggle
of 8 years (240 — 238). Hamilcar then crossed
over into Spain, in order to establish a new
empire for the Carthaginians in that country.
In the course of nearly 9 years, he obtained
]K)8session of a considerable portion of Spain,
partly by force of arms and partly by nego-
tiation. He fell in battle against the Yettones
in 229. He was succeeded in the command
by his son-in-law Hasdrubal. He left 3 sons,
Hannibal, Hasdrubal, and Mago.

HANNIBAl (-&liB), a common name among
the Carthaginians, signifying " the grace or
favour of Baal;" the final syllable, hal,
having reference to this tutelary deity of the
Phoenicians. The most celebrated person of
this name was the son of Hamilcar Barca.
He was bom b.c. 247. Ho was only 9 years
old when his father took him with him into
Spain, and made him swear upon the altar
eternal hostility to Rome. Child as he then
was, Etennibal never forgot his vow, and his
whole life was one continual struggle against
the power and domination of Rome. Though
only 18 years old at the time of his father's
death (229), he had already displayed so much
courage and capacity for war, that he was
entrusted by Hasdrubal (the son-in-law and
successor of Hamilcar) with the chief com-
mand of most of the military enterprises
planned by that general. He secured to him-
self the devoted attachment of the army under
his command; and, accordingly, on the
assassination of Hasdrubal (221), the soldiers
unanimously proclaimed their youthful leader
commander-in-chief, which the government
of Carthage forthwith ratified. Hannibal
was at this time in the 26th year of his ago.
In 2 campaigns he subdued all the country S.
of the Iberus, with the exception of the
wealthy town of Saguntum. In the spring
of 219 he proceeded to lay siege to Saguntum,
which he took after a desperate resistance,
which lasted nearly 8 months. Saguntum
lay S. of the Iberus, and was therefore not
included under the protection of the treaty
which had been made between Hasdrubal and
the Romans ; but as it had concluded an
alliance with the Romans, the latter regarded
its attack as a violation of the treaty between
the 2 nations. On the fall of Saguntum, the

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Romans demanded Qie surrender of Hannibal ;
when this demand was refased, war was
declared ; and thus began the long and ardu-
ous struggle called the 2nd Punic War. In
the spring of 218 Hannibal quitted his winter
quarters at New Carthage and commenced
his march for Italy, across the Pyrenees, and
through Oaul to the foot of the Alps. He
probably crossed the Alps by the pass of the
Little St. Bernard, called in antiquity the
Graian Alps. Upon reaching the N. of Italy,
he encountered the Roman army under the
command of the consul P. Scipio. He dc-
feated the latter, first on the river Ticinus,
and secondly in a more decisive engagement
upon the Trebia. After passing the winter
in the N. of Italy among the Gaulish tribes,
he marched early in 2 1 7 into Etruria through
the marshes on the banks of the Amo. In
stru^ling through these marshes, his army
suffered severely, and he himself lost the sight
of one eye by an attack of ophthalmia. The
consul Flaminius hastened to meet him, and
a battle was fought on the lake Trasimenus,
in which the Roman army was destroyed,
and the consul himself was slain. The
Romans had collected a fresh army, and
placed it under the command of the dictator
Fabius Maximus, who prudently avoided a
general action, and only attempted to harass
and annoy the Carthaginian army. Mean-
while the Romans had made great prepara-
tions for the campaign of the following year
(216). The 2 new consuls, L. Aemilius
Paulus and C. Terentius Yarro, marched into
Apulia, at the head of an army of little less
than 90,000 men. To this mighty host
Hannibal gave battle in the plains on the
right bank of the Aufidus, just below the town
of Cannae. The Roman army was again
annihilated : the consul Aemilius Paulus, and
a great number of the most distinguished
Romans perished. This victory was followed
by the revolt from Rome of most of the nations
in the S. of Italy. Hannibal established his
army in winter quarters in Capua, which had
espoused his side. Capua was celebrated for
its wealth and luxury, and the enervating
effect which these produced upon, the army
of Hannibal became a favourite theme of
rhetorical exaggeration in later ages. The
futility of such declamations is sufficiently
shown by the simple fact that the superiority
of that army in the field remained as decided
as ever. Still it may be truly said that the
winter spent atCapua,216 — 215, was in great
measure the turning point of Hannibal's for-
tune. The experiment of what he could effect
with his single army had now been fully tried,
and, notwithstanding aU his victories, it had
decidedly failed ; for Rome was still unsub-

dued, and still provided with the means of
maintaining a protracted contest. From this
time the Romans in great measure changed
their plan of operations, and, instead of
opposing to Hannibal one great army in the
field, they hemmed in his movements on all
sides, and kept up an army in every province
of Italy, to thwart the operations of hia
lieutenants. In the subsequent campaigns,
Hannibal gained several victories; but his
forces gradually became more and more
weakened ; and his only object now was to
maintain his ground in the 8. until his bro-
ther Hasdrubal should appear in the N. of
Italy, an event to which he had long looked
forward with anxious expectation. In 207
Hasdrubal at length crossed the Alps, and
descended into Italy; but he was defeated
and slain on the Metaurus. [Hasdrubal.]
The defeat and death of Hasdrubal was
decisive of the fate of the war in Italy.
From this time Hannibal abandoned all
thoughts of offensive operations, and col-
lected together his forces within the penin-
sula of Bruttium. In the fastnesses of that
wild and mountainous region he maintained
his ground for nearly i years (207 — 203).
He crossed over to Afirica towards the end of
203 in order to oppose P. Scipio. In the
following year (302) the decisive battle was
fought near Zama. Hannibal was completely
defeated with great loss. All hopes of re-
sistance were now at an eiid, and he was one of
the first to urge the necessity of an immediate
peace. The treaty between Rome and Carthage
was not finally concluded until the next year
(201). By this treaty Hannibal saw the
object of his whole life frustrated, and Car.
thage humbled before her rival. Some years
afterwards he was compelled, by the jealousy
of the Romans, and by the enmity of a
powerful party at Carthage, to flee from hia
native city. He took refuge at the court of
Antiochus IH., king of Sjrria, who was at
this time (193) on the eve of war with Rome.
Hannibal in vain urged the necessity oi
carrying the war at once into Italy, instead
of awaiting the Romans in Greece. On the
defeat of Antiochus (190), the surrender of
Hannibal was one of the conditions of the
peace granted to the king. Hannibal, how-
ever, foresaw his danger, and fled to Pruslas,
king of Blthynla. Here he found for some
years a secure asylum ; but the Romans could
not be at ease so long as he lived ; and T.
Qulntlus Flaminlnus was at length dispatched
to the court of Pruslas to demand the sur-
render of the ftigltlve. The Blthynlan king
was unable to resist; and Hannibal, per-,
cclvlng that flight was Impossible, took
poiBon, to avoid falling into the hands of his

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enemies, about the year 183. Of Hannibal's
abilities as a general it is unnecessary to
speak ; but in comparing Hannibal with any
other of the great leaders of antiquity, we
must ever bear in mind the peculiar circum-
stances in which he was placed. Feebly and
grudgingly supported by the government at
home, he stood alone, at the head of an army
composed of merceiuiries of many nations.
Tet not only did he retain the attachment of
these men, unshaken by any change of for-
tune, for a period of more than 15 years, but
he trained up army after army; and long
after the veterans that had followed him over
the Alps had dwindled to an inconsiderable
remnant, his new levies were still as invin-
cible as their predecessors.

HANNO (-onis), a name common among
the Carthaginians. The chief persons of
this name were : — (1) Sumamed the Great,
apparently for his successes in AfHoa, though
we have no details of his achievements. He
was the leader of the aristocratic party, and, as
such, the chief adversary of Hamilcar Barca
and his family. On all occasions, from the
landing of Barca in Spain, till the return of
Hannibal from Italy, a period of above 35
years, Hanno is represented as thwarting the
measures of that able and powerful family,
and taking the lead in opposition to the war
with Borne. — (2) A Carthaginian navigator,
of uncertain date, under whose name we
possess a Pertp/tM, which was originally
written in the Punic language, and after,
wards translated into Greek. It contains an
account of a voyage undertaken beyond the
Pillars of Hercules, in order to foimd Liby-
phoenician towns.

HARMA (-5rum), a small place in Boeotia,
near Tanagra.

HARMATtJS (-untis), a city and promon-
tory on the coast of Aeolis in Asia Minor, on
the N. side of the Sinus Elai'ticus.

(-Snis), two noble Athenians, murderers of
Hipparchus, brother of the tyrant Hippias,
in B.C. 514. Aristogiton was strongly at-
tached to the young and beautiful Harmodius,
who returned his affection with equal warmth.
Hipparchus endeavoured to withdraw the
youth's love to himself, and, failing in this,
resolved to avenge the slight by putting upon
him a public insult. Accordingly, he took
care that the sister of Harmodius should be
summoned to bear one of the sacred baskets
in some religious procession, and when she
presented herself for the purpose, he caused
her to be dismissed and declared unworthy of
the honour. This fresh insult determined
the 2 fticnds to slay both Hipparchus and his
brother Hippias as well. They communi-

cated their plot to a few friends, and selected
for their enterprise the day of the festival of
the great Panathenaea, the only day on which
they could appear in arms without exciting
suspicion. WhSn the appointed time ar-
rived, the 2 chief conspirators observed one
of their accomplices in conversation with
Hippias. Believing, therefore, that they
were betrayed, they slew Hipparchus. Har-
modius was immediately cut down by the
guards. Aristogiton at first escaped, but was
afterwards taken, and died by torture ; but
he died without revealing any of the names
of the conspirators. Four years after this
Hippias was expelled, and thenceforth Har-
modius and Aristogiton obtained among the
Athenians of all succeeding generations the
character of patriots, deliverers, and martyrs.
To be bom of their blood was esteemed among
the highest of honours, and their descendants
enjoyed an Immunity from public burdens.

HARMONIA (-ae), daughter of Ares,
(Mars), and Aphrodite (Venus), given by
Zeus (Jupiter), to Cadmus as his wife.
On the wedding-day Cadmus received a pre-
sent of a necklace, which afterwards became
fatal to all who possessed it. Harmonia
accompanied Cadmus when he was obliged to
quit Thebes, and shared his fate. [Cadiixts.]

HARPAGIA (-ae), or iUM (-i), a smaU
town in Mysia, between Cyzicus and Priapus,
the scene of the rape of Qanymcdes, accord-
ing to some legends.

HARPAGUS (-i), a noble Median, who is
said to have preserved the infant Cyrus. He
was afterwards one of the generals of Cyrus,
and conquered the Greek cities of Asia Minor.

HARPALUS (-i), a Macedonian, appointed
by Alexander the Great superintendent of the
royal treasury, with the administration of
the satrapy of Babylon. Having embezzled
large sums of money, he crossed over to
Greece in b.c. 324, and employed his trea-
si^res in gaining over the leading men at
Athens to support him against Alexander
and his vicegerent, Antipater. He is said to
have corrupted Demosthenes himself.

HARPALl'Cfi (-es), daughter of Harpaly-
cus, king in Thrace, brought up by her father
as a warrior.

HARPASUS (-i). (1) A river of Caria,
fiowing N. into the Maeander. — (2) A river
of Armenia Major, flowing S. into the Araxes.

HARPtLAE (-arum), the Harpies^ that is,
the Bothers or SpoilerSf described by Homer
as carrying off persons, who had utterly
disappeared. Thus they are said to have
carried off the daughters of Pandarcos, which
is represented on one of the Lycian monu-
ments, now in the British Museum. Hesiod
represents them as fair-locked and winged

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maidens; but subseqaent 'writers describe
them as disg^usting monsters, being birds

▲ Harpy. ( british Muieum. FromaTombatXanthui.)

with the heads of maidens, with long
claws and with faces pale with hunger.
They were sent by the gods to torment
the blind Phinens, and whenever a meal
was placed before him, they darted down
from the air and either carried it off, or ren.
dered it unfit to be eaten. Phineus was de.
liverod from them by Zetes and Calais, sons of
Boreas, and 2 of the Argonauts. Later writers
mention 3 Harpies ; but their names are not
the same in all accounts. Virgil places them
iu the islands called Strophades, in the Ionian
sea, where they took up their abode after they
had been driven away from Phineus.

HARCDES (-um), a German people in the
army of Ariovistus (b.c. 58), supposed to be
the same as the Chabttdxs, who are placed
in the Chersonesus Cimbrica.

HASDRUBAL (-&lis), a Carthaginian name,
probably signifying one whose help is Baal.
The chief persons of this name are : — (1) The
son-in-law of Hamilcar Barca, on whose
death, in 229, he succeeded to the command in
Spain. He founded New Carthage, and con-
cluded with the Romans the celebrated treaty
which fixed the Iberus as the boundary
between the Carthaginian and Roman domi-
nions. He was assassinated by a slave, whose
master he had put to death (221), and was
succeeded in the command by Hannibal.

— (2) Son of Hamilcar Barca, and brother
of Hannibal. When Hannibal set out for
Italy (218), Hasdrubal was left in the com.
mand in Spain, and there fought for some
years against the 2 Scipios. In 207 he
crossed the Alps and marched into Italy, in
order to assist Hannibal ; but he was defeated
on the Metaurus, by the consuls C. Claudius
Nero and M. Livius Salinator, his army was
destroyed, and he himself fell in the battle.
His head was cut off and thrown into Hanni.
bal's camp. — (3) Son of Cisco, one of the Car-
thaginian generals in Spain during the 2nd
Punio war, who must be distinguished from
the brother of Hannibal, above-mentioned.

HfiBE (-6s), called JUVENTAS (-atis), by
the Romans, the goddess of youth, was a
daughter of Zeus (Jupiter) and of Hera (Juno).
She waited upon the gods, and filled their
cups with nectar, before Oanymedes obtained
this ofiicc. She married Hercules after he
was received among the gods, and bore to
him 2 sons. Later traditions represent her
as a divinity who had it in her power to
make aged persons young again. At Rome
there were several temples of Juventas.

Heb«. (From a Bas-relief at Bome4

HEBRON (-5nis), a city in the S. of Ju-
daea, the first capital of the kingdom of
David, who reigned there 7j^ •years, as king
of Judah only.

HEBRUS (-1 : ifaritza), the principal river
in Thrace, rising in the mountains of Scomins
and Rhodope, and falling into the Aegaean
sea near Aenos, after forming by another
branch an estuary called Stxmtosis Lacus. —
The Hebrus was celebrated in Greek legends.
On its banks Orpheus was torn to pieces by
the Thracian women ; and it is frequently

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mentioned in connexion -with the worship of

HECALE (-es), a poor old woman, who hos-
pitably received Theseus, when he had gone
out to hunt the Marathonian bull.

HECATAEU8 (-i), of Miletus, one of the
earliest and most distinguished of the Greek
historians and geographers. In b.c. 500 he en-
deayoured to dissuade his countrymen from re-
volting from the Persians. Previous to this he
had visited Egypt and many other countries.
His works have perished.

HECATE (-es), a mysterious divinity, com-
monly represented as a daughter of Persaeus
or Perses and Asteria, and hence called
Perseis. She was one of the Titans, and the
only one of this race who retained her power
under the rule of Zeus (Jupiter). She was
honoured by all the immortal gods, and the
extensive power possessed by her was pro-
bably the reason that she was subsequently
identified with several other divinities.
Hence she is said to have been Selene or
Luna in heaven, Artemis or Diana in earth,
and Persephone or Proserpina in the lower
world. Being thus, as it were, a threefold
goddess, she is described with 3 bodies or
3 heads. Hence her epithets Terffeminaf 2H.

latter was found, remained with her as her
attendant and companion. She thus became
a deity of the lower world, and is described
in this capacity as a mighty and formidable
divinity. She was supposed to send at night
all kinds of demons and terrible phantoms
from the lower world. She taught sorcery
and witchcraft, and dwelt at places where 2
roads crossed, on tombs, and near the blood
of murdered persons. She herself wandered
about with the souls of the dead, and her
approach was announced by the whining and
howling of dogs. At Athens, at the close of
every month, dishes with food were set out
for her at the points where 2 roads crossed ;
and this food was consumed by poor people.
The sacrifices offered to her consisted of dogs,
honey, and black female lambs.

H£CATOMPtLOS (-i), a city in the middle
of Parthia, enlarged by Seleucus, and after,
wards used by the Parthian kings as a royal

HECATONNfiSI (-orum), that is, the 100
islands, the name of a group of small islands,
between Lesbos and the coast of Acolis.

HECTOR (-5ris), the chief hero of the
Trojans in theif war with the Greeks, was
the eldest son of Priam and Hecuba, the hus-

Hecate. (Caasd, Hnseam Bomimum, toL 1» tAv.Sl.)

formiSf TWoep*, &c. She took an active part
in the search i^r Proserpina and when the

Heetor. (Aegina ICarbles.)

band of Andromache, and father of Scaman-
drius. He fought with the bravest of the
Greeks, and at length tlew Patroclus, the

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friend of Achilles. The death of his friend
roused Achilles to the fight. The other Tro-
jans fled before him into the city. Hector
alone remained without the walls, though his
parents implored him to return ; but when
he saw Achilles, his heart failed him, and he
took to flight. Thrice did he race round the
city, pursued by the swift-footed Achilles,
and then fell pierced by Achilles* spear.
Achilles tied Hector's body to his chariot,
and thus dragged him into the camp of the
Greeks ; but later traditions relate that he
first dragged the body thrice round the walls
of Ilium. At the command of Zeus (Jupiter),
Achilles surrendered the body to the prayers
of Priam, who buried it at Troy with great
pomp. Hector is one of the noblest concep.
tions of the poet of the Iliad. He is the
great bulwark of Troy, and even Achilles
trembles when he approaches him. He has
a presentiment of the fall of his country, but
he perseveres in his heroic resistance, pre-
ferring death to slavery and disgrace. Be-
sides these virtues of a warrior, he is distin-
guished also by those of a man : his heart ia
open to the gentle feelings of a son, a hus-
band, and a father.

Hict^BA(-ae) andH^Ct^fi (-es),daughter
of Dymas in Phrygia, or of Clsseus, king of
Thrace. She was the wife of Priam, king of
Troy, to whom she bore Hector, Paris, and
many other children. After the fall of Troy,
she was carried away as a slave by the
Greeks. On the coast of Thrace she re-
venged the murder of her son Polydorus, by
slaying Polymestor. [Polydorus.] She was
metamorphosed into a dog, and leapt into the
sea at a place called Cynossema, or " the
tomb of the dog."

H£g£sInuS (-i), of Pergamum, the suc-
cessor of Evander, and the immediate pre-
decessor of Cameades in the chair of the
Academy, flourished about b.c. 185.

H£g£SIPPUS (-i), an Athenian orator,
and a contemporary of Demosthenes, to
whose political party he belonged. The
grammarians ascribe to him the oration on
Halonesus, which has come down to us under
the name of Demosthenes.

HELENA (-ae) and HELENS (-es),
daughter of Zeus (Jupiter) and Leda, and
sister of Castor and Pollux (the Dioscuri).
She was of surpassing beauty. In her youth
she was carried off by Theseus and Pirithous
to Attica. When Theseus was absent in
Hades, Castor and Pollux undertook an ex-
pedition to Attica, to liberate their sister.
Athens was taken, Helen delivered, and
Aethra, the mother of Theseus, made pri-

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