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Iambic poet, flourished b.c. 546 — 520. He
was celebrated for the bitterness of his

HIPPONiCUS. [Callias and Hipponicus.]



HIPPOTAdES (oie), Km of Hippotea, that
is, Aeolus. Hence the Aeoliae Insulae are
called Hippotadae regnvm.

mPPOTHOUS (-1), son of Cercjon, and
father of_ Aepytus, king of Arcadia.

HIRPINI (-6rum), a Samnite people,
dwelling in the S. of Samnium, between
Apulia, Lucania, and Campania. Their chief
town was ABcui<A]ajM.

HIRTIUS (-i). A., a friend of Caesar the
dictator, and consul with Pansa, b.c. 43.
Hirtius and his colleague fell at the battle of
Mutina, flghting against Antony. [Augus-
tus.] Hirtius divides with Oppius the claim
to the authorship of the 8th book of the Gallic
war, as well as to that of the histories of
the Alexandrian, African, and Spanish wars.
It is not impossible that he wrote the first
three, but he certainly did not write the
Spanish war.

HISPALIS (-is), more rarely HISPAL
(-Slis : Seville)^ a town of the Turdetani in
Hispania Baetica, founded by the Phoe-
nicians, situated on the left bank of the
Baetis, and in reality a seaport, for, although
500 stadia from the sea, the river is navi-
gable for the largest vessels up to the town.
Under the Romans it was an important
place ; under the Goths and Vandals the chief
town in the S. of Spain ; and under the
Arabs the capital of a separate kingdom.

HISPANIA (-ae : Spain), a peninsula in
the S.W. of Europe, connected with the land
only on the N.E., where the Pyrenees form
its boundary, and surrounded on all other
sides by the sea, and on the N. by the Can-
•tabrian sea. The Greeks and Romans had
no accurate knowledge of the country till the
time of the Roman invasion in the 2nd Punic
war. It was first mentioned by Hecataeus
(about B.C. 500) under the name of Iberia ;
but this name originally indicated only the
E. coast : the W. coast beyond the pillars of
Hercules was called Tartessis {^a^-mrrU),
It was called by the Greeks Iberia, a name
usually derived from the river Iberus, and
by the Romans Hispania, Spain was cele-
brated in antiquity for its mineral treasures.
Gold was found in abundance in various parts
of the country ; and there were many silver
mines, of which the most celebrated were

near Carthago Nova, Ilipa, Sisapon, and Cas-
tulo. The precious stones, copper, lead, tin,
and other metals, were also found in more or
less abundance. The most ancient inhabitants
of Spain were the Iberi, who dwelt on both
sides of the Pyrenees, and were found in the
S. of Gaul, as far as the Rhone. Celts after-
wards crossed the Pyrenees, and became
mingled with the Iberi, whence arose the
mixed race of the Celtiberi, who dwelt chiefly
in the high table land in the centre of the
coimtly. [Celtiberi.] But besides this
mixed race of the Celtiberi, there were also
several tribes, both of Iberians and Celts, who
were never united with one another. The
unmixed Iberians, from whom the modem
Basques are descended, dwelt chiefly in the
Pyrenees and on the coasts, and their most
distinguished tribes were the Astures, Ca>'-
TABRi, Vaccaei, &c. The tmmixed Celts
dwelt chiefly on the river Anas, and in the
N.W. comer of the country or Gallaecia. Be-
sides these inhabitants, there were Phoe-
nician and Carthaginian settlements on the
coasts, of which the most important were
Gades and Ca&thaoo Nova ; there were like-
wise Greek colonies, such as Empobiab and
Saountum ; and lastly the conquest of the
coimtry by the Romans introduced many
Romans among the inhabitants, whose civi-
lisation and lang^uage gradually spread over
the whole peninsula. Under the empire
some of the most distingruished Latin writers
were natives of Spain, such as the 2 Senecas,
Lucan, Martial, Quintilian, Silius Italicus,
Pomponius Mela, Prudentius, and others.
The ancient inhabitaiits of Spain were a
proud, brave, and warlike race; lovers of
their liberty, and ready at all times. to sacri-
fice their lives rather than submit to a foreign
master. The history of Spain begins with
the invasion of the country by the Cartha-
ginians, B.C. 238. Under the command of
Hamilcar (238 — 229), and that of his son-in-
law and successor, Hasdrubal (228 — 221),
the Carthaginians conquered the greater part
of the S.E. of the peninsula as far as the
Iberus ; and Hasdrubal founded the impor-
tant ci^ of Carthago Nova. These successes
of the Carthaginians excited the jealousy of
ttie Romans ; and a treaty was made between
the 2 nations about 228, by which the Car-
thaginians bound themselves not to cross the
Iberus. The town of Saguntum, although on
the W, side of the river, -^ras imder the pro-
tection of the Romans ; and the capture of
this town by Hannibal in 219, was theimme-
diate cause of the 2nd Punic War. In the
course of this war the Romans drove the
Carthaginians out of the peninsula, and be.
came masters of theii possessions in the S.

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of the country. But many tribes in the
centre of the country retained their indepen-
dence; and those in the N. and N.W. of
the country had been hitherto quite unknown
both to the Carthaginians and Romans.
There now arose a long and bloody struggle
between the Romans and the various tribes
in Spain, and it was nearly 2 centuries before
the Romans succeeded in subduing entirely
the whole of the peninsula. The Celtiberians
were conquered by the elder Cato (195), and
Tib. Gracchus, the father of the 2 tribunes
(179). The Lusitanians, who long resisted
the Romans under their brave leader Yiria.
thus, were obliged to sulnnit, about the year
137, to D. Brutus, who penetrated as far as
Gallaecia ; but it was not till Numantia was
taken by Scipio Africanus the younger, in
133, that the Romans obtained the undis-
puted sovereignty over the various tribes in
the centre of the country, and of the Lusita-
nians to the S. of the Tagus. Julius Caesar,
after his praetorship, subdued the Lusita-
nians N. of the Tagus (60). The Cantabri,
Astures, and other tribes in the mountains of
the N., were finally subjugated by Augustus
and his generals. The Romans had, as easly
as the end of the 2nd Punic war, divided
t<pain into 2 provinces, separated from one
another by the Iberus, and called Hispania
Giterior and Eispania Vlterior^ the former
being to the £., and the Ifttter to the W. of
the river. In consequence of there being 2
provinces, we frequently find the country
called Sispaniae, The provinces were go-
vemed by 2 proconsuls or 2 propraetors, the
latter of whom also frequently bore the title
of proconsuls. Aug^tus made a new division
of the country, and formed 3 provinces. Tar-
raconenaiSt Baetica^ and Ltuitania. The pro-
vinoe TarraeonenaiSj which derived its name
from Tarraco, the capital of the province,
was by far the largest of the 3, and compre-
hended the whole of the N^ W., and centre
of the peninsula. The province Baeticmj
which derived its name from the river Baetis,
was separated from Lusitania on the N. and
W. by the river Anas, and from Tarraoo-
nensis on the £. by a line drawn from the
river Anas to the promontory CSiaridemus in
the Mediterranean. The province Lusitania
corresponded very nearly in extent to the
modem Portugal. In Baetica, Corduba or
HispaUs was the seat of government; in
Tarraconensis, Tarraco ; and in Lusitania, Au-
gusta Emerita. On the fall of the Roman
empire Spain was conquered by the Vandals,
A.D. 409.

HISTIAEA. [Hestiaeotis.]

HISTIAEUS (4), tyrant of Miletus, was
left with the other lonians to guard the bridge

of boats over the Danube, when Darius in.
vaded Scythia (b.c. 513). He opposed the
proposal of Miltiades, the Athenian, to de-
stroy the bridge, and leave the Persians to
their fate, and was in consequence rewarded
by Darius with a district in Thraee, where
he built a town called Myrcinus, apparently
with the view of establishing an .indepen-
dent kingdom. This excited the suspicions
of Darius, who invited Histiaeus to Susa,
where he treated him kindly, but prohi-
bited him from returning. Tired of the
restraint in which he was kept, he induced
his kinsman Aristagoras to persuade the
lonians to revolt, heping that a revolution
in Ionia might lead to his release. His-
design succeeded. Darius allowed Histiaeus
to depart (496) on his engaging to reduce
Ionia. Here Histiaeus threw off the mask,
and carried on war against the Per-
sians. He was at length taken prisoner,
and put to death by Artaphemes, satrap of

HOMSRUS (-i), the great epic poet of
Greece. His poems formed the basis of
Greek literature. Every Greek who had re-
ceived a liberal education was perfectly well
acquainted with them from his childhood,
and had learnt them by heart at school ; but
nobody could state anything certain about
their author. His date and birthplace were
equally matters of dispute. Seven cities
claimed Homer as their countryman (Smyrna,
Rhodus, Colophon, Salamis, Chios, Argos,
Athenae) ; but the claims of Smyrna and
Chios are the most plausible. The best modem
writers place his date about b.g. 850. With
the exception of the simple fact of his being
an Asiatic Greek, all other particulars re-
specting his life are purely bibulous. The
common tradition related thkv he was the son
of Maeon (hence called Maeonidei vateB)^ and
that in his old age he was blind and poor. —
Homer was universally regarded by the an-
cients as the author of the 2 great poems of
the Iliad and the Odyssey. Such continued
to be the prevalent belief in modem times,
till the year 1795, when the German Pro-
fessor, F. A. Wolf, wrote his famous Prole-
gomena, in which he endeavoured to show
that tl^ Iliad and Odyssey were not two
complete poems, but small, separate, inde-
pendent epic songs, celebrating single exploits
of the heroes, and that these lays were for
the first time written down and united, as the
Iliad and Odyssey, by Pisistratus, the tyrant
of Athens. This opinion gave rise to a long
and animated controversy respecting the
origin of the Homeric poems, which is not yet
settled, and which probably never will be.
The following, however, may be regarded as

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the most probable conclusion. An abundance
of heroic lays preserved the tales of the Trojan
war. These unconnected songs were, for
the first time, united b^ a great genius called
Homer, and he was the one individual who
conceived in his mind the lofty idea of that
poetical unity which we must acknowledge
and admire in the Iliad and Odyssey. But
as writing was not known, or at least little
practised, in the age in wMch Homer lived,
it naturally followed that in such long works
many interpolations were introduced, and
that they gradually became more and more
dismembered, and thus returned into their
original state of separate independent songs.
They were preserved by the rhapsodists, who
were minstrels, and who sang lays at the
banquets of the great and at public festivals.
Solon directed the attention of his country-
men towards the unity of the Homeric
poems ; but the unanimous voice of antiquity
ascribed to Pisistratus the merit of having
collected the disjointed poems of Homer, and
of having first committed them to writing.
The ancients attributed many other poems to
Homer besides the Iliad and the Odyssey ;
but the claims of none of these to this honour
can stand investigation. The hymns, which
still bear the name of Homer, probably owe
their origin to the rhapsodists. The Batra-
cJiomyomachiaf or Battle of the Frogs and
ilice, an extant poem, and the Margites^ a
poem which is lost, and which ridiculed a
man who was said to know many things and
who knew all badly, were both frequently
ascribed by the ancients to Homer, but were
clearly of later origin. — The Odyssey was
evidently composed after the Iliad; and
many writers maintain that they are the
works of 2 dM'erent authors. But it has
been observed in reply, that there is not a
greater difi'erence in the 2 poems than we
often find in the productions of the same
man in the prime of life and in old age ;
and the chief cause of difference in the
2 poems is owing to the difference of the
subject. The Alexandrine grammarians
paid great attention to the text of the
Homeric poems ; and the edition of the
Iliad and the Odyssey by Aristarchus has
been the basis of the text to the present
day. ^

HOMOLE (-es). (1) A lofty mountain in
Thessaly, near Tempe, with a sanctuary of
Pan. — (2) Or Homoliiim (-i), a town in
Magnesia in Thessaly, at the foot of Mt. Ossa,
near the Peneus.

HONOR or HONOS (-oris), the personifi-
cation of honour at Rome, to whom temples
were built both by Marcellus and by Marius,
close to the temple of Honos, Marcellus also

built one to Virtus ; and the two deities are
frequently mentioned together.

Honos et Yirtui. (Coin of Galba, Britibh Miueum.)

HONORIUS FLiVIUS (-i), Roman em-
peror of the West, a.d. 395 — 423, was thfe
2nd son of Theodosius the Great. In his
reign Alaric took and plundered Rome.

HORAE (.&rum), daughters of Zeus (Jupi-
ter) and Themis, the goddesses of the order of
nature and of the seasons, who guarded the
doors of Olympus, and promoted the fertility of
the earth by the various kinds of weather which
they gave to mortals. At Athens 2 Horae,
Thallo (the Hora of Spring) and Carpo (the
Hora of autumn), were worshipped from very
early times; but they are usually repre-
sented as three or four in nimiber. Hesiod
gives them the names of JEunomia (good

Horae (Seuout). (From a coin of Commodus.)

order). Dice (justice), and Irene (peace). In
works of art the Horae are reproseuted a»

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blooming maidens or youths, carrying tlie HORATIA GENS, one of the most ancient
different products of the seasons. I pa.lrician gentes at Home. 8 brothers of this

Uorae (SeasouB). (from a Bai>ielief at Rome.)

race fought with the Curiatii, 3 brothers from
Alba, to determine whether Rome or Alba
was to exercise the supremacy. The battle
was long undecided. 2 of the Horatii fell ;
but the S Curiatii, though alive, were severely
wounded. Seeing this, the surviving Hora>
tins, who was still unhurt, pretended to fly,
and vanquished his wounded opponents, by
encountering them severally. He returned
in triumph, bearing his threefold spoils. As
he approached the Capene gate, his sister
Iloratia met him, and recognised on his
shoulders the mantle of one of the Curiatii,
her betrothed lover. Her importimate grief
drew on her the wrath of Horatius, who
stabbed her, exclaiming, " So perish every
Roman woman who bewails a foe." For this
murder he was adjudged by the duumviri to
be scourged with covered head, and hanged
on the accursed tree, Horatius appealed to
his peers, the burghers or populus ; and his
father pronounced him guiltless, or he would
have punished him by the paternal power.
The populus acquitted Horatius, but pre-
scribed a form of punishment. With veiled
head, led by his father, Horatius passed under
a yoke or gibbet — tiffillum sororiumf '* sisters'


HORATiUS FLACCU8, Q. (-i), the poet,

was bom December 8th, b.c. 65, at Venusia

in Apulia. His father was a libertinus or

f recdman. Ue had received his manumission

before the birth of the poet, who was of in-
genuous birth, but who did not altogether
escape the taunt, which adhered to persons
even of remote servile origin. His father's
occupation was that of collector {coactor)^
either of the indirect taxes farmed by the
publicans, or at sales by auction. With the
profits of his office he had purchased a small
farm in the neighbourhood of Venusia, where
the poet was born. The father devoted his
whole time and fortune to the education of
the future poet. Though by no means rich,
he declined to send the young Horace to the
common school, kept in Venusia by one
Flavins, to which the children of the rural
aristocracy resorted. Probably about his 1 2th
year, his father carried him to Rome, to re.
ceive the usual education of a knight's or
senator's-son. He frequented the best schools
in the capital. One of these was kept by
Orbilius, a retired military man, whose flog-
ging propensities have been immortalised by
his pupil. In his 18th year Horace proceeded
to Athens, in order to continue his studies at
that seat of learning. When Brutus came to
Athens after the death of Caesar, Horace
joined his army, and received at once the
rank of a military tribune, and the command
of a legion. He was present at the batde of
Philippi, and shared in the flight of the re*
publican army. In one of his poems he play,
fully alludes to his flight, and throwing
away his shield. He now resolved to devote
P 2

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himself to more peaceful pursuits, and having
obtained his pardon, he ventured at once to
return to Rome. He had lost all his hopes
in life ; his paternal estate had been swept
away in the general forfeiture ; but he was
enabled, however, to obtain sufficient money
to purchase a clerkship in the quaestor's
office; and on the profits of that place he
managed to live with the utmost frugality.
Meantime some of his poems attracted the
notice of Varius and Virgil, who introduced
him to Maecenas (b.c. 39). Horace soon be.
oame the friend of Maecenas^ and this friend-
ship quickly ripened into intimacy. In a
year or two after the commencement of their
friendship (37), Horace accompanied his
patron on that journey to Brundusium, so
agreeably described in the 5th satire of the
1st book. About the year 34 Maecenas be-
stowed upon the poet a Sabine farm, sufficient
to maintain him in ease, comfort, and even in
content {satis beatus vnicis Sabinis), during
the rest of his life. The situation of this
Sabine farm was in the valley. of Ustica,
within view of the mountain Lucretilis, and
near the Digentia, about 15 miles from Tibur
{livoli), A site exactly answering to the
villa of Horace, and on which were found
ruins of buildings, has been discovered in
modem times. Besides this estate, his ad-
miration of the beautiful scenery in the
neighbourhood of Tibur inclined him either
to hire or to purchase a small cottage in that
romantic towii ; and all the later years of his
life were passed between these two country
residences and Rome. He continued to live
on the most intimate terms with Maecenas ;
and this intimate friendship naturally intro-
duced Horace to the notice of the other great
men of his period, and at length to Augustus
himself, who bestowed upon the poet sub.
stantial marks of his favour. Horace died
on Nov. 17th, b.c. 8, aged nearly 57. —
Horace has described his own person. He
was of short stature, with dark eyes and dark
hair, but early tinged with grey. In his
youUi he was tolerably robust, but suffered
from a complaint in his eyes. In more ad-
vanced life he gn^ew fat, and Augustus jested
about his protuberant belly. His health was
not always good, and he seems to have in-
clined to be a valetudinarian. His habits,
even after he became richer, were generally
frugal and abstemious ; though on occasions,
both in youth and maturer age, he seems to
have indulged in conviviality. He liked
choice wine, and in the society of fi-iends
scrupled not to enjoy the luxuries of his
time. He was never married. — The philoso-
phy of Horace was that of a man of the
world. He playfully alludes to his Epicu-

reanism, but it was practical rather than
speculative Epicureanism. His mind, in-
deed, was not in the least speculative. Com-
mon life wisdom was his study, and to this
he brought a quickness of observation and a
sterling common sense, which have made tus
works the delight of practical men. The
Odes of Horace want the higher inspirations
of lyric verse. But as works of refined art,
of the most skilful felicities of language and
of measure, of translucent expression, and of
agreeable images, embodied in words which
imprint themselves indelibly on the memory,
they are unrivalled. — In the iSattref of Horace
there Is none of the lofty moral indignation,
the fierce vehemence of invective, which
characterised the later satirists. It is the
folly rather than the wickedness of vice which
he touches with such playful skill. Nothing
can surpass the keenness of his observation,
or his ease of expression : it is the finest
comedy of manners, in a descriptive instead
of a dramatic form. — In the Epodes^ there is
bitterness provoked, it should seem, by some
personal hatred, or sense of injury, and the
ambition of imitating Archilochus; but in
these he seems to have exhausted all the ma-
Ugnity and violence of his temper. — But the
Epistles are the most perfect of the Horatian
poetry, the poetry of manners and society,
the beauty of which consists in a kind of
ideality of common sense and practical wis.
dom. The title of the Art of Poetry for the
Epistle to the Pisos is as old as Quintilian,
but it is now agreed that it was not intended
for a complete theory of the poetic art. It is
conjectured with great probability that it was
intended to dissuade one of the younger Pisos
from devoting himself u> poetry, for which
he had little genius, or at least to suggest the
difficulties of attaining to perfection. — ^The
chronology of the Horatian poems is of great
importance, as illustrating the life, the times,
and the writings of the poet. The 1st book
of Satires, which was the first publication,
appeared about b.c. 35, in the 30th year of
Horace. — The 2nd book of Satires was pub-
lished about 33, in the 32nd year of Horace.
— The Epodes appeared about 31, in the 34th
year of Horace. — The 3 first books of the Odea
were published about 24 or 23, in the 41st or
42nd year of Horace. — The Ist book of the
Epistles was published about 20 or 19, in the
45th or 46th year of Horace. — The Carmen
Seculare appeared in 17, in the 48th year of
Horace. — The 4th book of the Odes was pub-
lished in 14 or 13, in his 51st or 52nd year.
— The dates of the 2nd book of Epistles, and
of the Ars Poetica^ are admitted to be uncer-
tain, though both appeared before the poet'6
death, b.c. 8.

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HORTA (-ae) or HORTlNUM (4), a town
in Etruria, at the junction of the Nar and the
Tiber, so called from, the Etruscan goddess
Horta, whose temple at Rome always re-
mained open.

HORTENsiUS, Q. (4), the orator, was
bom in b.c. 114, eight years before Cicero.
At the early age of 19 he spoke with great
applause in the forum, and at once rose to
eminence as an advocate. In the civil wars
he joined Sulla, and was afterwards a constant
supporter of the aristocratical party. His
chief professional labours were in defending
men of this party, when accused of mal-
administration and extortion in their pro-
vinces, or of bribery and the like in canvass-
ing for public honours. He had no rival in
the fonmi, till he encountered Cicero, and he
long exercised an undisputed sway ovei* the
courts of justice. In 81 he was quaestor ; in
75 aedile ; in 72- praetor; and in 69 consul
with Q. Caecilius Metellus. He died in 50.
The eloquence of Hortensius was of the
florid or (as it was termed) " Asiatic " style,
fitter for hearing than for reading. His
memory was so ready and retentive, that he
is said to have been able to come out of a sale-
room ftnd repeat the auction-list backwards.
His action was very elaborate ; and the pains
he bestowed in arranging the folds of his toga
have been recorded by ancient writers.
Hoscius, the tragedian, used to follow him
into the forum to take a lesson in his own
art. He possessed immense wealth, and had
several splendid villas. — His son Q. Ho&tbm-
srus HonTALrs, was put to death by M. Antony
after the battle of Philippi.

HOrUS (-i), the Egyptian god of the sun,
who was also worshipped in Greece, and at

HOSTIlIa (-ae), a small town in Gallia
Clsalpina, on the Po, and on the road from
Mutina to Verona; the birthplace of Cor-
nelius Nepos.



HDNNI (-6mm), an Asiatic people who
dwelt for some centuries in the plains of
Tartary, and were formidable to the Chinese
empire long before they were khown to the
Romans. A portion of the nation crossed
into Europe, and were allowed by Yalens to
settle in Thrace, a.d. 376. Under their king

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