William Smith.

A smaller classical dictionary of biography, mythology, and geography ... online

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soner, and carried as a slave of Helen, to
Sparta. On her return home, she was



sought in marriage by the noblest chiefs
from all parts of Greece. She chose Mene.
laus for her husband, and became by him the
mother of Hermione. She was subsequently
seduced by Paris and carried off to Troy.
[For details, see Paris and Menelaus.] ""he
Greek chiefs who had been her suitors, re-
solved to revenge her abduction, and accord-
ingly sailed against Troy. Hence arose the
celebrated Trojan war, which lasted 10 years.
During the course of the war she is repre-
sented as showing great sympathy with the
Greeks. After the death of Paris, towards
the end of the war, she married his brother
Deiphobus. On the capture of Troy, which
she is said to have favoured, she betrayed
Deiphobus to the Greeks, and became recon-
ciled to Menelaus, whom she accompanied to
Sparta. Here she lived with him for some
years in peace and happiness. The accounts of
Helen's death differ. According to the prophecy
of Proteus in the Odyssey, Menelaus and Helen
were not to die, but the g^ods were to conduct
them to Elysium. Others relate that she and
Menelaus were buried at Therapne in Laconia.
Others, again, relate that i^r the death
of Menelaus she was driven out of Pelopon-
nesus by the sons of the latter, and fled to
Rhodes, where she was tied to a tree and
strangled by Polyxo : the Rhodians expiated
the crime by dedicating a temple to her
under the name of Helena Dendritis. Ac-
cording to another tradition she married
Achilles in the island of Leuce, and bore him
a son, Euphorion.

HELENA, FLAVIA JtJLIA (-ae), mother
of Constantine the Great, was a Christian,
and is said to have discovered at Jerusalem
the sepulchre of our Lord, together with the
wood of the true cross.

HELENA (-ae), a small and rocky island,
between the S. of Attica and Ceos, formerly
called C^anaS.

HELENUS (-i), son of Priam and Hecuba,
celebrated for his prophetic powers. He de-
serted his countrymen and joined the Greeks.
There are various accounts respecting his
desertion of the Trojans. According to some
he did it of his own accord ; according to
others, he was ensnared by Ulysses, who was
anxious to obtain his prophecy respecting the
fall of Troy. Others, again, relate that, on
the death of Paris, Helenus and Deiphobus
contended for the possession of Helena, and
that Helenus, being conquered, fled to Mt.
Ida, where he was taken prisoner by the
Greeks. After the fall of Troy, he fell to the
share of Pyrrhus. He foretold to Pyrrhus the
suffering^ which awaited the Greeks who re-
turned home by sea, and prevailed upon him
to return by land to Epirus. After the death



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HELIADAE.



191



HELLE.



o< Pyrrbus he received a portion of that
ootintry, and married Andromache. When
Aeneas in his wanderings arrived in Epirus,
he was hospitably received by Helenas.

HELiADAE(-amm) andHELiADES(-nm),
the sons and daughters of Helios (the Sun).
The name Heliades is given especially to
PhaetHusaf Lampetie and Phoebe^ the daugh-
ters of Helios and the nymph Clymene, and
the sisters of Phaethon. They bewailed the
death of their brother Phaethon so bitterly on
the banks of the Eridanus, that the gods in
compassion changed them into poplar-trees
and their tears into amber. [Ebidamus.]

HELICfi (-es). (1) Daughter of Lycaon,
beloved by Zeus (Jupiter). Hera, out of
jealousy, metamorphosed her into a she-bear,
whereupon Zeus placed her among the stars,
under the name of the Great Bear. (2) The
ancient capital of Achaia, swallowed up by
an earthquake together with Bura, b.c. 373.
HELICON (-5nis), a celebrated range of
mountains in Boeotia, between the lake
Copais and the Corinthian gulf, covered with
snow the greater part of the year, sacred to
Apollo and the Muses ; the latter are hence
called Hiltcdntddes and WiUe5n%des, Here
spnmg the celebrated fountains of the Muses,
AoAMirPE and Hiffocrene.

KELIODORUS (-i). (1) A rhetorician at
Rome in the time of Augustus, whom Horace
mentions as the companion of his journey to
Brundisium. — (2) A Stoic philosopher at
Rome, who became a delator in the reign of
Nero.

HELIOGAbIlUS. [Elaoabaltts.]
HELIOPOLIS (-is : i. e. the aty of the
Sun). (1) (Heb. Baalath : Baalbek, Ru.), a
celebrated city of Syria, a chief seat of the
worship of Baal, one of whose symbols was
the Sun. Hence the Greek name of the
city. It was situated in the middle of
Coele-Syria, at the W. foot of Anti-Libanus,
and was a place of great commercial import-
ance, being on the direct road from Egypt
and the Red Sea, and also from Tyre to Syria,
Asia Minor, and Europe. It3 ruins, which
are very extensive and mrgnificent, are of
the Roman period. (2) O. T. On ; a celebrated
city of Lower Egypt, on the E. side of the
Pelusiac branch of the Nile, a little below the
apex of the Delta, and a chief seat of the
^STPt^&n worship of the Sun. Its priests
were renowned for their learning.

HELIOS (-i), called SOL (-61is) by the
Romans, the god of the sun. He was the
son of Hyperion and Thea, and a brother of
Selene and Eos. From bis father, he is fre-
quently called Htperioni DEs, or Htpbbiok,
the latter of which is an abridged form of the
patronymic, Hypebiomion . Homer describes



Helios as rising in the E. from Oceanus, tra.
versing the heaven, and descending in the
evening into the darkness of the W. and
Oceanus. Later poets have marvellously
embellished this simple notion. They tell of
a magnificent palace of Helios in the E., from
which he starts in the morning in a chariot
drawn by four horses. They also assign him
a second palace in the W., and describe his
horses as feeding upon herbs growing in the
islands of the Blessed. Helios is described
as the god who sees and hears everything,
and as thus able to reveal to Hephaestus
(Vulcan) the faithlessness of Aphrodite
(Venus), and to Demeter (Ceres) the abduc
tion of her daughter. At a later time Helios
became identified with Apollo, though the 2
gods were originally quite distinct. The
island of Thrinacia (Sicily) was sacred to
Helios, and there he had fiocks of sheep and
oxen, which were tended by his daughters
Phaetusa and Lampetia. He was worshipped
in many parts of Greece, and especially in
the island of Rhodes, where the famous
colossus was a representation of the god.
The sacrifices offered to him consisted of
white rams, boars, bulls, goats, lambs, and
especially white horses, and honey. Among
the animals sacred to him, the cock is
especially mentioned.



Helios (the Sun). (Coin of Rhodes, in the
British Moieom.)

HELLANICUS, of Mytilene in Lesbos, one
of the most eminent of the early Greek his.
torians, was bom about b.c. 496, and died
411. All his works have perished.
HELLAS, HELLENES. [Geaecia.]
HELLE (-es), daughter of Athamas and
Nepheie, and sister of Phrixus. WhenPhrixus
was to be sacrificed [Phbixus], Nephele res.
cued her 2 children, who rode away through
the air upon the ram with the golden fleece.



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HELLEX.



192



HEPHAESTUS.



the gift of Hermes ; but, between Sigemn and
the Chersonesus, Uelle fell into the sea, which
was thence called the sea of Helle {Belles,
jtontus).

HELLEN (-cnos), son of Deucalion and
Pyrrha, and father of Aeolus, Doras, and
Xuthus. He was king of Phthia in Thessaly,
and was succeeded by his son Aeolus. He
was the mythical ancestor of all the Hellenes;
from his 2 sons Aeolus and Dorus were de-
Bcended the Aeolians and Dorians ; and from
his 2 grandsons Achaeus and Ion, the sons of
Xuthus, the Achaeans and lonians.

HELLESPONTUS (4 : Straits of the Bar.
danellea), the long narrow strait connecting
the Propontis {Sea of Marmara) with the
Aegean Sea. The length of the strait is
about 50 miles, and the width varies from 6
miles at the upper end to 2 at the lower, and
in some places it is only 1 mile wide, or even
less. The narrowest part is between the
ancient cities of Sbstus and Abtdus, where
Xerxes made his bridge of boats [Xerxss],
and where the legend related that Leander
swam across to visit Hero. [Lsandbb.] The
name of ihe Hellespont (i. e. the Sea of Helle)
was derived from the story of Helle*s being
drowned in it [Hells]. The Hellespont was
the boundary of Europe and Asia, dividing
the Thracian Chersonese in the former from
the Troad and the territories of Abydus and
Lampsacus in the latter. The district just
mentioned, on the S. side of the Hellespont,
was also called Hellespontus, and its inha-
bitants Hellespontii.

HELLOMENUM (-i), a seaport town of
the Acamanians on the island Leucas.

HELORUS or HELORUM (4), a town on
the E. coast of Sicily, S. of Syracuse, at the
mouth of the river Helorus.

HELOS. (1) A town in Laconia, on the
coast, in a marshy situation, whence its name
(!Aos=:mar«A). It was commonly said that
the Spartan slaves, called Helotes (EtX««(),
were originally the Achaean inhabitants of
this town, who were reduced by the Dorian
conquerors to slavery; but this account of
the origin of the Helotes seems to have been
merely an invention, in consequence of the
similarity of their name to' that of the town
of Helos. — (2) A town or district of Ells on
the Alpheus.

HELVECONAE (-arum), a people in Ger-
many, between the Viadus and the Vistula,
S. of the Rugii and N. of the BurgundioAes,
reckoned by Tacitus among the Ligii.

HELVETII (-orum), a brave and powerftd
Celtic people, who dwelt between M. Jurassus
{Jura) , the Lacus Lemannus {Laike of Geneva),
the Rhone, and the Rhine as far as the Lacus
Brigantinus {Lake of Constance), Their



[ country, called Ager Helvetiorum (but never
Helvetia) f thus corresponded to the W. part
of Switzerland. Their chief town was Avek-
TicuH. They were divided into 4 pagi or
cantons, of which the Pafftts Tigurinus was
the most celebrated. The Helvetii are first
mentioned in the war with the Cimbri. In
B.C. 107 the Tigurini defeated and killed the
Roman consul L. Cassius Longinus, on the
lake of Geneva, while another division of the
Helvetii accompanied the Cimbri and Ten-
tones in their invasion of GauL Subsequently
the Helvetii invaded Italy along with the
Cimbri; and returned home in safety,
after the defeat of the Cimbri by Marius and
Catulus in 101. About 40 years afterwards,
they resolved, upon the advice of Orgetorix,
one of their chiefs, to migrate from their
country with their wives and children, and
seek a new home in the more fertile plains of
Gaul. In 58 they endeavoured to carry their
plan into execution, but they were defeated
by Caesar, and driven back into their own
territories. The Romans now planted colonies
and built fortresses in their country (No-
viodunum, Yindonissa, Aventicum), and the
Helvetii gradually adopted the customs and
language^of their conquerors.

HELYIA (-ae), mother of the philosopher
Sbnbca. ,

HELVIDIUS PRISCUS. [Paiscrs.]

HELVll (-orum), a people in Gaul, be-
tween the Rhone and Mt. Cebenna, which
separated them from the Arvemi, were for a
long time subject to Massilia, but afterwards
belonged to the province of Gallia Nar-
bonensis. Their country produced good
wine.

HELVIUS CINNA. [Cinna.]

HENETI (-orum), an ancient people in
Paphlagonia, dwelling on the river Par-
thenius,, fought on the side of Priam against
the Greeks, but had disappeared before the
historical times. They were regarded by
many ancient writers as the ancestors of the
Veneti in Italy. [Vbneti.]

H£ni6cHI (-orum), a people In Colchis,
X. of the Phasis, notorious as pirates.

HENNA. [Enna.]

HEPHAESTION (-onis), a Macedonian,
celebrated as tiie friend of Alexander the Great,
with whom he had been brought up. He
died at Ecbatana, b.c. 325, to the great grief
of Alexander.

HEPHAESTUS (-i), called VULCiNUS (-i)
by the Romans, the god of fire. He was, ac-
cording to Homer, \he son of Zeus (Jupiter)
and of Hera (Juno) . Later traditions state that
he had no father, and that Hera gave birth
to him independent of Zeus, as she was jca-
lous of Zeus having given birth to Athena



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HEPHAESTUS.



198



HERA.



(Minerva) independent of her. He Was bom
lame and weak, and was in consequence so
much disliked by his mother, that she threw
him down from Olympus. The marine
divinities, Thetis and Eurynome, received
him, and he dwelt with them for 9 years in
a grotto, beneath Oceanus. He afterwards
returned to Olympus, and he appears in
Homer as the great artist of the gods of
Olympus. Although he had been cruelly
treated by his mother, he always showed her
respect and kindness ; and on one occasion
took her part, when she was quarrelling with
Zeus, which so much enraged the father of
the gods, that he seized Hephaestus by the
leg, and hurled him down from heaven.
Hephaestus was a whole day falling, but in
the evening he alighted in th6 island of
Lemnos, where he was kindly received by the
Sintians. Later writers describe his lame-
ness as the consequence of this fall, while
Homer makes him lame from his birth. He
again returned to Olympus, and subsequently
acted the part of mediator between his pa-
rents. On that occasion he offered a cup of
nectar to his mother and the other gods, who
burst out into immoderate laughter on seeing
him busily hobbling from one god to another.
Hephaestus appears to have been originally
the god of fire simply ; but as fire is indis-
pensable in working metals, he was after-
wards regarded as an artist. His palace in
Olympus was imperishable and shining like
stars. It contained his workshop, with the
anvil and 20 bellows, which worked spon-
taneously at his bidding. All the palaces in
Olympus were his workmanship. He made
the armour of Achilles ; the fatal necklace of
Harmonia ; the fire-breathing bulls of Aeetes,
king of Colchis, &c. In later accounts, the
Cyclops are his workmen and servants, and
his workshop is no longer in Olympus, but in
some volcanic Island. In the Iliad the wife
of Hephaestus is Charis ; in Hesiod, Aglaia,
the youngest of the Charites; but in the
Odyssey, as well as in later accounts. Aphro-
dite (Venus) appears as his wife. Aphrodite
proved faithless to her husband, and was in
love with Ares (Mars), the god of war ; but
Helios (the Sun) disclosed their amours to
Hephaestus, who caught the guilty pair in an
invisible net, and exposed them to the laugh,
ter of the assembled gods. — The favourite
abode of Hephaestus on earth was the island
of Lemnos ; but other volcanic islands also,
such as Lipara, Hiera, Imbros, and Sicily,
are called his abodes or workshops. The
Greeks frequently placed small dwarf-like
statues of the god near the hearth. During
the best period of Grecian art, he was repre-
sented as a vigorous man with a beard, and



is characterised by his hammer or some other
instrument, his oval cap, and the chiton,
which leaves the right shoulder and arm un-
covered. — The Eoman Vulcanus'was an old
Italian divinity, [Vcmjanus.]



HephaeStni (YnlcanuB). (From an Altar in the
Vatican.)

HERA (-ae) or HERE (-es), called JUNO by
the Romans. The Greek Hera, that is,
Mistress^ was a daughter of Cronos (Saturn)
and Rhea, and sister and wife of Zeus (Jupi-
ter). According to Homer, she was brought
up by Oceanus and Tethys, and afterwards
became the wife of Zeus, without the know,
ledge of her parents. Later writers add
that she, like the other children of Cronos, was
swallowed by her father, but afterwards re-
stored. In the Iliad, Hera is treated by the
Olympian gods with the same reverence as
her husband. Zeus himself listens to her
counsels, and communicates his secrets to
her. She is, notwithstanding, far inferior to
him in power, and must obey him uncon-
ditionally. She is not, like Zeus, the queen
of gods and men, but simply the wiife of the
supreme god. The idea of her being the
queen of heaven, with regal wealth and power,
is of much later date. Her character, as de-
scribed by Homer, is not of a very amiable
kind ; and her jealousy, obstinacy, and quar-
relsome disposition, sometimes make her
husband tremble. Hence arise frequent dis-
putes between Hera and Zeus ; and on one
occasion Hera, in conjunction with Poseidon
(Neptime) and Athena (Minerva), contem-
plated putting Zeus into chains. Zeus, in
such cases, not only threatens, but beats her.
Once he even hung her up in the clouds, witli
her hands chained, and with two anvils sus-
pended from her feet; and on another occasion



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HERA.



194



HERACLTDAE.



•when Hephaestus (Vulcan) attempted to
help her, Zeus hurled him down from Olympus.
— By Zeus she was the mother of Ares (Mars),
Hebe, and Hephaestus. — Hera was, properly
speaking, the only really married goddess
among the Olympians, for the marriage of
Aphrodite (Venus) with Hephaestus can
scarcely be taken into consideration. Hence,
she is the goddess of marriage and of the
birth of children, and is represented as the
mother of the Ilithyiae. — She is represented
in the Iliad riding in a chariot drawn by 2
horses, in the harnessing and unharnessing
of which she is assisted by Hebe and the
Horae. Owing to the judgment of Paris
[Paris], she was hostile to the Trojans, and
in the Trojan war she accordingly sided with
the Greeks. She persecuted all the children
of Zeus by mortal mothers, and hence appears
as the enemy of Dionysus (Bacchus), Her-
cules, and others. — Hera was worshipped in
many parts of Greece, but more especially at
Argos, in the neighbourhood of which she
had a splendid temple, on the road to Myce-
nae. She had also a splendid temple in Samos.
— ^The worship of the Roman Juno is spoken
of in a separate article. [Juno]. Hera was
usually represented as a majestic woman of
mature age, with a beautiful forehead, large



Hera (Juno).' (VUcontI, Mu>. Pio, Clem, toL4, tav.3.)

and widely opened eyes, and with a grave
expression commanding reverence. Her hair
was adorned with a crown or a diadem. A



veil frequently hangs down the back of her
head, to characterise her as the bride of Zeus,
and the diadem, veil, sceptre, and peacock,
are her ordinary attributes.

HERACLEA (-ae), that is, the city of
Heracles or Hercules, was the name of
several cities. I. In JEurcpe. (1) In Luca-
nia, on the river Siris, founded by the
Tarentines. — (2) In Acarnania, on the
Ambracian gulf. — (3) The later name of
Perinthus in Thrace. [Perinthus.] — (4)
H. Ltncestis, also called Pelagonia, in
Macedonia, on the Via Egrnatia, W. of the
Erigon, the capital of one of the 4 districts
into which Macedonia was divided by the
Romans. — (5). H. Mimoa, on the S. coast of
Sicily, at the mouth of the river Halycus,
between Agrigentum and Selinus. According
to tradition it was founded by Minos, when
he pursued Daedalus to Sicily, and it may
have been an ancient colony of the Cretans.
It was colonised by the inhabitants of Se.
linus, and its origii^al name was MinoUf
which it Continued to bear till about B.C. 500,
when the town was taken by the Lacedae-
monians, under Euryleon, who changed its
name into that of Heraclea. It fell at an
early period into the hands of the Cartha-
ginians, and remained in their power till the
conquest of Sicily by the Romans. — (6)
SiNTicA, in Macedonia, a town of the Sinti,
on the left bank of the Strj-mon, founded by
Amyntas, brother of Philip. — (7) H. Tra-
CHiNiAE, in Thessaly. [Trachis.] — II. In
Asia. (1) H. . PoNTiCA, a city on the S.
shore of the Pontus Euxinus, on the coast of
Bithynia, in the territory of the Mariandyni,
founded about b.c. 550, by colonists from
Megara and from Tanagra, in Boeotia. — (2)
H. AD Latmum, a town of Ionia, S.E. of
Miletus, at the foot of Mt. Latmus, and upon «
the Sinus Latmicus ; formerly called Lat-
mus. Near it was a cave, with the tomb of
Endymlon.

HERACLEUM (-i), a town on the coast of
the Delta of Egypt, a little W. of Canopus ;
from which the Canopio mouth of the Nile
was often called also the Heracleotic mouth.

HERACLIDAE (-arum), the descendants
of Heracles or Hercules, who, in conjunction
with the Dorians, conquered Peloponnesus
80 years after the destruction of Troy, or
B.C. 1104, according to mythical chronology.
In this invasion they were led by Temenus,
Cresphontes, and Aristodemus, the thre^
sons of Aristomachus. Aristodemus died
before entering Peloponnesus, but his twin
sons received his share of the conquest.
Temenus obtained Argos; Procles and Er*.
rystheus, the sons of Aristodemus, Lacedae-
mon. ; and Cresphontes, Mcsseniu. This



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HERCULES.



legeud repretents the> conquest of the Achaean
population by Dorian invaders, -who hence-
forward appear as the ruling race in the
Peloponnesus.

HERACLIDES (-ae) P0NTICU8, so called
because he was bom at Heraclea, in Pontus,
was a Greek philosopher, and a disciple of
Plato and Aristotle. He wrote several
works, almost all of which are lost.

HfiRACLlTUS (4). (1) Of Ephesus, a
phUoeopher of the Ionian school, flourished
about B.C. 513. He considered fire to be the
primary form of all matter. — (2) An Aca-
demic philosopher of Tyre, a friend of
Antiochus, and a pupil of Clitomachus and
Philo.

HERAEA (-ae), a town in Arcadia, on the
right bank o( the Alph§us, near the borders
of EUs.

H£RA£I MONTES, a range of mountains
in Sicily, running from the centre of the
island S.E., and ending in the promontory
Pachynum.

HfiRAEUM. [Argos.]

HERBITA, a town in Sicily, N. of Agy-
rium, in the mountains, the residence of the
tyrant Archonides.

HERCUIANEUM or HERCULANUM (-i),
an ancient city in Campania, near the coast,
between Neapolis and Pompeii, was originally
foxmded by the Oscans, was next in the pos.
session of the Tyrrhenians, and subsequently
was chiefly inhabited by Greeks. It was
taken by the Romans in the Social war (b.c.
89, 88), and was colonised by them. In a.d.
63 a great part of it was destroyed by an
earthquake; and in 79 it was overwhelmed,
along with Pompeii and Stabiae, by the great
eruption of Mt. Vesuvius. It was buried
under showers of ashes and streams of lava,
fh)m 70 to 100 feet under the present surface
of the ground. On its site stand the modem
Poriiei and part of the village of Resina,
The ancient city was accidentally discovered
by the sinking of a well in 1720; and
many buildings and works of art have been
discovered at the plaiw.

HERCULES (.is and 4), called HERA-
CLES by the Greeks, the most celebrated of
all the heroes of antiquity. Acccnrding to
H<xner, Hercules was the son of Zeus
(Jupiter) by Alcmene, the wife of Amphi-
tryon, of Thebes in Boeotia. Zeus visited
Alcmene in the form of Amphitryon, while
the latter was absent, warring against the
Taphians*, and pretending to be her hus.
band, he became by her the father of
Hercules. On the day on which Hercules
was to be bom, 2eu8 boasted of becoming
Che father of a hero destined to rule over the
race of Perseus, who was the grandfather



both of Amphitryon and of Alcmene. Hera
(Juno) prevailed upon him to swear that the
descendant of Perseus, bom that day, should
be the ruler. Thereupon she hastened to
ArgoA, and there caused the wife of Sthe-
nelus, the son of Perseus, to give birth to
Eurystheus ; whereas she delayed the birth
of Hercules, and thus robbed him of the
empire which Zeus had destined for him.
Zeus was enrag^ at the imposition practised
upon him, but could not violate his oath.
Alcmene brought into the world 2 boys,
Hercules, the son of Zeus, and Iphicles, the
Bon of Amphitryon, who was one night
younger than Hercules. As he lay in his
cradle, Hera sent 2 serpents to destroy him,
but the infant hero strangled them with his
own hands. As he grew up, he was in-
structed by Amphitryon in driving the
chariot, by Autolycus in wrestling, by
Eurytus in archery, by Castor in fighting
in heavy armour, and by Linus in singing
and playing the lyre. Linus was killed by
his pupil with the lyre, because he had cen-
sured him; and Amphitryon, to prevent
similar occurrences, sent him to feed his
cattle. In this manner he spent his life till
his 18th year. His first great adventure
happened while he was watching the oxen
of his father. A huge lion, which haunted
Mt. Cithaeron, made great havoc among the
flocks of Amphitryon and Thespius (or Thes-
tius), king of Thespiae. Hercules promised
to deliver the country of the monster ; and
Thespius, who had 50 daughters, rewarded
Hercules by making him his guest, so long
as th9 chase lasted, and by giving up his
daughters to him. Hercules slew the lion,



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