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Attila (a.d. 434 — 453), they devastated the
fairest portions of the empire; but a few
years after Attila's death their empire was
completely destroyed.

Hl'ACINTHUS (-i), son of the Spartan
king Amyclas, was a beautiful youth, beloved
by Apollo and Zephyrus. He returned the
love of Apollo ; but as he wa§ once playing at

quoits with the god, Zephyrus, out of jealousy*
caused the quoit of Apollo to strike the head
of the youth, and kill him on the spot. From
the blood ^f Hyacinthus there sprang the
flower of the same name (hyacinth), on the
leaves of which appeared the exclamation of
woe AI, AT, or the letter T, being the initial
of 'TA»i*6ot, According to other traditions,
the hyacinth sprang from the blood of Ajax.
Hyacinthus was worshipped at Amyclae as a
hero, and a great festival, Hyacinthia, was
celebrated in his honour.

HtADES (-um), that is, the Rainers, the
name of nymphs forming a group of 7 stars
in the head of Taurus. Their names were
Ambrosia^ Eudora^ Fedile, Coronis^ Polyxo^
PhytOj and Thyene or Dione. Their number,
however, is differently stated by the ancient
writers. They were entrusted by Zeus (Ju-
piter) with the care of his infant son Dionysus
(Bacchus), and were afterwards placed by
Zeus among the stars. The story which made
them the daughters of Atlas relates that their
number was 12 or 15, and that at first 5 of
them were placed among the stars as Hyades,
and the 7 (or 10) others afterwards, under
the name of Pleiades, to reward them for the
sisterly love they had evinced after the death
of their brother Hyas, who had been killed
in Libya by a wild beast. The Romans
derived their name from v(, a pig, and
translated it by Suculae. The most natural
derivation is from vut^ to rain, as the con-
stellation of the Hyades, when rising simul-
taneously with the sun, announced rainy
weather. Hence Horace speaks of the tristei

HtAMP6LIS (-is), A town in Phocis, E.
of the Cephissus, near Cleonae, founded by
the Hyantes, destroyed by Philip and the

flt ANTES (-um), the ancient inhabitants
of Boeotia, from which country they were
expelled by the Cadm^ms. Part of the
Hyantes emigrated to Phocis, where they
founded Hyampolis, and part to Aetolia.
The poets use the adjective Hyantiua as
equivalent to Boeotian.

Ht As (-antis), son of Atlas, and father or
brother of the Hyades.

HYBLA (-ae), 3 towns in SicUy.— (1) Ma-
jor, on the S. slope of Mt. Aetna and on the
river Symaethus, was originally a town of
the Siculi. — (2) Minor, afterwards called
Megara. — (S*) Heraba, in the 8. of the island,
on the road from Syracuse to Agrigentum.
It is doubtful from which of these 8 places
the Hyblaean honey came, so frequently
mentioned by the poets.

HYCCARA (-orum), a town of the Sicani
on the N. coast of Sicily, W. of Panormus,

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taken by the Athenians, and its inhabitants
sold as slaves, b.c. 415. Among the captives
was the beautiful Timandra, the mistress of
Alcibiades and the mother of Lai».

HtDASPES (-ae or -is : Jelum), the N.-
most of the 5 great tributaries of the Indus,
which, with the Indus itself, water the great
plain of N. India, which is bounded on the N.
by the Himalaya range, and which is now
called the PwytA, i.e. 5 rivers. The Hydaspes
falls into the Acesines {Chenaib\ which itself
falls into the Indus. The epithet " fabulo-
Bus," which Horace applies to the Hydaspes,
refers to the marvellous stories current among
the Romans, who knew next to nothing about
India ; and the " Medtu Hydaspes " of Virgil
is merely an example of the vagueness with
which the Roman poets refer to the countries
beyond the eastern limit of the empire.

HTDRA. [Hercules.]

HtDREA (-ae : Hydra), a small island in
the gulf of Hermione off Argolis, of no im-
portance in antiquity, but the inhabitants of
which in modem times played a distinguished
part in the war of Greek independence, and
are some of the best sailors in Gree^.e.

HYDRUNTUM (-i) or HtDRDs (-untls :
Otranto), one of the most ancient towns of
Calabria, situated on the S.E. coast, near a
mountain ot the same name : it had a good
harbour, from which persons frequently
crossed over to Epirus.

HtOifiA, also called HtOfiA or HtOIA
(-ae), the goddess of health, and a daughter
of AesculaiDJus, though some traditions make
\eT the wife of the latter. In works of art
she is represented as a virgin dressed in a
long robe, and feeding a serpent from a cup.

HYLAEU8 (-i), that is, the Woodman,
the name of an Arcadian centaur, who was
slain by Atalante, when lie pursued her.
According to some legends, Hylaeus fell in
the fight against the Lapithae, and according
to others he was one of the centaurs slain by

HtLAS (-ae), a beautiful youth, be-
loved by Hercules, whom he accompanied in
the Argonautic expedition. Having gone on
shore, on the coast of Mysia, to draw water,
he was carried off by the Naiads, and Her-
cules long sought for him in vain.

irfLfi (-es), a small town in Boeotia,
situated on the lake HtlYcb, which was called
after this town.

HYLlAS (-ae), a river in Bruttium, sepa-
rating the territories of Sybaris and Croton.

HYLICE. [Htle.]

IIYLLUS (-i), son of Hercules by DeianTra,
and husband of lole. Along with the other
sons of Hercules, he was expelled from Pe-
loponnesus by Eurysth us, and took refuge

at Athens. He vrfiB slain in battle by Echemus,
king of Arcadia, when he attempted after-
wards to enter Peloponnesus.

HYLLUS (-i), a river of Lydia, falling
into the Hermus on its N. side.

HtMEN or HtMENAEUS (-i), the god of
marriage, was conceived as a handsome youth,
and invoked in the hymeneal or bridal song.
The name originally designated the bridal
song itself, which was subsequently personi-
fled. His parentage is differently stated, but
he is usually called the son of Apollo and a
Muse. He ^ represented in works of art as
a youth, but taller and with a more serious
expression than Eros (Amor), and carrying
in his hand a bridal torch.

HfMETTUS (-i), a mountain in Attica,
about 8 miles S. of Athens, celebrated fcr its
marble and its honey.

(-is), a river in European Sarmatia, flowing
through the country of the nomad Scythians,
and falling into the Sinus Carcinites in the
Euxine sea.

HtPAEPA (-5rum), a city of Lydla, on
the 8. slope of Mt. Tmolus, near the N. bank
of the Caister.

HtPANIS (-is : Bog), a river in European
Sarmatia, falling into the Euxine sea W. of
the Borysthenes.

Ht PATA (-5nim), a town of the Aenianeg
in Thessaly, S. of the Spercheus, whose in-
habitants were notorious for witchcraft.

HtPERBOLUS (-i), an Athenian dema-
gogue in the Peloponnesian war, of servile ori-
gin. In order to get rid either of Nicias or
Alcibiades, Hyperbolus called for the exercise
ot the ostracism. But the parties endangered
combined to defeat him, and the vote of exile
fell on Hyperbolus himself ; an application of
that dignified punishment by which it was
thought to have been so debased that the use
of it was never recurred to. Some years
afterwards he was murdered by the oligarchs
atSamos, b.c. 411.

HtPERBOREI or -£l (-orum), a fabulous
people, supposed to live in a state of perfect
happiness, in a land of perpetual sunshine,
beyond the N, wind ; whence their name
(M»tfC^i««, fr. ^i< and B«ei«<). The poets
use the term Hyperborean to mean only most
northerly, as when Virgil and Horace speak
of the Hyperhoreae orae and Hyperborei
campi. The fable of the Hyperboreans may
probably be regarded as one of the forms in
which the tr dition of an original period of
innocence and happiness existed among the
nations of the ancient world.

HtPERBOREI MONTES was originally
the mythical name of an imaginary range of
mountains in the N. of the earth, and was

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afterwards applied by the geographers to
v'arious chains, as, for example, the Caucasus,
the Rhipaei Montes, and others.

HtPERIDEs or HtPERIDES (-is), one
of the 10 Attic orators, was a friend of De-
mosthenes, and one of the leaders of the
popular party. He was slain by the emis-
saries of Antipater, at the end of the Lamian
war, B.C. 3 2 2. None of his orations are extant.

ntPERlON (-6nis), a Titan, son of Uranus
(Heaven) and Ge (Earth), and father of
Helios (the Sun), Selene (the Moon), and Eos
(Aurora). Helios himself is also called
Hyperion^ which is a contraction of the
patronymic Hyperionion, [Helios.]

HtPERMNESTRA (-ae). (1) Mother of
Amphiaraus. — (2) One of the daughters of
Danaus and wife of Lynceus. [Damaus;

(-is), a river of India, falling into the Ace-

HTPSIPtLfi (-es), daughter of Thoas,
king of Lemnos, saved her father, when the
Lemnian women killed all the men in the
island. When the Argonauts landed there,
she bore twin sons to Jason. The Lemnian
women subsequently discovered that Thoas
was alive, whereupon they compelled Hypsi-
pyle to quit the island. On her flight she
was taken prisoner by pirates and sold to
the Nemean king, Lycurgus, who entrusted
to her care his son Archemoms or Opheltes.

HTRCANIa (-ae), a province of the ancient
Persian Empire, on the S. and S.E. shores of
the Caspian or Hyrcanian Sea, and separated
by mountains on the W., S., and £., from
Media, Parthia, and Margiana. It flourished
most under the Parthians, whose kings often
resided in it during the summer.

HYRCANUM or -lUM MARE. [Caspitjm

HYRCANUS (-i). (1) Joannes, prince
and high-priest of the Jews, was the son and
Huccessor of Simon Maccabaeus, the restorer
of the independence of Judaea. He succeeded
to his father's power e.g. 135, and died in 106.
Although he did not assume the title of king,
he may be regarded as the founder of the
monarchy of Judaea, which continued in his
family till the accession of Herod. — (2) High
priest and king of the Jews, was the eldest
son of Alexander Jannaeus, and his wife,
Alexandra; and was frequently engaged in
war with his brother Aristobulus. He was
put to death by Augustus, b.c. 80. He was
succeeded in the kingdom by Herod.

HtRIE (-es). (1) A town in Boeotia
near Tanagra. — (2) A town in Apulia.

HYRMINfi (-es), a town in Elis, men-
tioned by Homer.

H YRTACUS (-i), a Trojan, to whom Priam
gave his first wife Arisba, when he married
Hecuba. Homer makes him the father of
Asius, called Eyrt&cides.—ln VirgU Nisus
and Hippocoon are also represented as sons
of Hyrtacus.

HYSIAE (-arum). (1) A town in ArgoUs,
S. of Argos, destroyed by the Spartans in the
Peloponnesian war. — (2) A town in Boeotia,
E. of Plataeae, called by Herodotus a demus
of Attica, but probably belonging.to Plataeae.

HYSTASPES (-is), father of the Persian
king Darios I.

TACCHUS (-i), the solemn name of Bacchus
■*■ in the Eleusinian mysteries, whose name
was derived from the boisterous song, called
lacchus. In these mysteries lacchus was
regarded as the son of Zeus (Jupiter), and
Demeter (Ceres), and was distinguished from
the Theban Bacchus (Dionysus), the son of
Zeus and Semele. In some traditions lacchus
is even called a son of Bacchus, but in others
the 2 are identified.

lADERA, or lADER, a town on the coast
of lUyricum.

iALtSUS (-i), one of the 3 ancient Dorian
cities in the island of Rhodes, stood on the
N.W. coast of the island, about 60 stadia S.W.
of Rhodes.

lAMBLICHTIS (-i), a celebrated Neo-Pla-
tonic philosopher, in the reign of Constantino
the Great. Among his extant works is a life
of Pythagoras.

IAMNIa (-ae : O. T. Jabneel, Jabneh),
a considerable city of Palestine, between
Diospolis and Azotus, near the coast, with
a good harbour.

lAMUS (-i), son of Apollo and Evadne, re-
ceived the art of prophecy from his father,
and was regarded as the ancestor of the fa-
mous family of seers, the lamidae at Olympia.

IANTHE. [Iphis.]

IAPETU8 (-i), one of the Titans, son of
Uranus (Heaven), and Ge (Earth), and father
of Atlas, Prometheus, Epimetheus, and Me-
noetius. He was imprisoned with Cronus
(Satumus), in Tartarus. His descendants,
Prometheus, Atlas, and others, are often
designated by the patronymics T&pMdae (e«),
T&pStliMtUie (e«), and the feminine TUpitidni^

IAP'S^DES (-um), a warlike and barbaroue
people in the N. of Illyricum, between the
rivers Arsia and Tedanius, were a mixed race,
partly Illyrian and partly Celtic, who tattooed
their bodies. They were subdued by Augus-
tus, llieir country was oallc<l Iaptdia.

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IAP"? GIA (-ae), the name given by the
Greeks to the S. of Apulia, from Tarentum
and Brundusium to the Prom. lAPToroM (C.
Letted) ; though it is sometimes applied to
the whole of Apulia. [Aptjua.] The name
Is derived from the mythical lapyx.

iiPYX (-ygis). (1) Son of Lycaon and
brother of Daunius and Peucetius, who went
as leaders of a colony to Italy. According
to others, he was a Cretan, and a son of
Daedalus. — (2) The W.N.W. wind, blowing
off the coast of lapygia (Apulia), in the S. of
Italy, and consequently favourable to persons
crossing over to Greece.

lARBAS or HIARBAS (-ae), king of the
Gaetulians, and son of Jupiter Ammon by a
Libyan nymph, sued in vain for the hand of
Dido in marriage. [Dido.]

lARDANES, king of Lydia, and father of
Omphale, who is hence called lareUlnis.

IARDXnES or lAKDANUS (4). (1) A
river in Elis. — (2) A river in the N. of Crete,
which flowed near the town Cydonia.

lASiON (-6nis), lASIUS or IASUS (4).
Son of Zeus (Jupiter), and Electra, beloved
by Demeter (Ceres), who became by him the
mother of Pluton or Plutus in Crete. From
lasion came the patronymic UstdeSf a name
griven to Palinurus, as a descendant of Atlas.
— (2) Father of Atalante, who is hence called
IHsis. — (3) A city of Caria, founded by Argives
and farther colonised by Milesians, situated
on the IcmXus or lasaicua Sintu, to which it
gave its iiame.

IASUS. [lAsnrs.]

iAZTGfiS (-um), a powerftil Sarmatian
people, who originally dwelt on the coast of
the Pontus Euxinus and the Palus Maeotis,
but in the reign of Claudius settled near the
Quadi in Dacia, in the country bounded by
the Danube, the Theiss, and the Sarmatian

IBfiRIA (-ae). (1) The name given by
the Greeks to Spain. [Hispania.]— (2) (Part
of Oeorgia)^ a country of Asia, in the centre
of the isthmus between the Black and Cas-
pian Seas, bounded on the N. by the
Caucasus, on the W. by Colchis, on the E. by
Albania, and on the S. by Armenia. It was
surrounded on every side by mountains, and
was famed for a fertility of which its modem
name (from ti»^yot) remains a witness. Its
inhabitants, Iberes or Ibeai, were more
civilised than their neighbours in Colchis
and Albania. Their chief employment was
agriculture. The Romans first became ac-
quainted with the country through the
expedition of Pompey, in b.c. 65. No con-
nexion can be traced between the Iberians of
Ania and those of Spain.

IBERUS (-i t Mro)t the principal river in

the N.E. of Spain, rising among the moun-
tains of the Cantabri, and falling into the
Mediterranean, near Dertosa, after forming a

IBtCUS (-i) a Greek lyric poet of Rhe-
gium, spent the best part of his life at Samos,
at the court of Polycrates, about b.c. 540.
It is related that travelling through a desert
place near Corinth, he was murdered by
robbers, but before he died he called upon a
flock of cranes that happened to fly over him
to avenge his death. Soon afterwards, when
the people of Corinth were assembled in the
theatre, the cranes appeared ; and one of the
murderers, who happened to be present,
cried out involuntarily, " Behold the avengpers
of Ibycus :" and thus were the authors of the
crime detected.

TCARIUS (-i), or IcIrUS (4). 1) An
Athenian, who hospitably received Dionysus in
Attica, and was taught in return the cultiva-
tion of the vine. Icarius was slain by peasants,
who had become intoxicated by some wine
which he had given them, and who thought
that they had been poisoned by him. His
daughter Erigone, after a long search, found
his grave, to which she was conducted by his
faithful dog Maera. From grief she hung
herself on the tree under which he was
buried. Zeus (Jupiter), or Dionysus, placed
her and Icarius among the stars, making
Erigone the Virgin^ Icarius Bootes or Arctu^
rtM, and Maera Procyon^ or the little dog.
Hence the latter is called leariui cams.
— (2) A Lacedaemonian, son of Perieres and
GorgophSne, or brother of Tyndareus, grand-
son of Perieres, and son of Oebalus. He
promised to give his daughter Penelope to
the hero who should conquer in a foot-race ;
but when Ulysses won the prize, he tried to
persuade her to remain with him. Ulysses
allowed her to do as she pleased, jsehereupon
she covered her face with her veil to hide her
blushes, thus intimating that she would
follow her husband.

Icarus (-i), son of Daedalus. [Dabdalus.]
Icarus (-i), or ICARIA (-ae), an island
of the Aegean Sea ; one of the Sporades ; W.
of Samos. Its common name, and that of
the surrounding sea, Ic&rlum Mare, were
derived from the myth of Icarus. It was
first colonised by the Milesians, but after-
wards belonged to the Samians.

ICCiUS (-i), a friend of Horace, who
addressed to him an ode, in which the poet
reprehends delicately his friend's inordinate
desire for wealth.

ICENI (-orum), a powerful people in
Britain, dwelling N. of the Trinobantes, in
the modem counties of Suffolk and Norfolk.
Their revolt from the Romans, under their

Digitized by





heroic queen Boadioea, is celebrated in his-
tory, [BoADicBA.j Their chief town was
Venta Icekoeum (Caiater), about 3 miles
from Norwich.

ICHTHYOPHAGI (-ormn, Le.FisJi^eatera),
was a vague descriptive name given by the
ancients to various peoples on the coasts of
Asia and Africa, of whom they knew but
little. Thus we find Ichthyophagi : 1. in
the extreme S.E. of Asia, in the country of
the Sinae : 2. on the coast of Gedeosia : 8. on
the N.E. coast of Arabia Felix : 4. in Africa,
on the coast of the Red Sea, above Egypt ;
5. on the W. coast of Africa.

ICILIUS (>i), the name of a celebrated
plebeian family, the most distinguished mem-
ber of which was Sp. Icilius, tribune of the
plebs, B.C. 456 and 455. He was one of the
chief leaders in the outbreak against the
decemvirs, 449, Virginia having been be-
trothed to him. [ViKoiNiA.]

ICONIUM (-1: Koniyeh)f the capital of
Lycaonia, in Asia Minor, was, when visited
by_St. Paulj aiflourishing city.

IDA (-ae). (1) A mountain range of Mysia,
in Asia Minor, celebrated in mythology, as
the scene of the rape of Ganymede (hence
called Idaeus puer)^ and of the judgment of
Piaris (hence called Idaem Judex), In Homer
the sunmiit of Ida is the place from which
the gods watch the battles in the plain of
Troy. It is an ancient seat of the worship
of Cybele, who obtained from it the name of
Idaea Mater. — (2) A mountain in the centre
of Crete, closely connected with the worship
of Zeus (Jupiter), who is said to have been
brought up in a cave in this mountain.

IDAEI DACTtLI. [Dactyli.]

IDALIUM (-i), a town in Cyprus, sacred
to Venus, who hence bore the surname

ID As (-ae), son of Aphareus and Arene,
and brother of Lynceus. From the name
of their father, Idas and Lynceus are called
AphareHdae or Apharidde, Apollo was in
love with Marpessa, the daughter of Evenus,
but Idas carried her off in a winged chariot
which Poseidon (Neptune) had given him.
The lovers fought for her possession, but
Zeus (Jupiter), separated them, and left the
decision with Marpessa, who chose Idas,
from fear lest Apollo should desert her if she
grew old. The Apharetidae also took part
in the Calydonian hunt, and in the expedition
of the Argonauts. But the most celebrated
part of their story is their battle with the
Dioscuri, Castor and Pollux, which is related
elsewhere [p. 150].

many near the Weser, probably in the neigh-
bourhood oif the Porta Westphalica. memor*

able for the victory of Germanicus over the
Cherusci, a.d. 16.

IDMON (-5nis). (1) Father of Arachne, a
native of Colophon.— (2) Son of Apollo and
Asteria, or Cyrene, was a soothsayer, and
accompanied the Argonauts, although he
knew beforehand that death awaited him.
He perished in the country of the Marian-
dynians. ^

IDOMENEUS (-6i, Ws, or efts), son of the
Cretan Deucalion, and grandson of Minos
and Pasiphae, was king of Crete. He is
sometimes called Lyctiua or (Mossius^ from
the Cretan towns of Lyctus and Gnoses. He
led the Cretans against Troy, and was one of
the bravest heroes in the Trojan war. He
vowed to sacrifice to Poseidon (Neptune)
whatever he should first meet on his landing,
if the god would grant him a safe return.
This was his own son, whom he accordingly
sacrificed. As Crete was thereupon visited
by a plague, the Cretans expelled Idomeneus,
•who went to Italy, where he settled in

IDDMAEA (-ae), the Greek form of the
scriptural name Ebom. In the O. T., Edom
is the district of Mt. Seir, that is, the moim-
tainous region extending from the Dead Sea
to the E. head of the Red Sea. The decline
of the kingdom of Judaea enabled the Edomites
to extend their power over the S. part of
Judaea as far as Hebron, while their original
territory was taken possession of by the Na-
bathaean Arabs. Thus the Idumaea of the
later Jewish, and of the Roman history is
the S. part of Judaea, and a small portion of
the N. of Arabia Petraea, extending from the
Mediterranean to the W. side of Mt. Seir.
Antipater, the father of Herod the Great, was
an Idumaean. The Roman writers of tho
Augfustan and of later ages use Idumaea and
Judaea as equivalent terms. Both the old
Edomites and the later Idumaeans were a
commercial people, and carried on a great
part of the traffic between^ the East and the
shores of the Mediterranean.

IDTIA (-ae), wife of the Colchian king
Aeetes, and mother of Medea.

lETAE (-arum), a town in the interior of
Sicily, on a moimtain of the same name,
S. W. of Macella.

IGILIXJM (-i : Giglio), a small island off
the Etruscan coast, opposite Cosa.

IGUViUM (-i : Gubbio or Hftgubio), an
important town in Umbria, on the S. slope of
the Apennines. On a mountain near this
town was a celebrated temple of Jupiter, in
the ruins of which were discovered 7 brazen
tables, covered with Umbrian inscriptions,
and which are still preserved at Gubbio.
These tables, frequently called the Engtibian

Digitized by





TdbleSf contain more than 1000 Umbtian
words, and are of great importance for a
knowledge of the ancient languages of

ILAJRA (-ae), daughter of Leucippus and
Philodice, and sister of PhoelH». The 2 slaters
are frequently mentioned by the poets under
the name of Leitcippidae. Both were carried
off by the Dioscuri, and Ilalra became the
wife of Castor.

LURGAVONENSES (-um), a people in
Hispania Tarraconensis on the W. coast
between the Ibgrus and M. IdubMa. Their
chief town was Dertosa.

ILERDA (-ae), a town of the Ilerggtes in
Hispania Tarraconensis, situated on a height
above the river Sicoris {Segre)^ which was
here ccossed by a stone bridge. It was here
that Afranius and Fetreius, the legates of
Pompey, were defeated by Caesar (b.c. 49).

ILERGETES (-um), a people in Hispania
Tarraconensis, between the Iberus and the

Ilia or RHEA SILVIA. [RomuLrs.]

ILIEN8ES, an ancient people in Sardinia.

TLIONA (-ae), daughter of Priam and
Hecuba, wife of Polymnestor or Polymestor,
king of the Thracian Chcrsonesus, to whom
she bore a son Deipylus. As to her connexion
with Polydorus, see Poltdorus.

IlIoNEUS (-^i, Ws, or §«s), a son of
Niobe, whom Apollo would have liked to save,
because he was praying ; but the arrow
was no longer under the control of the god.


ILIPA, a town in Hispania Baetica, on the
right bank of the Baetis, which was navigable
to this place with sinall vessels.

IlISSUS (-i), a small river in Attica, rising
on the N. slope of Mt. Hymettus, flowing
through the E. side of Athens, and losing
itself in the marshes in the Athenian plain.

TlITHYIA (-ae), the goddess of the Greeks,
who aided women in child-birth. In the
Iliad the Ilithyiae (in the plural) are called
the daughters of Hera (Juno) ; but in the
Odyssey and in the later poets, there is only

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