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the throne by his half-brother Pelias. During
the absence of Jason on the Argonautic expe.
dition, Pelias attempted to murder Aeson,
but the latter put an end to his own life.
According to Ovid, Aeson survived the return
of the Argonauts, and was made young again
by Medea.

AESOPUS (-i), a writer of Fables, lived
about B.C. 570, and was a contemporary of
Solon. He was originally a slave, and re-
ceived his freedom ftrom his master ladmon
the Samian. Upon this he visited Croesus,
who sent him to Delphi, to distribute among
the citizens 4 minae apiece; but in conse-
quence of some dispute on the subject, he
refused to give any money at all, upon which
the enraged Delphians threw him from a
precipice. Plagues were sent upon them from
the gods for the offence, and they proclaimed
their willingness to give a compensation for
his death to any one who could claim it. At
length ladmon, the grandson of his old
master, received the compensation, since no
nearer connection could be found. Later
writers represent Aesop as a perfect monster
of ugliness and deformity ; a notion for which
there is no authority in the classical authors.

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Whether Aesop left any written -works at all, is a
question which affords room for doubt ; though
it is certain that fables, bearing Aesop's name,
wer^ popular at Athens in its most intellectual
age. They were in prose, and were turned
into poetry by several writers. Socrates
turned some of them into verse during his
• imprisonment. The only Greek versifier of
Aesop, of whose writings any whole fables
are preserved, is Babrius. Of the Latin
writers of Aesopean fables, Phaedrus is the
most celebrated. [Phaedrus.] The fables
now extant in prose, bearing the name of
Aesop, are unquestionablv spurious.

(-i), was the greatest tragic actor at Rome, and
contemporary of Boscius, the greatest comic
actor. Both of them lived on intimate terms
with Cicero. Aesopus appeared for the last
time on the stage at an advanced age at
the dedication of the theatre of Pompey (b.c.
55), when his voice failed him, and he could
not go through with the speech. He realised
an immense fortune by his profession, which
was squandered by his son, a foolish spend-

AESTII (-6rum), AESTti, or AESTUI
(-drum), a people dwelling on the sea-coast, in
the N.E. of Germany, probably in the modem
Kurlandy who collected amber, which they
called glesntm. They were probably a Sar-
matian or Slavonic and not a Germanic race.

AESt^LA (-ae), a town of the Aequi on a
mountain between Praeneste and Tibur.

AETHALLA. (-ae), or AETHALIS (-Wis),
caUed ILVA (-ae) {Elba), by the Romans, a
small island in the Tuscan sea, opposite the
town of Populonia, celebrated for its iron

AETHATJDES (-ae), son of Hermes (Mer-
cury) and Eupolemla, the herald of the
Argonauts. EEis soul, after many migra-
tions, at length took possession of the body
of Pythagoras, in which it still recollected its
former migrations.

AETHICES (-um), a Thessalian or Epirot
people, near M. Pindus.

AETmOPES (-um : said to be from ArAw
and Z^f but perhaps really a foreign name
corrupted), was a name applied (1) most
generaUy to all black or dark races of men ;
(2) to all the inhabitants of Inner AfHca, S.
of Mauretania, the Great Desert, and Egypt,
from the Atlantic to the Bed Sea and Indian
Ocean, and to some of the dark races of Asia ;
and (3) most specifically to the inhabitants of
the land S. of Egypt, which was called

AETHIOPIA (-ae : Nubia, K&rdofany
Sennaar, Abyssinia), a country of Africa, S.
oi Egypt, Ike boimdkry of the countries being

at Syene and the Smaller Cataract of the
Nile, and extending on the E. to the Red Sea,
and to the S. and S.W. indefinitely, as far
apparently as the knowledge of the ancients
extended. The people of Aethiopia seem to have
been of the Caucasian race, and to have spoken
a language allied to the Arabic. Monuments
are found in the country closely resembling
those of Egypt, but of an inferior style. It
was the seat of a powerful monarchy, of
which Meroe was the capital. Some tradi-
tions made Merofi the parent of Egyptian
civilisation, while others ascribed the
civilisation of Ethiopia to Egyptian colo-
nisation. So great was the power of the
Ethiopians, that more than once in its history
Egypt was governed by Ethiopian kings.
Under the Ptolemies Graeco-Egyptian colonies
established themselves in Ethiopia ; but the
country was never subdued. The Romans
failed to extend their empire over Ethiopia,
though they made expeditions into the
country, in one of which C. Petronius, pre-
fect of Egypt under Augustus, advanced as
far as Napata, and defeated the warrior
queen Candace (b.c. 22). Christianity very
early extended to Ethiopia, probably in con-
sequence of the conversion of the treasurer of
queen Candace {Acts, viii. 27).

AETHRA(-ae). (1) Daughter of Pittheus
of Troezen, and mother of Theseus by Aegeus.
She afterwards lived in Attica, from whence
she was carried off to Lacedaemon by Castor
and Pollux, and became a slave of Helen, with
whom she was taken to Troy. At the capture
of Troy she was restored to liberty by her
grandson Acamas or Demophon. — (2) Daugh-
ter of Oceanus, by whom Atlas begot the 12
Hyades and a son Hyas.

AETNA (-ae). (1) A volcanic mountain
in the N. E. of ^ Sicily between Tauro-
menium and Catana. It is said to have de-
rived its name from Aetna, a Sicilian nymph,
a daughter of Heaven and Earth. Zeus
(Jupiter) buried under it Typhon or Ence-
ladus ; and in its interior Hephaestus (Vulcan)
and the Cyclops forged the thunderbolts for
Zeus. There were several eruptions of M.
Aetna in antiquity. One occurred in b. c. 47 5,
to which Aeschylus and Pindar probably
allude, and another in 425, which Thucydides
says was the third on record since the Greeks
had settled in Sicily.— (2) A town at the foot
of M. Aetna, on the road to Catana, formerly
called Inessa or Innesa. It was foxmded in
B. 0. 461, by the inhabitants of Catana, who
had been expelled from their own town by the
Siculi. They gave the name of Aetna to
Inessa, because their own town Catana had
been called Aetna by Hiero I.

AETOLIA (-ae), a division of Greece, was

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bounded on the W, by Acamanla, from which
it was separated by the river Achelous, on the
N. by Epirus and Thessaly, on the E. by the
Ozolian Locrians, and on the S. by the en.
trance to the Corinthian gnlf . It was divided
into two parts, — Old Aetolia, from the
Achelous to the Evenos and Calydon, — and
New Aetolia, or the Acquired, from the Evenus
and Calydon to the Ozolian Locrians. On
the coast the country Is level and fruitful, but
in the interior mountainous and unproductive.
The mountains contained many wild beasts,
and were celebrated in mythology for the
hunt of the Calydonlan boar. The country
was originally inhabited by Curetes and
Leleges, but was at an early period colonised
by Greeks from Elis, led by the mythical
Abtolus. The Aetolians took part in the
Trojan war, under their king Thoas. They
continued for a long time a rude and uncivil.
Ised people, living to a great extent by
robbery ; and even In the time of Thucydides
(b. c. 410) many of their tribes spoke a
language which was not Greek, and were in
the habit of eating raw flesh. They appear
to have been early united by a kind of League,
hut this League first acquired political
importance about the middle of the 3rd
century b. c, and became a formidable rival
to the Macedonian monarchs and the Achaean
League. The Aetolians took the side of
Antiochus III. against the Romans, and on
the defeat of that monarch, b. c. 1 89, they
became virtually the subjects of Rome. On the
conquest of the Achaeans, b. c. 146, Aetolia
was included in the Roman province of Acbaia.

AETOLUS (-i), son of Endymion and hus-
band of Pronoe, by whom he had two sons,
Pleuron and Calydon. He was king of Elis,
but having slain Apis, he fled to the country
near the Achelous, whicl^ was called Aetolia
after him.

AFRANIUS (-i), L. (1) A Roman comic
poet, flourished about b. c. 100. His
comedies depicted Roman life with such
accuracy, that he is classed with Menander.
Only a few fragments of them are pre-
served. — (2) A person of obscure origin,
who was, through Pompey's influence, made
consul, b. c. 60. When Pompey obtained
the provinces of the two Spains in his 2nd
consulship (55), he sent Afttoiius and Petreius
to govern them, while he himself remained in
Rome. In 49, Afranius and Petreius were
defeated by Caesar in Spain. Afranius there-
upon passed over to Pompey in Greece ; was
present at the battle of Pharsalia, (48) ; and
subsequently at the battle of Thapsus in
AfHca, (46). He then attempted to fly into
Mauretania, but was taken prisoner by P.
Sittius, and killed.

AFRICA (.ae), was used by the ancients in
two senses, (1) for the whole continent of
Jfric€i, and (2) for the portion of N. Africa
which the Romans erected into a province. —
(1) In the more general sense the name was
not used by the Greek writers ; and its use by
the Romans arose ttom the extension to the
whole continent of the name of a part of it.
The proper Greek name for the continent is
Libya, Considerably before the historical
period of Greece begins, the Phoenicians
extended their commerce over the Mediter-
ranean, and founded several colonies on the
N. coast of AfHca, of which Carthage was the
chief. [Carthaoo.] The Greeks knew very
little of the coimtry until the foundation of the
Dorian colony of CnutwE (b. c. 620), and the
intercourse of Greek travellers with Egypt in
the 6th and 5th centuries; and even then
their knowledge of all but the part near
Cyrene was derived ftrom the Egyptians and
Phoenicians, who sent out some remarkable
expeditions to explore the country, A
Phoenician fleet sent by the Egyptian king
Pharaoh Necho (about b. c. 600), was said to
have sailed ttom the Red Sea, round AfHca,
and so into the Mediterranean : the authen.
ticity of this story is still a matter of dispute.
We still possess an authentic accotmt of
another expedition, which the Carthaginians
despatched under Hanno (about b. c. 510),
and which reached a point on the W. coast
nearly, if not quite, as far as lat. 10"* N.
In the interior, the Great Desert {Sahara)
interposed a formidable obstacle to discovery ;
bnt even before the time of Herodotus
the people on the northern coast told of
individuals who had crossed the Desert,
and had reached a great river flowing
towards the E., with crocodiles in it, and
black men living on its banks ; which, if the
story be true, was probably the Niger in its
upper course, near mmhuctoo. There were
great difl'erences of opinion as to the boun-
daries of the continent. Some divided the
whole world into only two parts, Europe and
Asia, and they were not agreed to which of
these two Libya (». «. Africa) belonged ; and
those who recognised three divisions difltered
again in placing the boundary between Libya
and Asia either on the W. of Egypt, or along
the Nile, or at the isthmus of Suez and the
Red Sea : the last opinion gradually prevailed
Herodotus divides the inhabitants of Africa
into four races, two native, namely, the Liby-
ans and Ethiopians, and two foreign, namely,
the Phoenicians and the Greeks. The Libyans,
however, were a Caucasian race : the Ethio-
pians of Herodotus correspond to our Negro
races. The whole of the north of Africa fell
successively under the power of Rome, and

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was finally divided into provinces as follows :
—(1) Aegypt ; (2) Libya, including (a) Libyae
Nomos or Libya Exterior, (6) Marmarica, (o)
CyrenaXca; (3) Africa Propria, the former
empire of Carthage see below, No. 2 ; (4)
Nomidia; (5) Mauretania, divided into (a)
SitifenslB, (5) Caesariensis, {o) Tingitana:
these, with (6) Aethiopia, make up the whole
of Afkca, according to the divisions recog.
nised by the latest of the ancient geographers.
The northern district was better known to
the Romans than it is to us, and was ex-
tremely populous and flourishing. — (2)
Afbica PaoPKiA or Pbovincia, or simply
Afbica, was the name under which the
Romans, after the Third Punic War b. c.
146, erected into a province the whole of the
former territory of Carthage. It extended
from the river Musca, on the W., which
divided it fh)m Numidia, to the bottom of the
Syrtis Minor, on the S. E. It was divided
into two districts (regiones), namely, (1) Zeugis
or Zeugitana, the district round Carthage,
(2) Byzacium or Byzacena, 8. of Zeugitana,
as far as the bottom of the Syrtis Minor. It
corresponds to the modem regency of Tunis.
The province was fall of flourishing towns,
and was extremely fertile : it furnished Rome
with its chief supplies of com.

AFRIClNUS (-i), a surname given to the
Scipios, on account of their victories in Africa.

AFRICUS (4: xA|/ by the Greeks), the
S.W. wind, so called because it blew from

AGAM£D£S (-ae), commonly called son of
Erginus, king of Orchomenus, and brother of
Trophonius. Agamedes and Trophonius dis-
tmguished themselves as architects. They
built a temple of Apollo at Delphi, and a
treasury of Hyrieus, king of Hyria in Boeotia.
In the instruction of the latter, they con.
trived to place a stone in such a manner, that
it could be taken away outside without any
body perceiving it. They now constantly
robbed the treasury ; and the king, seeing
that locks and seals were uninjured while his
treasures were constantly decreasing, set
traps to catch the thief. Agamedes was thus
caught, and Trophonius cut off his head to
avert the discovery. After this Trophonius
was- immediately swallowed up by the ear^
in the grove of LebadSa. Here he was
worshipped as a hero, and had a celebrated
oracle. A tradition mentioned by Cicero
states that Agamedes and Trophonius, after
building the temple of Apollo at Delphi,
prayed to the god to grant them in reward
for their labour what was best for men. The
god promised to do so on a certain day, and
when the day came, the two brothers died.

IgAMEMNON (-«nis), sonof Pllsthenes and
A6rop§ or Eriph^l^, and grandson of Atreus,
king of Mycenae ; but Homer and others call
him a son of Atreus and grandson of Pelops.
Agamemnon and his brother Menelaus were
brought up together with Aegisthus, the son
of Thyestes, in the house of Atreus. After
the murder of Atreus by Aegisthus and
Thyestes, who succeeded Atreus in the king,
dom of Mycenae [Aegisthus], Agamemnon
and Menelaus went to Sparta. Here Aga.
memnon married Clytemnestra, the daughter
of Tyndareus, by whom he became the father
of Iphianassa (Iphigenla), Chrysothemis,
Laodice (Electra), and Orestes. The manner
In which Agamemnon obtained the kingdom
of Mycenae, is differently related. From
Homer, it appears as if he had peaceably
succeeded Thyestes; while, according to
others, he expelled Thyestes, and usurped his
throne. He now became the most powerful
prince in Greece. Homer says he ruled over
all Argos, which signifles Peloponnesus, or
the greater part of it, for the city of Argos
was governed by Diomedes. When Helen,
the wife of Menelaus, was carried off by Paris,
and the Greek chiefs resolved to recover her
by force of arms, Agamemnon was chosen
their commander in chief. After two years
of preparation, the Greek army and fleet
assembled in the port of Aulis in Boeotia.
At this place Agamemnon killed a stag which
was sacred to Artemis (Diana), who in return
visited the Greek army with a pestilence, and
produced a calm which prevented the Greeks
from leaving the port. In order to appease
her wrath, Agamemnon consented to sacrifice
his daughter Iphigenla ; but at the moment
of the sacrifice, she was carried off by Artemis
herself to Tauris, and another victim was
substituted in her place. The calm now
ceasedj and the army sailed to the coast of
Troy. The quarrel between Agamemnon and
Achilles in the tenth year of the war, is
related elsewhere. [Achilles.] Agamemnon,
although the chief commander of the Greeks,
is not the hero of the Iliad, and in chivalrous
spirit, bravery, and character, altogether
inferior to Achilles. But he nevertheless
rises above all the Greeks by his dignity,
power, and majesty : his eyes and head are
likened to those of Zeus (Jupiter), his girdle
to that of Ares (Mars), and his breast to that
of Poseidon (Neptxme). At the capture of
Troy he received Cassandra, the daughter of
Priam, as his prize. On his return home he
was murdered by Aegisthus, who had seduced
Clytemnestra during the absence of her hus-
band. The tragic poets make Clytemnestra
alone murder Agamemnon. His death was
avenged by his son Orestes.

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AOAMEMNONIDfiS (^, the ion of Aga-
memnon, *. e. Orestes.

AGANIPPfi (-es), a nymph of the fountain
of the same name at the foot of Mt. Helicon,
in Boeotia. It was sacred to the Muses (who
were hence called Affanippidea)^ and was
beliered to inspire those who drank of it.
The fountain of Hippocrfine has the epithet
Aganippitf firom its heing sacred to the Muses,
like that of Aganippe.

AGATHOCLES (-isor Ws),wasbomatTher-
mae, a town of Sicily subject to'Carthage, and
was brought up as a potter at Syracuse. His
strength and personal beauty recommended
him to Damas, a noble Syracusan, who drew
him fjrom obscurity, and on whose death he
married his rich widow, and so became one of
the wealthiest citizens in Syracuse. His
ambitious schemes then dereloped themselres,
and he was driren into exile. After seyeral
changes of fortune, he collected an army, and
was declared sovereign of Syracuse, b.c. 817.
In the course of a few years the whole of
Sicily, which was not under the dominion of
Carthage, submitted to him. In 810 he was
defeated at Himera by the Carthaginians^
under Hamilcar, who straightway laid siege
to Syracuse ; whereupon he formed the bold
design of averting the ruin which threatened
him, by carrying the war into Africa. His
successes were most brilliant and rapid. He
constantly defeated the troops of Carthage,
but was at length summoned from Africa by
the affairs of Sicily, where many cities had
revolted from him, 807. These he reduced,
, after mbking a treaty with the Carthaginians.
He had previously assumed the title of king
uf Sicily. He afterwards plundered the
Lipari isles, and also carried his arms into
Italy, in order to attack the Bruttii. But his
last days were embittered by family misfor.
times. His grandson Arohagathus murdered
his son Agathocles, for the sake of succeeding
to the crown, and the old king feared that
the rest of his family would share his fate.
He accordingly sent his wife and her two
children to Egypt; and his own death fol-
lowed almost immediately, 289, after a tfiga.
of 28 years, and in the 72nd year of his age.
Some authors relate an incredible story of
his being poisoned by Maeno, an associate of
Archagathus. The poison, we are told, was
concealed in the quill with which he cleaned
his teeth, and reduced him to so frightful a
condition, that he was placed on the funeral
pile and burnt while yet living, being un-
able to give any signs that he was not

AGATHON, an Athenian tragic poet, a
contemporary and friend of Euripides and
Plato. He died aboul b.c. 400,

XgaTHTKNA (-ae), XgXTHTBNTJM (-i),
a town on the N. coast of Sicily.

AOATHYB8I (-drum), a people in European
Sarmatia, on the river Maris {Maroteh) in
Transylvania. From the practice Mt painting
or tattooing their sldn, they are called by
Virgil picti Agathyrti,

AGlYfi (.Ss), daughter of Cadmns, wife of
Echlon, and mother of Penthens. For details
see PsMTHxus.

AGBATANA. [Ecbatama.]

the chief town of the Senones in Gallia

1g£N0B (.5ris). (1) Son of Poseidon
(Neptune), king of Phoenicia, and father of
Cadmus, and Europa. Virgil calls Carthage
the city of Agenor, since Dido was descended
from Agenor. — (2) Son of the Trojan Antenor
and Theano, one of the bravest among the
Trojans. '

AGfiNdBIDfiS (.ae), a descendant of an Age.
non such as Cadmus, Phineus, and Perseus.

AQ£silAUS (-1), kings of Sparta. — (1)
Reigned about b.c. 886, and was contem-
porary with the le^lation of Lycurgus. —
(2) Son of Archidftmus II., succeeded his half-
brother Agis II., b.c. 898, excluding, on the
ground of spurious birth, and by the interest
of Lysander, his nephew Lbottchides. From
896 to 894 he carried on the war in Asia
Minor with great success, but in the midst
of his conquests was summoned home to
defend his country against Thebes, Corinth,
and Argos, which had been induced by
Artaxerxes to take up arms against Sparta.
In 894 he met and defeated at CoronSa in
Boeotia the allied forces. During the next
4 years he regained for his country much of
its former supremacy, till at length the fatal
battle of Leuctra, 871, overthrew for ever the
power of Sparta, and gave the supremacy for
a time to Thebes. In 861 he crossed with a
body of Lacedaemonian mercenaries into
Egypt, where he died, in the winter of 86 1-860,
after a life of above 80 years and a reign of
88. In person Agesilaus was small, mean-
looking, and lame, on which last ground
objection had been made to his accession, an
oracle, curiously fulfilled, having warned
Sparta of evils awaiting her under a ** lame
sovereignty." In his reign, indeed, her fall
took place, but not through him, for he was
one of the best citizens and generals that
Sparta ever had.

AGfisiPOUS, kings of Sparta. - (1) Suc-
ceeded his father Pausanias, while yet a minor,
in B.C. 894, and reigned 14 years. — (2) Son
of Cleombrotus, reigned one year, 871. — (3)
Succeeded Cleomenes in 220, but was soon
deposed by his colleague Lycurgus.

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AGINNUM (-i : Agen)f the chief toim of
the Nitiobriges in Gallia Aqiiitanica.

AGI8 (-Wis), kings of Sparta.— (1) Son of
Eurysthenes, the founder of the family of the
Agridae. — (2) Son of Archidfimus II., reigned
B.C. 427-398. He took an active part in the
Peloponnesian war, and invaded Attica several
times. "While Alcibiades was at Sparta he
was the gviest of Agis, and is said to have
seduced his wife Timaea ; in consequence of
which Leotychides, the son of Agis, was
excluded from the throne as illegitimate. —
(3) Son of Archidamus III., reigned 838-330.
He attempted to overthrow the Macedonian
power in Eurojie, while Alexander the Great
was in Asia, but was defeated and killed in
battle by Antipaterin 830. — (4) Son of Euda-
midas II., reigned 244-240. He attempted
to re-establish the institutions of Lycurgus,
and to effect a thorough reform in the Spartan
state ; but he was resisted by Ms colleague
Leonidas II. and the wealthy, was thrown
into prison, and was there put to death by
command of the ephors, along with his
mother jmd grandmother.

AGLAIA (-ae), " the bright one," one of
the Chahites or Graces.

AGEAULOS (-i). (1) Daughter of Actaeus,
first king of Athens, and wife of Cecrops. —
(2) Daughter of Cecrops and Agraulos, of
whom various stories are told. Athena
(Minerva) is said to have given Erichthonius in
a chest to Agraulos and her sister Herse, with
strict injunctions not to open it ; but they
disobeyed the command. [E&ichthokixts.]
Agraulos was subsequently punished by being
changed into a stone by Hermes (Mercury),
because she attempted to prevent the god
from entering the house of Herse, with whom
he had fallen in love. Another legend relates
that Agraulos threw herself down from the
Acropolis because'an oracle had declared that
the Athenians would conquer if some one
would sacrifice himself for his country. The
Athenians in gratitude built her a temple on
the Acropolis, in which the young Athenians,
on receiving their first suit of armour, took
an oath that they would always defend their
country to the last. A festival (Agraulia)
was celebrated^at Athens in her honour.

AGRI DECUMATES, tithe lands, the name
given by the Romans to a part of Grermany,
E. of the Rhine and N. of the Danube, which
they took possession of when the Germans
retired eastward, and which they gave to
Gauls and subsequently to their own veterans
on the payment of a tenth of the produce
(dectlma). Towards the end of the first or
the beginning of the second century after
Christ, these lands were incorporated in the

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