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art the vhite ribbons which surrounded the
herald's staff were changed into 2 serpents.

3. The sandals which carried the god across
land and sea with the rapidity of wind, and
which were provided at the ankles with
wings, whence he is called alipea. — The
Koman Mercvrtus is spoken of separately.

HERMINIUS (.1) MONS {Sierra de la
E»trella)y the chief mountain in Lusitania,
S. of the Durius.

HERMIONE (-es). (1) The beautiftd
daughter of Menelaus and Helena. She had
been promised in marriage to Orestes before
the Trojan war ; but Menelaus aftej his
return home married her to Neoptolemus
(Pyrrhus). After the murder of the latter,
[Xeoptolkjtds], Hermione married Orestes,
and bore him a son Tisamenus. — (2) A
town of Argolis, but originally independent
of Argos, was situated on a promontory on
the £. coast, and on a bay of the sea, which
derived its name from the town (Hermioni-
cus Sinus). It was originally inhabited by
the Dryopes.

HERMIONES. [Germania.]

HERMOCRATES, one of the Syracusan
generals, when the Athenians attacked Sy-
racuse, B.C. M4. He was banished by the
Syracusans (410), and having endeavoured
to effect his restoration by force of arms,
was slain, 407.

HERMOGENES, a celebrated Greek rhe-
torician, was a native of Tarsus, and lived
in the reign of M. Aurelius, a.d. 161 — 180.
Several of his works are extant.

herm6gen£s, M. TIGELLIUS (-1), a
notorious detractor of Horace, who caUs him
however oj>timu3 cantor et modulator,

HERMOLAUS (-i), a Macedonian youth,
and a page of Alexander the Great, formed a
conspiracy against the king's life, b.c. 327,
but the plot was discovered, and Hcrmolaus
and his accomplices were stoned to death by
the Macedonians.

HERMOPOLIS (-is), i.e, "the city of
Hermes (Mercury)." (1) Pakva, a city of
Lower Egypt, stood upon the canal which
connected tiie Canopio branch of the Nile
with the Lake Mareotis. — (2) Magna, an
ancient city in Middle- Egypt, stood on the
W. bank of the Nile, a little below the con-
toes of Upper Egypt.

HERMUNDtRI (-6rum), one of the most
powerful nations of Germany, belonged to
the Suevic race, and dwelt between the Maine
and the Danube.

HERMUS (-i), a considerable river of Asin
Minor, rising in Mt. Pindymene, and after
flowing through the plain of Sardis, falling
into the Gulf of Smyrna, between Smyrna
and Phocaea. It formed the boundary be-
tween Aeolia and Ionia.

HERNICI (-5rum), a people in Latium,
belonging to the Sabine race, who inhabited
the mountains of the Apennines between the
lake Fucinus and the river Trerus, and were
bounded on the N. by the Marsi and Aequi,
and on the S. by the Yolsci. Their chief
town was Anaonia. They were a brave and
warlike people, and long offered a formidable
resistance to the Romans. The Romans
formed a league with them on equal terms in
the 3rd consulship of 8p. Cassius, b.c. 486.
They were finally subdued by the Romans,

HErO. [Leander.]

HERO (-Cls), an eminent mathematician,
was a native of Alexandria, and lived in the
reigns of the Ptolemies Philadelphus and
Evergetes (b.c. 285 — 222). He is celebrated
on account of his mechanical inventions.
Several of his works are extant.

HEROdES (-is), commonly called Herod.
(1) Surnamed the Great, king of the Jews,
was the son of Antipater. He received the
kingdom of Judaea, from Antony and Octa-
vian, in b.c 40. He possessed a jealous
temper and ungovernable passions. He put
to death his beautiful wife Mariamne, whom
he suspected without cause of adultery, and
with whom he was violently in love ; and at
a later period he also put to death his two
sons by Mariamne, Alexander and Aristo-
bulus. His government, though cruel and
tyrannical, was vigorous. In the last year
of his reign Jesus Christ was bom ; and it
must have been on his deathbed that he
ordered the massacre of the children at
Bethlehem. He died in the 37 th year of his
reign, and the 70th of his age, b.c 4.*
— (2) Hbrodbs Antipas, son of Herod the
Great, by Malthace, a Samaritan, obtained
the tetrarchy of Galilee and Peraea, on his
father's death, while the kingdom of Judaea
devolved on his elder brother Archelaus. He
married Herodias, the wife of his half-bro-
ther, Herod Philip, she having, in defiance
of the Jewish law, divorced her first husband.
He was deprived of his dominions by Cali-
gula, and sent into exile at Lyons, a.d. 39.
It was this Herod Antipas who imprisoned
and put to death John the Baptist, who had
reproached him with his unlawful connexion

* Tbe death of Derod took place In the lanie year
with the actual birth of Chriat, &• ia meutioiied aboTe.
but it la well known that thia ia to be placed 4 yean
before the date in general uae aa the Chriatlan era.

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with HerodiaB. It was before him also that
Christ was sent by Pontius Pilate at Jerusa^
lem, as belonging^ to his jarisdiction, on
account of his supposed Galilean origin. —
(3) Hkrodks AoaipPA. [Aoeippa.] — (4) He-
bodes Attictjs, the rhetorician. [Atticus.]

HERODIaNUS (-i), the author of an ex-
tant history, in the Greek language, of the
Roman empire in 8 books, from the death of
M. Aurelius to the commencement of the
reign of^Gordianus III. (a.d. 180 — 238).

H£r6d6tUS (-i), a Greek historian, and
the father of history, was bom at Halicar-
nassus, a Doric colony in Caria, B.C. 484.
He belonged to a noble family at Halicar-
nassus. He was the son of Lyxes and Dryo ;
and the epic poet Panyasis was one of his
relations. Herodotus left his native city at
an early age, in order to escape from the
oppressive government of Lygdamis, the
tyrant of Halicamassus,' who put to death
Panyasis. He probably settled at Samos for
some time, and there became acquainted with
the Ionic dialect ; but he spent many years
in his extensive travels in Europe, Asia, and
Africa. At a later time he returned to
Ilaliearnassus, and took a prominent part in
expelling Lygdamis from his native city.
Subsequently he again left Halicamassus, and
settled at Thurii, an Athenian colony in
Italy, where he died. Whether he accom-
panied the first colonists to Thurii in 443, or
followed them a few years afterwards, cannot
be determined with certainty. It is also
disputed where Herodotus wrote his history.
Lucian relates that Herodotus read his work
to the assembled Greeks at Olympia, which
was received with such universal applause,
that the 9 books of the work were in conse-
quence honoured with the names of the 9
Muses. The same writer adds that the young
Thucydides was present at this recitation and
was moved to tears. But this celebrated
story, which rests upon the authority of
Lucian alone, must be rejected for many
reasons. Nor is there sufficient evidence in
favour of the tradition that Herodotus read
his work at the Panathenaea at Athens in
446 or 445, and received from the Athenians
% reward of 10 talents. It is more probable
that he wrote hia work at Thurii, when he
was advanced in years ; though he appears
to have been collecting materials for it during
a great part of his life. It was apparently
with this view that he undertook his exten-
sive travels through Greece and foreign
countries ; and his work contains on almost
every page the results of his personal obser-
vations and inquiries. There was scarcely
a town of any importance in Greece Proper
and on the coasts of Asia Minor with which

he was not perfectly familiar. In the N.' of
Europe he visited Thrace and the Scythian
tribes on the Black Sea. In Asia he travelled
through Asia Minor and Syria, and visited
the cities of Babylon, Ecbatana, and Sosa.
He spent some time in Egypt, and travelled
as far S. as Elephantine. The object of his
work is to give an account of the struggles
between the Greeks and Persians. He traces the
enmity between Europe and Asiato themythi-
cal times. He passes rapidly over the mythical
ages to come to Croesus, king of Lydia, who
was known to have committed acts of hos-
tility against the Greeks. This induces liim
to give a full history of Croesus and of the
kingdom of Lydia. The conquest of Lydia
by the Persians under Cyrus tilien leads him
to relate the rise of the Persian monarchy,
and the subjugation of Asia Minor and
Babylon. The nations which are mentioned
in the course of this narrative are again
discussed more or less minutely. The history
of Cambyses and his expedition into Egypt
incfuce him to enter into the details of Egyp-
tian history. The expedition of Darius
against the Scythians causes him to speak of
Scythia and the N. of Europe. In the mean-
time the revolt of the lonians breaks out
which eventually brings the contest between
Persia and Greece to an end. An account of
tMs insurrection is followed by the history
of the invasion of Greece by the Persians ;
and the history of the Persian war now runs
in a reg^ular channel until the taking of Sestos
by the Greeks, b.c. 478, with which event
his work concludes. In order to form a fair
judgment of the historical value of the work
of Herodotus, we must distinguish between
those parts in which he speaks from his own
observations and those in which he merely
repeats what he was told by priests and
others. In the latter case he was undoubtedly
often deceived ; but whenever he speaks from
his own observations, he is a real model of
truthfulness and accuracy ; and the more
the countries which he describes have been
explored by modem travellers, the more
firmly has his authority been established.
The dialect in which he wrote is the Ionic,
intermixed with epic or poetical expressions,
and sometimes even with Attic and Doric
forms. The excellencies of his style consist
in its antique and epic colouring, its trans-
parent clearness, and the lively flow of the

HfiROPOLIS (-is), or H£rO (-Os), a city in
Lower Egypt, standing on the border of the
Desert E. of the Delta, upon the canal con-
necting the Nile with the W. head of the Red
Sea, which was called from it Sinus Hero6-

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HEROSTRATUS (-i), an Ephesian, who
set fire to the temple of Artemis at Ephesus
on the same night that Alexander the Great
was horn, b.c. 856, in order to immortalise

HERSE (-es), daughter of Cecrops and
sister of Agraolos, heloved hy Hermes. Re-
specting her story, see Aoratjlos.

HERSILIA (-ae), the wife of Romulns,
worshipped after her death under the name
of Hora or Horta.^

HERtLI or ERlhil (-Orum), a pow-
erful German race, who are said to have
come originally from Scandinavia, attacked
the Roman empire on its decline. Under
the command of Odoacer, who is said to have
been an Herulian, they destroyed the 'Western
Empire, a.d. 476. %

HEsIODUS (4), one of the earUest Greek
poets, frequently mentioned along with
Homer. As Homer represents the Ionic school
of poetry in Asia Minor, so Hesiod represents
the Boeotian school of poetry. The only points
of resemblance between the 2 schools consist in
their versification and dialect. In other re-
spects they entirely differ. The Homeric school
takes for its subject the restless activity of
the heroic age, while the Hesiodic turns its
attention to the quiet pursuits of ordinary
life, to the origin of the world, the gods and
heroes. Hesiod lived about a century later
than Homer, and is placed about b.c. 735.
We learn from his own poem on Works and
Days, that he was bom in the village of
Ascra in Boeotia, whither his father had
emigrated from the Aeolian Cyme in Asia
Minor. After the death of his father, he
was involved in a dispute with his brother
Perses about his small patrimony, which was
decided in favour of his brother. He then
emigrated to Orchomenos, where he spent
the remainder of his life. This is all that
can be said with certainty about the life of
Hesiod. Many of the stories related about
him refer to his school of poetry, and not to
the poet personally. In this light we may
regard the tradition, that Hesiod had a
poetical contest with Homer, which is said
to have taken place either at Chalcis or Aulis.
The two principal works of Hesiod, which
have come dow& to us, are his Works and
Days, containing ethical, political, and eco-
nomical precepts, and a Theogony, giving an
account of the orig^ of the world and the
birth of the gods.

HESIONE (-es), daughter of Laomedon,
king of Troy, was chained by her father to a
rock, in order to be devoured by a soa-
monster, that' he might thus appease the
anger of Apollo and Poseidon. Hercules
promised to save her, if Laomedon would

give him the horses which he had received
from Zeus as a compensation for Ganymedes.^
Hercules killed the monster, but Laomedon
refused to keep his promise. Thereupon
Hercules took Troy, killed Laomedon, and
gave Hesione to his friend and companion
Telamon, to whom she bore Teucer. Her
brother Priam sent Antenor to claim her
back, and the refusal on the part of the
Greeks is mentioned as one of the causes of
the Trojan war.

HESPERIA (.ae), the Western land {ttom
Xtmt^oe, vesper), the name given by the Greek
poets to Italy, because it lay W. of Greece.
In imitation of them, the Roman poets gave
the name of Hespeiia to Spain, which they
sometimes called ultima Eesperia, to dis-
tinguish it from Italy, which they occasionally
called Hesperia Magna,

HESPERIDES (-um), the celebrated guar-
dians of the golden apples which Ge (Earth)
gave to Hera at her marriage with Zeus.
According to some they were the daughters
of Atlas and Hesperis (whence their names,
Atlantides or Hesperides) ; but their parent-
age is differently related by others. Some
traditions mentioned 3 Hesperides, viz., Aegle,
Arethusa, and Sesperia ; others, 4, Aegte,
Orytheia, Hestia, and Arethusa ; and others,
again, 7. In the earliest legends, they are
described as living on the river Oceanus, in
the extreme W. ; but they were afterwards
placed near Mt. Atlas, and in other parts of
Libya. They were assisted in watching the
golden apples by the dragon Ladon. It was
one of the labours of Hercules to obtain
possession of these apples. [See p. 199.]


HESPERIS. [Bbrknice.]

HESPERIUM (-i : C. Verde or C. Roxo\
a headland on the W. coast of Africa, was
one of the farthest points along that coast
to which the knowledge of the ancients ex-
tended. At a day's journey from it was a
group of islands called Hespxbidum iNsui-xE,
wrongly identified by some with the Fortu-
natae Insulae ; they are either the Cape de
Verde islands, or, more probably, the Bissagos,
at the mouth of the Rio Orande.

HESPERUS (-i), the evening star, son of
Astraeus and Eos (Aurora), of Cephalus and
Eos, or of Atlas. He was also regarded as
the same as the morning star. [Lucifeb.]

HESTIA (-ae), called VESTA (-ae) by
the Romans, the goddess of the hearth, or
rather of the fire burning on the hearth, was
one of the 12 great divinities of the Greeks.
She was a daughter of Cronos (Saturn) and
Rhea, and, according to common tradition,
was the first-born of Rhea, and consequently
the first of the children swallowed by Cronos»

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She was a maiden divinity; and when
Apollo and Poseidon (Neptune) sued for her
hand, she swore by the head of Zeus to
remain a virgin for ever. As the hearth was
looked upon as the centre of domestic life, so
Hestia was the goddess of domestic life, and
as such, was believed to dwell in the inner
part of every house. Being the goddess of
the sacred fire of the altar, Hestia had a share
in the sacrifices offered to all the gods. Hence
the first part of every sacrifice was presented
to her. Solemn oaths were sworn by the god-
dess of the hearth ; and the hearth itself was
the sacred asylum where suppliants implored
the protection of the inhabitants of the house.
A town or city is only an extended family,
and therefore had likewise its sacred hearth.
This public hearth usually existed in the pry.
taneum of a town, where the goddess had her
especial sanctuary. There, as at a private
hearth, Hestia protected the suppliants.
When a colony was sent out, the emigrants
took the fire which was to bum on the hearth
of their new home from that of the mother
town. The worship of the Roman Vesta is
spoken of under Vksta.

Iiesti* (VctU). (From an ancient SUtue.)

HRSTIAEOTIS (-is). (1) The N.W. part
of Thessaly. lThessalia.] — (2) Or Histiaba,
a district in Euboea. [Eudoka.]

HETRICCL M (-i), a town of the Bruttii.

HIBERNIa (-ae), also called lEUNK,
IVERNA, or JUVKRNA (-ae), the island of
Ireland^ appears to have derived its name
from the inhabitants of its S. coast, called

Juvemi ; but its original name was probably
Bergion or Vergion. It is mentioned by
Caesar; but the Romans never made any
attempt to conquer the island, though they
obtained some knowledge of it trom. the com-
mercial intercourse which was carried on«
between it and Britain.

HIEMPSAL (-aiis). Q) Son of Micipsa,
king of NumiJia, and grandson of Masinissa,
murdered by Jugurtha, soon after the death
of Micipsa, b.c. 118. — (2) King of Numidia,
grandson or great-grandson of Masinissa,
and father of Juba, appears to have received
the sovereignty of part of Numidia after thti
Jugurthine war. He was expelled from his
kingdom by Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbns,
the leader of the Marian party in Africa, but
was restored by Pompey in 81. Hiempsal
wrote some works in the Punic language,
which are cited by Sallust.

HIErAPOLIS (-is). (1) A city of Great
Phrygia, near the Maeander, was an early
seat of Christianity, and is mentioned in
St. Paul's Epistle to the Coloseiatu.-^H)
Formerly Bambtcb, a city in the N.E. of
Syria, one of the chief seats of the worship cf

HIERON (-5nis). (1) Tyrant of Syra-
cuse (n.o. 478^-467), and brother of Ge Ion,
whom he succeeded in the sovereignty.' He
gained a great victory over the Etruscan
fleet near Cumae, b.c. 474. He was a
patron of literature ; and the poets Aes-
chylus, Pindar, and Simonides, took up
their residence at his court. — (2) King of
Syracuse (b.c. 270 — 216), a noble Syracusan,
descended from the great Gelon, was volun-
tarily elected king by his fellow-citizens,
after his defeat of the Mamertines, in b.c,
270. He sided with the Carthaginians at the
commencement of the first Punic war (b.c.
264), but in the following year he concluded
a peace with the Romans ; and from this time
till his death, a period of little less than
half a century, he continued the stedfast
friend and ally of the Romans. He died in
216, at the age of 92. He was succeeded by
his grandson, Hieronyraus.

HIERON^MUS (-1). (1) Of Cardla, ac-
companied Alexander the Great to Asia, and
after the death of that monarch (b.c. 823],
served under his countryman Eumcnes. He
afterwards fought under Antigonus, his son
Demetrius, and grandson Antigonus Gonatas.
He survived Pyrrhus, and died at the ad^
vanced age of 104. Hieronymus wrote a
history of the events from the death of
Alexander to that of Pyrrhus, which is lost.
— (2) King of Syracuse, succeeded his grand,
father, Hieron II., b.c. 216, at 15 years of
age, and was assassinated after a short reign

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of only 13 months. — (3) Of Rhodes, a peri-
patetic philosopher, and a disciple of Aristotle.

HIEROSOLtMA. [Jkeusalem.]

HILLEVIONES. [Gkrmania.]

HIMERA (-ae). (1) {Fiume Salso)^ one
of the principal rivers in the S. of Sicily, at
one time the boundary between the terri-
tories of the Carthaginians and Syracusans,
receives near. Enna the water of a salt spring,
and hence has salt water as far as its mouth.
—(2) A smaller river in the N. of Sicily,
flowing into the sea between the towns of
Himera and Thermae. — (3) A celebrated
Greek city on the N. coast of Sicily, W. of the
mouth of the river Himera [No. 2], was
founded by the Chalcidians of Zancle, b.c.
648, and afterwards received Dorian settlers,
80 that the inhabitants spoke a mixed dialect,
partly Ionic (Chalcidian), and partly Doric.
In B.C. 409 it was taken by the Carthaginians,
and levelled to the ground. It was never
rebuilt ; but on the opposite bank of the
river Himera, the Carthaginians founded a
new town, which, from a warm medicinal
spring in its neighbourhood, was called
Thermae. The poet Stesichorus was bom at
the ancient Himera, ^d the tyrant Aga.
thocles, at Thermae.

* HIPPARCHUS (-1). (1) Son of Pisis-
tratus. [PisisTRATiDAE.] — (2) A celebrated
Greek astronomer, a native of Nicaea, in
Bithynia, who flourished b.c. 160 — 145, and
resided both at Rhodes and Alexandria. The
catalogue which Hipparchus constructed of
the stars Is preserved by Ptolemy.

HIPPIAS (-ae). (1) Son of Pisistratus.
[PisiSTEATiDAE.] — (2) A Celebrated Sophist,
was a native of Elis, and the contemporary
of Socrates.

HIPPO (-onis). (1) H. Regitjs, a city on
the coast of Numidia, once a royal residence,
and afterwards celebrated as the bishopric of
St. Augustine. — (2) H. Diarbhytxts or Za-
lUTus, a city on the N. coast of the Cartha-
ginian territory W. of Utica. — (3) A town of
the Carpetani in Hispania Tarraconensis, S.
of Toletum.

HIPPOCOON (-ontis), son of Oebalus and
Batea. After his father's death, he expelled
his brother Tyndareus, in order to secure the
kingdom to himself ; but Hercules led Tyn-
dareus back, and slew Hippocoon and his

HIPPOCRATES (-is), the most celebrated
physician of antiquity, was bom in the island
of Cos, about B.C. 460. He wrote, taught,
and practised his profession at home; tra-
velled in different parts of the continent of
Greece ; and died at Larissa in Thessaly,
about 357, at the age of 104. He had 2
6tMi6, Tbessolus and Dracor, and a son-in-

law, Polybus, all of whom followed the same
profession. The writings which have come
down to us under the name of Hippocrates
were composed by several dififerent persons,
and are of very different merit.

HIPPOCREnE (-es), the "Fountain of the
Horse," was a fountain in Mt. Helicon in
Boeotia, sacred to the Muses, said to have
been produced by the horse Pegasus striking
the grround with his feet.

HIPPODAMIA (-ae). (l) Daughter of
Oenomaus, kin^ of Pisa in Elis. [Oeno-
MAUS and Pelops.] — (2) "Wife of Pirithous,
at whose nuptials took place the celebrated
battle between the Centaurs and Lapithae.


HIPPOLtTE (-es). (1) Daughter of Ares
and Otrera, was queen of the Amazons, and
sister of Antiope and Melanippe. She wore
a girdle given to her by her father ; and when
Hercules came to fetch this girdle, he
slew her. According to another tradition,
Hippolyte, with an army of Amazons,
marched into Attica, to take vengeance on
Theseus for having carried off Antiope ;
but being conquered by Theseus, she fled to
Megara, where she died of grief. In some
accounts Hippolyte, and not Antiope, is said
to have been married to Theseus. — (2) Or
AsTTDAUiA, wife of Acastus, fell in love with
Peleus. [Acastus.]

HIPPOLtTUS (-i), son of Theseus by Hip-
polyte, queen of the Amazons, or by her
sister Antiope. Theseus afterwards married
Phaedra, who fell in love with Hippolytus ;
but sis her offers were rejected by her step
son, she accused him to his father of having
attempted her dishonour. Theseus thereupon
cursed his son, and devoted him to destruc-
tion ; and, accordingly, as Hippolytus was
riding in his chariot along the sea-coast,
Poseidon sent forth a bull from the water,
at which the horses took fright, overturned
the chariot, and dragged Hippolytus along
the ground till he was dead. Theseus after-
wards learned the innocence of his son, and
Phaedra, in despair, made away with herself-
Artemis (Diana) induced Aesculapius to re«
store Hippolytus to Ufe again * and, according
to Italian traditions, Diana, having changed
his name to Yirbius, placed him under the
protection of the nymph Egeria, in the grove
of Aricia, in Latium, where he was honoured
with divine worship. Horace, following tha
more ancient tradition, says that Diana could
not restore Hippolytus to life.

HIPPOmSnES (-is). (1) Son of Mcgareus,
and great-grandson of Poseidon (Neptime),
conquered Atalanta in a foot-race. [Ata-
lanta. No. 2.] — (2) A descendant ol Codrus,
the 4th and last of the decennial archons.

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Incensed at the barbarous punishment which
he inflicted on his daughter, the Attic nobles
deposed him.

HIPPONAX (-actis), of Ephesus, a Greek

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