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were spared by the sons of Constantine the
Great, on the death of the latter in 837.
The 2 brothers were educated -with care, and
were brought up in the principles of the
Christian religion. Julian abandoned Christi-
anity in his heart at an early period ; but
fear of the emperor Constantius prevented
him from making an open declaration of his
apostacy. He devoted himself with ardour
to the study of Greek literature and philo-
sophy; and among his fellow-students at
Athens were Gregory of Nazianzus and Basil,
both of whom afterwards became so cele-
brated in the Christian church. Julian did not
remain long at Athens. Having been sent
by Constantius into Gaul to oppose the
Germans, he carried on war against the latter
for 5 years (356 — 360) with great success.
In 360 he was proclaimed emperor by his
soldiers in Paris ; and the opportune death
of Constantius in the following year, left him
the undisputed master of the empire. He
now publicly avowed himself a pagan. His
brief reign was chiefly occupied by his
military preparations agrainst the Persians.
In 363 he crossed the Tigris, and marched
into the interior of the country in search of
the Persian king; but he was obliged to

retreat in consequence of the sufferings of
his army from want of water and provisions.
In his retreat he was attacked by the Per-
sians, and slain in battle. He was succeeded
by Jovian. [Joviants.] Julian wrote a large
number of works, many of which are extant.
His style is remarkably pure, and is a close
imitation of the style of the classical Greek


JCNIA gens, an ancient patrician house
at Rome, to which belonged the celebrated
M. Junius Brutus, who took such an active
part in expelling the Tarquins. But after,
wards the gens appears as only a plebeian
one. The chief families were those of Brvtus
and SiLANVS.

JUNO (-onis), called HERA by the Greeks.
The Greek goddess is spoken of in a separate
article. [Hera.] The word Ju~no contains
the same root as Jtt-piter. As Jupiter is the
king of heaven and of the gods, so Juno is
the queen of heaven, or the female Jupiter.
She was worshipped at Rome as the queen of
heaven, from early times, with the surname
of Segina. As Jupiter was the protector 6f
the male sex, so Juno watched over the
female sex. She was supposed to accompany
every woman through life, from the moment
of her birth to her death. Hence she bore
the special surnames of Virginalia and
Matrona, as well as the general ones of
Opigena and &>8pita\ and under the last
mentioned name she was worshipped at
Lanuvium. On their birthday women offered
sacrifices to Juno, surnamed ^a^a^M; but the
great festival, celebrated by all the women in
honour of Juno, was called MatroncUia^ and
took place on the Ist of March. From her
presiding over the- marriage of women, she
was called Juga or JugalUf and had a variety
of other names, such as Fronuba, Oinxia,
Lueituif &c. The month of June, which is
said to have been originally called Junonius,
was considered to be the most favourable
period for marrying. "Women in childbed
invoked Juno Lucina to help them, and
newly-born children were likewise under her
protection : hence she was sometimes con-
founded with the Greek Artemis or Uithyia.
Juno was ftirther, like Saturn, the guardian
of the finances, and imder the name of
Moneta, she had a. temple on the Capitoline
hill, which contained the mint.

JUpITER (J5vis) called ZEUS by the
Greeks. The Greek god is spoken of in a
separate article. [Zeus.] The Roman Ju-
piter was originally an elemental divinity,
and his name signifies the father or lord of
heaven, being a contraction of Diovis pater,
or Dicspiter, Being the lord of heaven, he

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was worshipped as the god of rain, storms,
tb under, and lightning, whence he had the
epithets of PluviuSy Fulgurator^ Tonitrualis^
TotumSy and Fulminator. He was the highest
and most powerful among the gods, and was
hence called the Best and Most High {Opti-
tntta Maximus). His temple at Rome stood
on the lofty hill of the Capitol, whence he
derived the surnames of Capitolinus and
Tarpeius. He was regarded as the special
protector of Rome. As such he was wor-
shipped by the consuls on entering upon
cheir office ; and the triumph of a victorious
greneral was a solemn procession to his
temple. He therefore bore the surnames of
ImperatoTf Victor^ InvictuSy Stator^ Opitulus^
FeretriuSy PraedatoTy TritunphatoTy and the
like. Under all these surnames he had
temples or statues at Rome. Under the name
of Jupiter CapitolintUy he presided over the
great Roman games ; and under the name of
Jupiter Latialis or LatUuriSy over the Feriae
Latinae. Jupiter, according to the belief of
the Romans, determined the course of all
human affairs. He foresaw the future ; and
the events happening in it were the results
of his will. He revealed the future to man
through signs in the heavens and the flight of
birds, which are hence called the messengers
of Jupiter, while the god himself is desig-
nated as ProdigialiSy that is, the sender of
prodigies. For the same reason the god was
invoked at the beginning of every under-
taking, whether sacred or profane, together
with Janus, who blessed the beginning itself.
Jupiter was further regarded as the guardian
of law, and as the protector of justice and
virtue. He maintained the sanctity of an
oath, and presided over all transactions
which were based upon faithfulness and
justice. Hence Fides was his companion on
the Capitol, along with Victoria ; and hence
a traitor to his country, and persons guilty
of perjury, were thrown down from the Tar-
peian rock. — As Jupiter was the lord of hea-
ven, and consequently the prince of light, the
white colour was sacred to him, white ani-
mals were sacrificed to him, his chariot was
believed to be drawn by 4 white horses, his
priests wore white caps, and the consuls were
attired in white when they offered sacrifices
in the Capitol the day they entered on their
office.' The worship of Jupiter at Rome was
under the special care of the Flamen DialiSy
who was the highest in rank of all the

JURA or JURASSUS MONS, a range of
mountains running N. of the lake Lemanus
as far as Augusta Rauracorum {Augusty near
Basle) y on the Rhine, forming the boundary
between the Sequani and Helvetii.

JUSTINllNUS (-i), sumamed Thb Gekat,
emperor of Constantinople, a.d. 527 — 565,
requires notice in this work on account only
of his legislation. He appointed a commis-
sion of jurists to draw up a complete body of
law. They executed their task by compiling
two great works, — one called Digesta or Pan.
dectaey in 60 books, being a collection of all
that was valuable in the works of preceding
jurists ; and the other called the Jtisti*iianeus
CodeXy being a collection of the imperiaJ con-
stitutions. To these two works was subse-
quently added an elementary treatise, in 4
books, under the title of Institutiones, Jus.
tinian subsequently published various new
constitutiones, to which he gave the name of
Hovellae ConstittUiones. The 4 legislative
works of Justinian, the InstitutioneSy Digesta
or Pandectae, OodeXy and Novellaey are in-
cluded under the general name of Corpus
Juris (HviliSy and form the Roman law, as re-
ceived in Europe.

JUSTlNUS (-i), the historian, of uncertain
date, is the author of an extant work entitled
HistoriarumPhilippicarumlAbri XLIV. This
work is taken from the Sistoriae Philippicae
of Trogus Pompeius, who lived in the time
of Augustxls. The title Philippicae was given
to it, because its main object was to give the
history of the Macedonian monarchy, with all
its branches ; but in the execution of this
design, Trogus permitted himself to indulge
in so many excursions, that the work formed
a kind of universal history from the rise of
the Assyrian monarchy to the conquest of the
East by Rome. The original work of Trogus,
which was one of great value, is lost. The
work of Justin is not so much an abridgment
of that of Trogus, as a selection of such parts
as seemed to him most worthy of being gene-
rally known.

J0TURNA (-ae), the nymph of a fountain
in Latium, famous for its healing qualities,
whose water was used in most sacrifices. A
pond in the forum, between the temples of
Castor and Vesta, was called Lacus Jutumae.
The nymph is said to have been beloved by
Jupiter, who rewarded her with immortality
and dominion over the waters. Virgil calls
her the sister of Tumus.

the great Roman satirist, but of whose life we
have few authentic particulars. His ancient
.biographers relate that he was either the son
or the " alunmus" of a rich freedman ; that
he occupied himself, imtil he had nearly
reached the term of middle life, in declaim-
ing ; that, having subsequently composed
some clever lines upon Paris the pantomime,
he was induced to cultivate assiduously sati-
rical composition; and that in consequeu^e

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of bis attacks upon Paris becoming known to
the court, tbe poet, although now an old man
of 80, wus appointed to the command of a
body of trnops, in a remote district of Egypt,
where be died shortly afterwards. But the
only lusts with regard to Juvenal upon which
we can implicitly rely are, that he flourished
towards the close of the first century, that
Aquinum, if not the place of bis nativity,
was at least bis chosen residence, and that he
is in all probability the ftiend whom Martial
addresses in 3 epigrrams. Each of bis satires
is a finished rhetorical essay, energetic, glow-
ing, and sonorous. He denounces vice in the
most indignant terms ; but tbe obvious tone
of exaggeration which pervades all his in-
vectives leaves us in doubt bow far this sus-
tained passion is real, and how far assumed for
show. The extant works of Juvenal consist of
1 6 satires, all composed in heroic hexameters.

LABDACTDAE. [Labdacus.]
LABDlCUS (-i), son of the Tbeban king,
Polydorus, by Nycteis, daughter of Nycteus.
Labdacus lost bis father at an early age, and
was placed under the guardianship of
Nycteus, and afterwaids under that of Lycus,
a brother of Nycteus. When Labdacus had
grown up to manhood, Lycus surrendered
the government to him ; and on the death of
Labdacus, which occurred soon after, Lycus
-undertook tbe guardianship of his son Laius,
the father of Oedipus. The name Lahdacidae
is frequently given to the descendants of
Labdacus — Oedipus, Polynices, Eteocles, and

LARDALUM. [Btracusab.]

LABEATES (-um), a warlike people in
Dalmatia, whose chief town was Scodra, and
in whose territory was the Labeatis Palus
{Lake of Sctitari)^ through which the river
Barbana runs.

LABEO (-onis), ANTISTIU8 (-i). (1) A
Roman jurist, one of the murderers of Julius
Caesar, put an end to his life after tbe battle
of Philippi, B.C. 42. — (2) Son of the preced-
ing, and a still more eminent jurist. He
adopted the republican opinions of bis father,
and was in consequence disliked by Augustus.
It is probable that the Laheone insanior of
Horace was a stroke levelled against the
jurist, in order to please the emperor. Labeo
wrote a large number of works, which are
cited in the Digest. He was the founder of
one of the 2 great legal schools, spoken of
under Capito.

LABEllIUS, DECIMUS (-i), a Roman
eques, and a distinguished writer of mimes,

was born about b.c. 107, and died in 43 at
Puteoli, in Campania. He was compelled by
Caesar to appear on the stage in 45 in order
to contend with Syrus, a professional mimus,
although the profession of a mimus was in-
famous ; but be took bis revenge by iiointing
bis wit at Caesar.

LABICI or LAVlCI (-6rura : Colonna)^ an
ancient town in Latium,on a hill of the Alban
mountain, 15 miles S.E. of Rome, W. of
Praeneste, and N.E. of Tusculum. It was
taken by tbe Romans, b.c. 418.

LABLENUS (-i). (1) T., tribune of the
plebs B.C. 63, was a friend and partisan of
Caesar, and bis chief legatus in bis wars
against the Gauls ; but on the breaking out
of tbe civil war in b.c. 49, he went over to
Pompey. He was slain at the battle of
Munda, in Spain, 45. — (2) Q.} son of the pre-
ceding, invaded Syria at the head of a Par-
thian army in 40 ; but the Partbians having
been defeated in tbe following year by P.
Ventidius, Antony's legate, he fled intoCiUcia,
where he was apprehended, and put to death.

LABRANDA (-6rum), a town in Caria, 68
stadia N. of Mylasa, celebrated for its temple
of Zeus (Jupiter).

LABRO (-dnis), a sea-port in Etruria,
perhaps the same as the modem Livomo or

LABYNfiTUS (-i), a name common to
several of the Babylonian monarchs, seems
to have been a title rather than a proper
name. The I^bynetus, mentioned by He-
rodotus as mediating a peace between Cyaxares
and Alyattes, is the same with Nebuchad-
nezzar. The Labynetus, mentioned by He-
rodotus as a contemporary of Cyrus and
Croesus, is the same with the Bclsbazzar of
the prophet Daniel. By other writers he is
called NabonadiuB or Nabonidus, He. was
the last king of Babylon.


LACETANI (-orum), a people in Hispania
Tarraconensis, at the foot of the Pyrenees.

LACHESIS (-is), one of the Fates.


LACINIUM (-i), a promontory on the
coast of Bruttium, a few miles S. of Croton,
and forming the W. boundary of the Taren-
tine gulf. It possessed a celebrated temple
of Juno, who was worshipped here under the
surname of Lacinia. The ruins of this tem-
ple have given th^ modem name to the pro-
montory. Capo dells Colonne.

LACMON (-onis) or LACMUS (-i), the K.
part of Mt. Pindus, in which the river Aous
takes its origin.

LACONICA (-ae), sometimes called LACO-
NlA (-ae) by the Romans, a country of Pelo-
ponnesus, bounded on the N. by Argolis and

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Arcadia, on the W. by Messenia, and on ihe
K. and S. by the sea. Laconica was a long
valley ninuing S..wards to the sea, and in-
closed by mountains on every side except
tne S. This valley is drained by the
river Enrotas, "which falls into the Laconian
gulf. In the upper part the valley is narrow,
and near Sparta the mountains approach so
close to each other as to leave little more
than room for the channel of the river. It is
for this reason that we find the vale of Sparta
called the hollow Laeedaemon, Below Sparta
the mountains recede, and the valley opens
out into a plain of considerable extent. The
soil of this plain is poor, but on the slopes of
the moimtains there is land of considerable
fertility. Ofif the coast shell-fish were caught,
which produced a purple dye inferior only to
the Tyrian. Laconica is well described by
Euripides as difficult of access to an enemy.
On the N. the country could only be invaded
by the valleys of the £urotas,and the Genus ;
the range of Taygetus formed an almost in-
superable barrier on the W. ; and the want
of good harbours on the E. coast protected it
from invasion by sea on that side. Sparta
was the only town of importance in the coun-
try. [Sparta.] — ^The most ancient inhabitants
of the country are said to have been Cynu-
rians and Leleges. They were expelled or
conquered by the Achaeans, who were the
inhabitants of the country in the heroic age.
The Dorians afterwards invaded Peloponnesus
and became the ruling race in Laconica.
Some of the old Achaean inhabitants were re-
duced to slavery ; but a great number of them
became subjects of the Dorians under the
name of Perioeei. The general name for the
inhabitants is Lacones or Laoedabmonii ; but
the Perioeei are frequently called Lacedae-
monii, to distinguish them from the Spartans.

LACONICUS SINUS, a gulf in the S. of
Peloponnesus, into which the Eurotas falls.

LACYDEs (-is), a native of C>Tene, suc-
ceeded Arcesilaus as president of the Academy
at Athens, and died about 215.

LADE (-es), an island off the W. coast of
Caria, opposite to Miletus, and to the bay
into which the Maeander falls.

LADAS, a swift runner of Alexander the

LADON (-Snis). (1) The dragon who
guarded the apples of the Hesperides, was
slain by Hercules. [Hercttles.] — (2) A
river in Arcadia, rising near Clitor, and
falling into the AlphSus, between Heraea and
Phrixa. In mythology I^don is the husband
of Stymphalis, and father of Daphne and
Metope. — (3) A small river in Elis, rising on
the frontiers of Achaia, and falling into the

LAEETANI (^rum), a people en the E.
coast of Hispania Tarraconensis, near tbe
mouth of the river Rubricatus, probably the
same as the Laletani, whose country, Lalb-
TAKiA, produced good wine, and whose chief
town was Barcino.

LAELAPS (-^pis), «.«., the storm wind, per-
sonified as the swift dog, which Procris had
received f^om Artemis (Diana), and gavQ to
her husband Cephalus. When the Teumessian
fox was sent to punish the Thebans, Cephalus
sent the dog Laelaps against the fox. The
dog overtook the fox, but Zeus (Jupiter)
changed both animals into a stone, which
was shown in the neighbourhood of Thebes.

LAELIUS, C. (-i). (1) The friend of
Scipio Africanus, the elder, who fought
under the latter in almost all his campaigns.
He was consul b.g. 190. — (2) Sumamed
Sapiens, son of the preceding. His intimacy
with Scipio Africanus the younger was as
remarkable as his father's friendship with the
elder, and it obtained an imperishable monu-
ment in Cicero's treatise, Laelius sive de Ami-
citia. He was bom about 186; was tribune of
the plebs 151 ; praetor 145 ; and consul 140.
lie was celebrated for his love of literature
and philosophy, and cultivated the society
and friendship of the philosopher Panaetius,
of the historian Polybius, and of the poets
Terence and Lucilius. Laelius is the prin-
cipal interlocutor in Cicero's dialogue, De
Amicitiay and is one of the speakers in the
I)e Senectute, and in the De Mepublica. His
two daughters were married, the one to
Q. Mucins Scaevola, the augur ; the other to
C. Fannius Strabo.

LAENAS (-fitis), the name of a family of
the Popilia gens, noted for its sternness,
cruelty, and haughtiness of character. The
chief members of the family were : — (1) C.
Popiuus Laenas, consul b.g. 172, and after,
wards ambassador to Antiochus, King of
Syria, whom the senate wished to abstain
from hostilities agpainst Egypt. Antiochus
was just marching upon Alexandria, when
Popilius gave him the letter of the senate,
which the king read, and promised to take
into consideration with his friends. Popilius
straightway described with his cane a circle
in the sand round the king, and ordered Mm
not to stir out of it before he had given a
decisive answer. This boldness so frightened
Antiochus, that he at once yielded to the
demand of Rome. — (2) P. Popilius Laenas,
consul 1S2, the year after the murder of Tib.
Gracchus. He was charged by the victorious
aristocratical party with the prosecution of
the accomplices of Gracchus; and in this
odious task he showed all the hard-hcarted-
ness of his family. He subsequently withdrew

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btmself, by roltmtary exile, from the ren.
Reance of C. Gracchue, and did nut return to
Rome till after his death.

LAERTES (-ae), king of Ithaca, son of
Acrisius, husband of AnticlSa, and fathei* of
Ulysses — who Ls hence called Labrtiadbs.
Some writers call Ulysses the son of Sisyphus.
[AimcLRA.] Laertes took part in the Caly-
donian hunt, and in the expedition of the
Argonauts. He was still alive when Ulysses
rttumed to Ithaca, after the fall of Troy.


LAESTRTGONES (-urn), a savage race of
cannibals, whom Ulysses encountered in his
wanderings. They were governed by Aiiri-
PHATBS and Lamvs. They belong to my-
thology rather than to history. The Greeks
placed them on the E. coast of Sicily, in the
plains of Leontini, which are therefore called
Laestrygonii Campi, The Roman poets, who
regarded the prom. Circeium as the Homeric
island of Circe, transplanted the Laestrygones
to the S. coast of Latium, in the neighbour-
hood of Formiae, which they supposed to
have been built by Lamus, the king of this
people. Hence Horace speaks of Laestry.
gonia Bacchus in amphora^ that is, Formian
wine ; and Ovid calls Formiae, Lautrygonia
Lami Urba,

LAEVI or LEVI (-5rum), a Ligurian
people, in Gallia Transpadana, on the river
Ticinus, who, in conjunction with the
Marici, built the town of Ticinum (Porta).

LAEVINU8, VALERIUS (-1). (1) P.,
consul B.C. 280, defeated by Pyrrhus on the
banks of the Siris. — (2) M., praetor 215,
when he carried on war against Philip, in
Greece; and consul 210, when he carried on
the war in Sicily, and took Agrigentum.

LAGUS. [Ptolbmabus.]

LAIS (-Idis), the name of 2 celebrated
Grecian courtezans. (1) The elder, a native
probably of Corinth, lived in the time of the
Peloponnesian war, and was celebrated as
the most beautiful woman of her age. — (2)
The younger, daughter of Timandra, probably
bom at Hyccara, in Sicily. According to
some accounts she was brought to Corinth
when 7 years old, having been taken prisoner
in the Athenian expedition to Sicily, and
bought by a Corinthian. This story, how-
ever, involves nnmeroos difficulties, and
seems to have arisen firom a confusion
between this Lais and the elder one of the
same name.

LAIUS (-i), king of Thebes, son of Labda.
cus, husband of Jocasta, and father of
Oedipus^ by whom he was slain.. [Oedipus.]

LALAGE (-es), a common name of courte-
eans, from the Greek kuXttyii^ prattling, used
as a term of endearment, "little prattler.'

LALETANI. [Labbtani.]

LAMACHU8 (-i), an Athenijm, the col-
league of Alcibiades and Nicias, in the great
Sicilian expedition, b.c. 415. He fell nndor
the walls of Syracuse, in a sally of the

LAMIA (-ae), a female phantom. [Expusa.]

LAmIa (-ae), AELlUS (-i), a Roman
family, which claimed descent fh>m the
mythical hero, Lamus. L. Abltus Lakia,
the friend of Horace, was consul a.d. S, and
the son of the Lamia, who supported Cleero
in the suppression of the Catilinarian con.

lAmIA (-ae), a town ii> Phthiotis, in
Thessaly, situated on the small river Ache-
lous, 50 stadia inland from the Maliac gulf.
It has given its name to the war, which was
carried on by the confederate Greeks against
Antipatcr, after the death of Alexander, b.c.
323. When Antipater was defeated by the
confederates under the command of Leos-
thenes, the Athenian, he took refuge in
Lamia, where he was besieged for some

LAMPETIA (-ae), daughter of Helios
(the Sun), and sister of Phaothon.

LAMPONIA (-ae), or -lUM (-1), a city
of Mysia, in the interior of the Troad, near
the borders of Acolia.

LAMPSACUS (-i), an important city of
Mysia, in Asia Minor, on the coast of the
Hellespont; a colony of the Phocaeans;
celArated for its wine ; and the chief seat
of the worship of Priapus.

lAmuS (-i). (1) Son of Poseidon (Neptune),
and king of the Laestrygones, said to have
founded Formiae, in Italy. [Formiab; Labs-
TRTooNBS.] — (2) A river and town of Cilicia.

corrupted into LOMBARDS, a German tribe
of the Suevio race, dwelt originally on the
banks of the Elbe, and after many migrations
eventually crossed the Alps (a.d. 568), and
settled in the N. of Italy, which has ever
since received the name of Lombardy. The
kingdom of the Lombards existed for
upwards of 2 centuries, till its overthrow by

LANUVIUM (-i: Lavigna), an ancient city
in Latium, situated on a hill of the Alban
Mount, not far from the Appia Via; pos-
sessed an ancient and celebrated temple of
Juno Sospita ; and was the birthplace of the
emperor Antoninus Pius.

LAOOOON (-ontis), a Trojan priest of the
Thymbraean Apollo. He tried in vain to
dissuade his countrymen firom drawing into
the city the wooden horse, which the Greeks
had left behind them when they pretended to
sail away from Troy. As he was preparing

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to sacrifice a bull to Poseidon, 2 fearful
eerpents swam out of the sea, coiled round
Laocoon and his two. sons, and destroyed
them. His death forms the subject of a
magnificent work of ancient art preserved in
the Vatican,

Laocoon. (Group in the Vatican.)

LAODAMIA (-ae), daughter of Acastus, and
wife of Protesilaus. When her husband was
slain before Troy, she begged the gods to be
allowed to converse with him for only 3

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