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one goddess of this name.

IlIuM. [Troas.]

ILLIBERIS (-is). (1) (Tech), called Ttchis
or Techum by the Romans, a river in Gallia
Narbonensis m the territory of the Sardones,
rising in the Pyrenees and falling, after a
short course, into the Mare Gallicum — (2)
{£fne)y a to^-n of the Santones, on the above-
mentioned river, at the foot of the Pjrrenees.
Constantine changed its name into Helena,
whence the modem Ulne.

town of the Turduli in Hispania Tarraco-

nensis, situated on a steep rock near the

ILLtRICUM (-i) orlLLtRIS (-Tdis), more
rarely ILLtHIA (-ae), was in its widest sig-
nification, all the land W. of Macedonia and
E. of Italy and Rhaetia, extending S. as far
as Epirus, and N. as far as the valleys of the
Savus and Dravus, and the junction of these
rivers with the Danube. The country was
divided into two parts : I. Illtris Barbara
or RoMANA, the Roman province of Illyri-
cuM, extended along the Adriatic sea from
Italy (Istria), from which it was separated
by the Arsia, to the river Drilo, and wa*
bounded on the E. by Macedonia and Moesia
Superior, from which it was separated by the
Drinus, and on the N. by Pannonia, from
which it was separated by the Dravus. It
thus comprehended a part of the modern
Oroatiaf the whole of Balmatia^ almost the
whole of Bosnia^ and a part of Albania, It
was divided in ancient times into 3 districts i
lapydia, the interior of the country on the N.,
from the Arsia to the Tedanius [Iapydes] ;
Libumia, along the coast from the Arsia to
the Titius [Liburni] ; and Dalmatia, S. of
Libumia, along the coast from the Titius to
the Drilo. [Dalmatia.] The Liburnians
submitted at an early time to the Romans ;
but it was not till after the conquest of the
Dalmatians in the reign of Augustus, that
the entire country was organised as a Roman
province. From this time the Illyrians, and
especially the Dalmatians, formed an im.
portant part of the Roman legions. — II.
Illyris Graeca, or Illyria proper, also
called Epirus Nova, extended from the Drilo,
along the Adriatic, to the Cerannian moun.
tains, which separated it from Epirus proper :
it was bounded on the E. by Macedonia. It
thus embraced the greater part of the modem
Albania. Its inhabitants were subdued by
Philip, the father of Alexander the Great ;
but after the death of the Uitter, they re-
covered their independence. At a later time
the injury which the Roman trade suffered
from their piracies brought against them the
arms of the republic. Their queen Teuta
was defeated by the Romans, and com-
pelled to pay an annual tribute, b.c. 229.
The niyrians were again conquered by the
consul Aemilius Paulus, 219. Their king
Gentius formed an alliance with Perseus,
king of Macedonia, against Rome ; but he
was conquered by the praetor L. Anicius, in
the same year as Perseus, 168 ; whereupon
Ill}Tia, as well as Macedonia, became subject
to Rome. The Illyrian tribes were all more
or less barbarous. They were probably of
the same origin as the Thracians, but some
Celts were mingled with them.

Digitized by





IlU^ (-i), son of Tros and Callirhoe, great-
^andson of Dardanus ; whence he is called
Dardanules, He -was the father of Laomedon
iuid the grandfather of Priam. He was be-
lieved to be the founder of Ilion, which was
also called Troy, after his -father.

ILVA. [Aethalia.]

ILVATES (-um), a people in LigTiria, S. of
the Po, in the modern Montferrat.

IMACHARA (.ae), a town in Sicily, in the
Heraean mountains.

IMAUS (-i), the name of a great moun-
tain range of Asia, is one of those terms
which the ancient geographers appear to have
used indefinitely, for want of exact know-
ledge. In its most definite application, it
appears to mean the W. part of the Hima-
laya^ between the Paropamisus and the
Emodi Montes ; but when it is applied to
some great chain, extending much farther to
the N. and dividing Scythia into 2 parts,
Scythia intra Imaum and Scythia -extra
Imaum, it must either be understood to mean
the Mottssour or Altai mountains, or else
some imaginary range, which cannot be
identified with any actually existing moun-

IMBROS or IMBRU8 (-i), an island in the
N. of the Aegean sea, near the Thracian
Chersonesus, about 25 miles in circumference.
Like the neighbouring island of Samothrace,
it was one of the chief seats of the worship of
the Cabirl.

InaCHIS (-Ydis), a surname of To, the
daughter of Inachus. The goddess Isis is
also called Inachis^ because she was identified
with lo : and sometimes Inackis is used as
synonymous with an Argive or Gfreek woman.
— Inachides in the same way was used as a
name of Epaphus, a grandson of Inachus, and
also of Perseus, because he was bom at Argos,
the city of Inachus.

Inachus <-i). (l) son of Oceanus and
Tethys, and father of Phoroneus and lo, was
the first king of Argos, and said to have
given his name to the river Inachus. Some
of the ancients regarded him as the leader of
i^n Egyptian or Libyan colony on the banks
of the Inachus. — (2) The chief river in Ar-
golis, rising on the borders of Arcadia, re-
ceiving near Argos the small river Charadrus,
and falling into the Sinus Argolicus S.E. of

INARIME. [Abnaeia.]

INAROS (-i), son of Psammitichus, a
Libyan, and the leader of a revolt of the Egyp-
tians against the Persians, b.c. 461. He was
at first successful, but was eventually defeated
bv the Persians, taken prisoner and crucified,

IXdIa (-ae), was a name used by the

Greeks and Romans, much as the modern
term Hast IndieSy to describe the whole of
the S.E. part of Asia, including the 2 penin-
sulas of SindttstaUf and of Burmah^ Cochin^
China^ Siam, and Malacca^ and also tlie
islands of the Indian Archipelago. The
direct acquaintance of the western nations
with India dates from the reign of Darius,
the son of Hystaspes, who added to the Per-
sian empire a part of its N. W. regions,
perhaps only as far as the Indus, certainly
not beyond the limits of the Punjab, The
expedition of Alkxander into India first
brought the Greeks into actual contact with
the country ; but the conquests of Alexander
only extended within Scinde^ and the Putyab^
as far as the river Hyphasis, down which he
sailed into the Indus, and down the Indus to
the sea. The Greek king of Syria, Seleucus
Nicator, crossed the Hyphasis, and made war
with the Prasii, a people dwelling on the
banks of the upper Ganges, to whom he after-
wards sent ambassadors, named Megasthenes
and Daimachus, who lived for several years
at Palibothra, the capital of the Prasii, anc
had thus the opportunity of obtaining muct
information respecting the parts of India
about the Ganges. The later geographers
made two great divisions of India, which are
separated by the Ganges, and are called India
intra Gangem, and India extra Gangem, the
former including the peninsula of Hindustan^
the latter the Burmese peninsula. They were
acquainted with the division of the people of
Hindustan into castes, of which they enume-
rate 7.

people in the N.E. comer of EUspania Tarra-
conensis, close upon the Pyrenees. Their
chief town was Emportum.


INDIGETES (-um), the name of those
indigenous gods and heroes at Rome, whc
once lived on earth as mortals, and were
worshipped after their death as gods. Thui»
Aeneas, after his disappearance on the banks
of the Numicus, became a deus Indiges, pater
IndiffeSf or Jupiter Indiges; and in like
manner Romulus became QuirinuSf and
Latinus Jupitet Latiaris,

INDUS (-i). (1) A great river of India,
rising in the table land of TTiibet^ and flowing
through the great plain of the Puiyaby into
the Erythraeum Mare {Indian Ocean), which
it enters by several mouths. The ancient
name of India was derived from the native
name of the Indus {Sind). — (2) A considerable
river of Asia Minor, rising in Phrygia, and
flowing through Caria into the Mediterranean,
opposite to Rhodes,

Digitized by





(.i), one of the leading chiefs of the Treviri
in Gaul, defeated and slain by Labienos, b.c.


INE88A. [AuTWA, Now 2.]

INFERI (-5nim), the gods of the nether
world, in contradistinction from the Superiy
or the gods of heaven. But the word Inferi
is also frequently used to designate the dead,
and therefore comprises all the inhabitants of
the lower world, both the gods, viz., Hades
or Pluto, his wife Persephone (Proserpina),
the Erinnyes or Furies, &c., and also as the
souls of departed men.


INGAEVONES. [Germania.]

INGAUNI (-fimm), a people in Liguria on
the coast, whose chief town was Albivm

InO (-as : aee. 0), daughter of Cadmus
and Harmonia, and wife of Athamas. [Atha-


f NOUS (-i), a name both of Melicertes and
of Palacmon, because they were the sons of

INSCbRES (-ium), a Gallic people, who
crossed the Alps and settled in Gallia Trans,
padana in the N. of Italy. Their chief town
was Mediolantjm. They were conquered by
the Romans, shortly before the commence-
ment of the 2nd Punic war.

INTEMELII (-drum), a people in Liguria
on the coast, whose chief town was Albium

INTERAMNA (-ae), the name of several
towns in Italy, so called from their lying
between 2 streams. — (1) {Temi)^ in Umbria,
situated on the Nar, and surrounded by a
canal flowing into this river, whence its in-
habitants were called Interamnatea Nartes,
It was the birthplace of the historian Tacitus.
— (2) In Latium, at the junction of the
Casinus with the Liris, whence its inha-
bitants are called Interamnates Lirinates.

INTERCATIA (-ae), a town of the Vaccaei
in Hispania Tarraconensis, on the road from
Asturica to Caesaraugusta.

INTERNUM MARE, the Mediterranean
Sea, extending on the W. f^om the Straits of
Ilercules, which separated it from the At-
lantic, to the coasts of Sjn-ia and Asia Minor
on the E. It was called by the Romans
ifare Internum or Intestinum ; by the Greeks
^ Ir*» d-k\atrT» or ii i»«f 3-^x«ttc, or,,more
fully, 4 ivr^t 'H^fltxXl/dvy vrrikSv ^kkctrra^ and
by Herodotus, %^i ^ 3-iA«rm ; and ftrom its
washing the coasts both of Greece and Italy,
it was also called, both by Greeks and
Romans Our Sea (^ Jifjurif* B-^Xarrm,, v »»$'
r.uSie B-^Xmttm^ Mare Nostrum). The term
Mare Mediterraneum is not used by the best

classical writers, and occurs first in Sollnus.
The ebb and flow of the tide are perceptible
in only a few parts of the Mediterranean,
such as in the Syrtes on the coast of Africa,
in the Adriatic, &c. The different parts of
the Mediterranean are called by different
names, which are spoken of in separate

INUI CA8TRUM. [Casteum No. 1.]

10 (-(is), daughter of Inachus, first king
of Argoe, beloved by Zeus (Jupiter), and
metamorphosed, through fear of Hera (Juno)
into a heifer. The goddess, who was aware
of the ckange, placed her under the care of .
hundred-eyed Argus, who was, however,
slain by Hermes (Mercury), at the command
of Zeus. Hera then tormented lo with a
gad-fly, and drove her in a state of phrenzy
from land to land, until at length she found
rest on the banks of the Nile. Here she
recovered her original form, and bore a son
to Zens, called Epaphus. [Epaphvs.] The
wanderings of lo were very celebrated in anti-
quity, and the Bosporus (i.e. Ox-ford) is said
to have derived its name from her swimming
across it. According to some traditions lo
married Ariris or Telegonus, king of Egypt,
and was afterwards identified with the Egyp-
tian goddess Isis. It appears that lo was
identical with the moon; whence she is
represented as a woman, with the horns of a

IOBXtES, king of Lycia. [Bbulebophon.]

lOL. [Caesarea, No. 4.]

IolAUS (-1), son of Iphicles and Autome-
dusa. Iphicles was the half-brother of Her-
cules, and lolaus was the faithful companion
and charioteer of the hero. Hercules sent
him to Sardinia at the head of his sons by
the daughters of Thespius ; but he returned
to the hero shortly before his death, and was
the first who offered sacrifices to him as a
demigod. lolaus after his death obtained
permission from the gods of the Nether World
to come to the assistance of the children of
Hercules. He slew Eurystheus, and then
returned to the shades.

IQLCUS (-i), an ancient town in Magnesia
in Thessaly at the top of the Pagasean gulf,
about a mile fh>m the sea. It was celebrated
in mythologry &s the residence of Pelias and
Jason, and as the place from which the Argo-
nauts sailed in quest of the golden fieece.

iOLE (-es), daughter of Eurytus of
Oechalia, beloved by Hercules. [Hercules.]
After the death of Hercules, she married his
son Hyllus.

ION (-onis), the fabulous ancestor of. the
lonians, son of Xuthus and Creusa, or of
Apollo and Creusa, grandson of Helen. Ac-
001 ding to some traditions he reigned in Attica.

Digitized by





I6n1a (-ae) and !0NI8 (-tdis) (Boman
poet.), a district on the W. coast of Asia Minor,
so called from the Ionian Greeks who colo-
nised it at a time earlier than any distinct
historical records. The mythical account of
** the great Ionic migration" relates that in
consequence of the disputes between the sons
of C!odrus, king of Athens, about the sue
cession to his government, his younger sons,
Neleus and Androclus, crossed the Aegean
Sea in search of a new home, 140 years after
the Trojan war, or b.c. 1044. In the his-
torical times we find 12 great cities on the
aboye-named coast claiming to be of Ionic
origin, and all united into one confederacy.
The district they possessed formed a narrow
strip of coast, extending between, and some-
what beyond, the mouths of the rirers Meander
on the S., and Hermus on the N. 'the names
of the 12 cities, going from S. to N., were
MiLBTus, Mtus, Pribne, Samoa (city and
island), Ephksus, Colophon, Lbbkdvs, Txos,
Ertthkak, Chios (city and island), Clazo-
MBNAE, and Phocaea ; the city of Smyrna,
which lay within this district, but was of
Aeolic origin, was afterwards (about b.c.
700) added to the Ionian confederacy. The
common sanctuary of the league yrsa the
Panionium, a sanctuary of Poseidon (Nep-
tune), on the promontory of Mycale, opposite
to Samos; and here was held the great
national assembly of the confederacy, called
Panionia. At an early period these cities
attained a high degree of prosperity. They
were first conquered by Croesus, king of
Lydia; a second tune by Harpagus, the
genersd of Cyrus, b.c. 545 ; and having re-
volted from the Persians, they were re-
conquered by the latter, 496. In no country
inhabited by the Hellenic race, except at
Athens, were the refinements of civilisation,
the arts, and literature, more highly culti-
vated than in Ionia. Out of the long list of the
authors and artists of Ionia, we may mention
the poets Mimnermus of Colophon, and Ana-
creon of Teos ; the philosophers, Thales of
Miletus, and Anaxagoras of Clazomenae ;
the early annalists, Cadmus and Heca-
toeus of Miletus ; and the painters, Zeuxis,
Apelles, and Parrhasius. The important
place which some of the chief cities of Ionia
occupy in the early history of Christianity, is
attested by the Act3 of the Apostles^ and by the
epistles of St. Paul to the Ephesians, and of
St. John to the 7 churches of Asia.

IONIUM MARE, the sea between Italy
and Greece S. of the Adriatic, beginning on
the W. at Hydruntum in Calabria, and on the
E, at Oricus in Epirus, or at the Ceraunian
mountains. In more ancient times the
Adriatic was called the Icniau Gulf ; while

at a later time the Ionium Mare itself was
included in the Adriatic. In its widest sig-
nification the Ionium Mare included the
Mare Sieulunif Oreficum^ and Icarium, Its
name was usually derived by the ancients
from tlie wanderhigs of lo, but it was more
probably so called from the Ionian colonies,
which settled in Cephallenia and the other
islands off the W. coasts of Greece.

IOPHON (-ontis), son of Sophocles, by
Nicostrate, was a distinguished tragic poet.
For the celebrated story of his uudutiful
charge^against his father, see Sophocles.

IPHIAS (-Mis), i.e. Evadne, a daughter of
Iphis, and wife of Capaneu^.

IPmCLES (-is) or IPHICLUS (-i). (1)
Son of Amphitryon and Alcmcne of Thebes,
was one night younger than his half-brother
Hercules. He was first married to Auto-
medusa, the daughter of Alcathous, by whom
he became the father of lolaus, and after-
wards to the youngest daughter of Creon. —
(2) Son of Phylacus, or Cephalus, one of the
Argonauts, and celebrated for his swiftness
in running.

IPHICRATES, a famous Athenian general,
son of a shoemaker, introduced into the
Athenian army the peltastae or targeteers, a
body of troops possessing, to a certain extent,
the advantages of heavy and light-armed
forces. This he effected by substituting a
small tnrget for the heavy shield, adopting a
longer sword and spear, and replacing the
old coat of mail by a linen corslet. At the
head of his targeteers he defeated and nearly
destroyed a Spartan Mora, in b.c. 392, an
expl6it which became very celebrated through,
out Greece. He married the daughter of
Cotys, king of Thrace, and died shortly before

IPHIgENIA (-ae), daughter of Agamem-
non and Clytaemnestra, according to the
common tradition ; but daughter of Theseus
and Helena, according to others. In conse-
quence of Agamemnon having once killed a
hart in the grove of Artemis (Diana), the
goddess in anger produced a calm, which
prevented the Greek fieet in Aulis from sail-
ing against Troy. Upon the advice of the
seer Calchas Agamemnon proceeded to sacri-
flee Iphigenia, in order to appease the goddess ;
but Artemis put a hart in her place, and
carried her to Tauris, where she became the
priestess of the goddess. Here she afterwards
saved her brother Orestes, when he was on
the point of being sacrificed to Artemis, and
fled with him to Greece, currying off the
statue of Artemis. Iphigenia was worshipped
both in Athens and Sparta ; and it is pro.
bable that she was originally the same as
Artemis herself.

Digitized by




IPHIMEDIa (-ae), or IPHlMEDfi (-es),
wife of Aloeus, became by Poseidon (Nep-
tune) the mother of the Aloldae, Otus, and

IpHIS (-Idi's), {z) A youth in love with
Anaxarete. [Anaxakbtk.] — (2) A Cretan
girl, was brought up as a boy, and being be.
trothed to lanthe, was metamorphosed by
Isis into a youth.

iPHITUS (-i). (1) Son of Eurytus of
Occhalia, one of the Argonauts, afterwards
killed by Hercules. [Uercules.] — (2) King
of Elis, who restored the Olympic games, and
instituted the cessation of all war during their
celebration, b.c. 884.

IPSU8 (4), a small town in Great Phrygia,
celebrated for the great battle in which
Antigonus was defeated and slain by Seleucus
and Lysimachus, b.c. 301.

IRA (-ae), a mountain fortress in Messenia,
memorable as the place where Aristomenes
defended himself for 11 years against the
Spartans. Its capture by the Spartans in
u.c. 668 put an end to the 2nd Messenian war.

Irene (-es), called PAX (-acis), by the
Romans, the goddess of peace, was, according
to Ilesiod, a daughter of Zeus and Themis,
and one of the Ilorae. [Horak.] She was
worshipped at Athens and Rome ; and in the
liitter city a magnificent temple was built to
her by the emperor Vespasian. Pax is repre-
sented on corns as a youthful female, holding
in her left arm a cornucopia, and in her
right hand an olive branch or the staff of

lRls'(-is or -Wis). (1) Daughter of Thaumas
(whence she is called TTiauutantiM) and of

Iris. (Front an ancient Vaae.)

Eloctra, and sister of the Harpies. In the
Miiid she appears as the messenger of the
gods ; but in the Odyssey, Hermes (Mercury),

is the messenger of the gods, and Iris Is
never mentioned. Iris was originally the
personification of the rainbow, which was
regarded as the swift messenger of the gods.
In the earlier poets. Iris api>ears as a virgin
goddess ; but in the later, she is the wife ot
Zephyrus, and the mother of Eros (Amor).
Iris is represented in works of art dressed in
a long and wide tuiiic, over which hangs a
light upper garment, with wings attached to
her shoulders, carrying the herald's staff in
her left hand, and sometimes also holding a
pitcher. — (2) {YeshiUImuik)^ a considerable
river of Asia Minor, rising on the N. side of
the Anti-Taurus, and fiowing through Pontua
into the Sinus Amisenus in the Euxine.

IS (J5r»<), a city in the S. of Mesopotamia,
8 days* journey from Babylon, on the W.
bank of the Euphrates, and upon a little
river of the same name. In its neighbour-
hood were the springs of asphaltus, from
which was obtained the bitimien that was
used, instead of mortar, in the walls of

iSAEUS (-i), one of the 10 Attic orators,
was bom at Chalcis, and came to Athens at
an early age. He wrote judicial orations for
others, and establi.Hhed a rhetorical school at
Athens, in which Demosthenes is said to have
been his pupil. He lived between b.c. 420
and 348. Eleven of his orations ai-e extant,
all relating to questions of inheritance : they
afford considerable information respecting
this branch of the Attic law.

iSARA (-ae : laire)^ a river in Gallia Nar-
bonensis, descending from the Graian Alps,
and flowing into the Rhone N. off Va.

iSAURIA (-ae), a district of Asia Minor,
on the N. side of the Taurus, between Pisidia
and Cilicia, whose inhabitants, the Isauri,
were daring robbers. They were defeated by
tbe Roman consul, L. Servilius, in u.c. 75,
who received in consequence the surname of

ISIONDA (-ae), a city of Pisidia in Asia
Minor, near Termessus.

ISIS (-is, -Tdis or -Ydos), one of the chief
Egyptian divinities, wife of Osiris and mother
of Horus. She was originally the goddess
of the earth, and afterwards of the moon.
The Greeks identified her both with Demeter
(Ceres), and with lo. [lo.] Her worship
was introduced into Rome towards the end
of the republic, and became very popular
among the Romans under the empire. The
most important temple of Isis at Rome stood
in the Campus Martins, whence she was
called Isis Campensis. The priests and
servants of the goddess wore linen garments,
whence she herself is called linufera.

Digitized by





ISMARUS (-i) or ISMARA (-drum), a town
in Thrace, near MaronSa, situated on a
mountain of the same name, which produced
excellent wine. It is mentioned in the Odyssey
as a town of the Cicones. The poets fre-
quently use the adjeotive Ismaritu as equiva-
lent to Thracian.

ISM£N£ (^s), daughter of Oedipus and
Jocasta, and sister of Antigone.

ISMENUS (-i), a small river in Boeotia,
rising in Mt. Cithaeron, flowing through
Thebes, and falling into the lake Hylioa. The
brook Dirce, so celebrated in Theban story,
flowed into the Ismenus. From this river
Apollo was called Isweniua,

iSOCRATES (-is), one of the 10 Attic
orators, was born at Athens B.C. 436, and
received a careful education. Among his
teachers were Gorgias, Prodicus, and Socrates,
lie flrst taught rhetoric in Chios, and after-
wards at Athens. At the latter place he met
with great success, and gradually acquired a
large fortune by his profession. He had
100 pupils, every one of whom paid him
1000 drachmae. He also derived a large
income from the orations which he wrote for
others ; but being naturally timid, and of a
weakly constitution, he did not come forward
as a public speaker himself. He was an
ardent lover of his country ; and, accordingly,
when the battle of Chaeronea had destroyed
the last hopes of freedom, he put an end to
his life, B.C. 838, at the age of 98. He took
great pains with the composition of his
orations ; but his style is artificial. Twenty-
one of his orations, have come down to us : of
these the most celebrated is the PanegjTic
oration, in which he shows what services
Athens had rendered to Greece in every
period of her history,

ISSA (-ae : Xwsa), a slnall island in the
Adriatic sea, with a town of the same name,
ofif the coast of Dalmatia, said to have derived
its name tcoxa. Issa, daughter of Macereus of .
Lesbos, who was beloved by Apollo. The
island was inhabited by a hardy race of sailors,
whose barks {lembilssaei) were much prized.

ISSEDONES (-um), a Scythian tribe, in
Great Tartary, near the Massagetae, whom
they resembled in their manners. They are

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