William Smith.

A smaller classical dictionary of biography, mythology, and geography ... online

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hours. The request was granted. Hermes
(Mercury) led Protesilaus back to the upper
world ; and when Protesilaus died a second
time, Laodamia died with him.

LAODICE (-es). (1) Daughter of Priam
and Hecuba, and wife of Helicaon. — (2) The
name given by Homer to the daughter of
Agamemnon and Clytaemnestra, who is
called Electra by the tragic poets. [Elbctra.]
— (3) The name of several Greek princesses,
of the family of the Seleucidae, one' of whom
was the mother of Seleucus Nicator, the
founder of the Syrian monarchy.

LA6dIC£a (>ae), the name of several
Greek cities in Asia, called after the mother
of Seleucus I. Nicator, and other Syrian
princesses of this name. (1) L. ad Lycvm,
a city of Phrj'gia, near the river Lycus, a
tributary of the Maeander, founded by
Antiochug II. Theos. It became one of the
most flourishing cities in Asia Minor, and
was the seat of a flourishing Christian
Church as early as the apostolic age. — (2)
L. CouBUSTA, i.e. the burnt ; the reason of



the epithet is doubtful ; a city of Lycaonii,
N. of Iconium. — (3) L. ad Make, a city on
the coast of Syria, about 50 miles S. of
Antioch, built by Seleucus I., and had the best
harbour in Syria. — (4) L. ad Libanuh, a
city of Coele-Syria, at the N. entrance to the
narrow valley, between Libanus and Antili-
banus^

LAOMEDON (-ontis), king of Troy, son of
IIus, and father of Priam, Hesione, and other
children. Poseidon (Neptune) and Apollo,
who had displeased Zeus (Jupiter), were
doomed to serve Laomedon for wages. Ac-
cordingly, Poseidon built the walls of Troy,
while Apollo tended the king's flocks on
Mount Ida. When the two gods had done
their work, Laomedon refused them the
reward he had promised them, and expelled
them from his dominions. Thereupon
Poseidon sent a marine monster to ravage
the country, to which the Trojans were
obliged, from time to time, to sacrifice a
maiden. On one occasion it was decided
by lot that Hesione, the daughter of Lao-
medon, should be the victim; but she was
saved by Hercules, who slew the monster,
upon Laomedon promising to give him the
horses which Tros had once received from
Zeus as a compensation for Ganymedea. But
when the monster was slain, Laomedon again
broke his word. Thereupon Hercules sailed
with a squadron of 6 ships against Troy,
killed Laomedon, with all his sons except
Priam, and gave Hesione to Telamon. Priam,
as the son of Laomedon, is called Laomedon-
tiades ; and the Trojans, as the subjects of
Laomedon, are called Laombdontiadae.
LAPIDEI CAMPI. [Campi Lapidei.]
LAPITHAE (-arum), a mythic-al people
inhabiting the mountains of Thessaly. They
were governed by Pirithous, who being a son
of Ixion, was a half-brother of the Centaurs.
The latter, therefore, demanded their share in
their father's kingdom ; and, as their claims
were not satisfied, a war arose between tho
Lapithae and Centaurs, which, however, was
terminated by a peace. But when Pirithous
married HippodamTa, and invited the Cen-
taurs to the marriage feast, the latter, fired by
wine, and urged on by Ares (Mars), attempted
to carry off the bride and the other women.
Thereupon a bloody conflict ensued, in which
the Centaurs were defeated by the Lapithae.
The Lapithae are said to have been the in-
ventors of bits and bridles for horses. It is
probable that they were a Pelasgian people,
who defeated the less civilised Centaurs, and
compelled them to abandon Mt. Pelion.

LAR or LARS (-tis), an Etruscan prae-
nomen, borne, for instance, by Porsena and
Tolumnius. From the Etruscans it pasbed



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LAKA.



234



LATIUM.



over to the Romans, whence we read of I^r
llerminius, who was consul B.C. 448. This
word signified lord, king, or hero in the
Etruscan.

LARA. [Larunda.]

LARANDA (-6rum), a considerable town
in the 8. of Lycaonia, at the N. foot of Mt.
Taurus, used by the Isaurian robbers as one
of tlieir strongholds.

LARENTIA. [Acca Labentia.]

LARES (-ium or -um), Inferior gods at
Rome, may be divided into 2 classes, Lares
doniestiei and Lares pvblici. The former were
the Manes of a house raised to the dignity of
heroes. The Manes were more closely con-
nected with the place of burial, while the
Lares were the divinities presiding over the
hearth and the whole house. It was only
the spirits of good men that were honoured
as Lares. All the domestic Lares were headed
by the Lar familiaris, who ^ as regarded as
the founder of the family ; he was insepa.
ruble from the family ; and when the latter
changed their abode, he went with them.
Among the Lares puhlid we have mention
made of Lares praestites and Lares com-
pitales. The former were the protectors of
the whole city; the latter were those who
presided over the several divisions of the
city, which were marked by the compita, or
the points where two or more streets crossed
each other. The images of the Lares, in
great houses, were usually in a separate
compartment, called lararia. When the in-
habitants of the house took their meals, some
portion was offered to the Lares, and on joyful
family occasions they were adorned with
wreaths, and the lararia were thrown open.

LARINUM (-i), . a town of the Frentani
(whence the inhabitants are sometimes called
Frentani Larinates), on the river Tifernus,
and near the borders of Apulia.

LARISSA (-ae), the name of several
Pelasgian places, whence Larissa is called in
mythology the daughter of Pelasgus. — (1) An
important town of Thessaly, in Felasgiotis,
situated on the Feneus, in an extensive plain,
and once the capital of the Felasgi. — (2^ Sur-
named Cremastk, another important town of
Thessaly, in Fhthiotis, distant 20 stadia from
the Mallac gulf. — (3) An ancient city on the
coast of the Troad. — (4) L. Fhriconis, a
city on the coast of Mysia, near Cyme, of
Pelasgian origin, but colonised by the Aeo-
lians. It was also called the Egj-ptian Larissa,
because Cyrus the Great settled in it a body
of his Egyptian mercenary soldiers. — (5) L.
Ephksia, a city of Lydia, in the plain of the
Cuyster. — (6) In Assyria, an ancient city on
the E. bank of the Tigris, some distance N. of
the mouth of the river Zabatas or Lycus. It



was deserted when Xenophon saw it. The
name Larissa is no doubt a corruption of some
Assyrian name (perhaps Al-Asaur), which
Xenophon naturally confounded with Larissa,
through his familiarity with the word as the
name of cities in Greece.

LARISSUS (-i), a small river forming the
boundary between Achaia and Elis, and
flowing into the Ionian sea.

LARIUS LACUS {Lake of Como\ a beau-
tiful lake in Gallia Transpadana (N. Italy),
running from N. to S., through which the
river Adda flows. Pliny had several villas
on the banks of the lake.

LARTIA GENS, patrician, distinguished
at the beginning of the republic through 2
of its members, T. Lartius, the first dictator,
and Sp. Lartius, the companion of Iloratius
on the wooden bridge.

LARUNDA, or LARA (-ae), daughter of
Almon, the nymph who informed Juno of the
connection between Jupiter and Jutuma;
hence her name is connected with x«Xi(». Ju-
piter deprived her of her tongue, and ordered
Mercury to conduct her into the lower world.
On the way thither Mercury fell in love with
her, and she afterwards gave birth to 2
Lares.

LARVAE. [Lkmures.]

LAS, an ancient town of Laconia, on the
E. side of the Laconian gulf, 10 stadia from
the sea, and 8. of Gytheum.

LASAEA (-ae), a town in the E. of Crete,
not far from the Prom. Samonium, mentioned
in the Acts of the Apostles.

LASUS (-i), of Hermione, in Argolis, a
lyric poet, and the teacher of Pindar, lived at
Athens, under the patronage of Hipparchua.
His works have perished.

LATIALIS or LATIARIS (-is), a surname
of Jupiter as the protecting divinity of
Latium. The Latin towns and Rome cele-
brated to him every year the feriae Latinae,
on the Alban mount, which were conducted
by one of the Roman consuls. [Latinus.]

LATINUS (-i), king of Latiimi, son of
Faunus and the nymph Marica, brother of
Lavinius, husband of Amata, and father of
Lavinia, whom he gave in marriage to
Aeneas. [Lavinia.] According to one ac
count, Latinus, after his death, became
Jupiter Latiaris, just as Romulus became
Quirinus.

LATIUM (-i), a country in Italy, was ori-
ginally the name of the small district between
the Tiber and the Numicus, and afterwards
signified the country bounded by Etruria on
the N., from which it was separated by the
Tiber ; by Campania on the 8., from which it
was separated by the Liris ; by the Tyrrhene
sea on the W. ; and by the Sabine aud



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LATIUM.



235



LEANDEK.



Samnite tribes on the E. The greater part of
this country is an extensive plain of volcanic
origin, out of which rises an isolated range of
mountains known by the name of Mons
Albanus, of which the Algidus and the Tus-
culan hills are branches. Part of this plain,
on the coast between Antium and Tanracina,
which was at one time well cultivated, be-
came a marsh in consequence of the rivers
Nymphaeus, Ufens, and Amasenus finding no
outlet for their waters [Pomptinak Pa-
LUDKs] ; but the remainder of the country
was celebrated for its fertility in antiquity. —
The Latini were some of the most ancient
inhabitonts of Italy. They appear to have
been a Pelasgian tribe, and are frequently
called Aborigines. At a period long anterior
to the foimdation of Rome, these Pelasgians
or Aborigines descended into the narrow plain
between the Tiber and the Numicus, expelled
or subdued the Slculi, the original inhabitants
of that district, and there became known
under the name of Latini. These ancient
Latins, who were called Fruci Latini^ to
distinguish them from the later Latins, the
subjects of Rome, formed a league or con-
federation consisting of 80 states. The town
of Alba Longa subsequently became the head
of the league. This town, which founded
several colonies, and among others Rome,
boasted of a Trojan origin ; but the whole
story of a Trojan settlement in Italy is pro-
bably an invention of later times. Although
Rome was a colony from Alba, she became
powerful enough in the reign of her 3rd king,
Tullus Hostilius, to take Alba and raze it to
the ground. Under Servius Tullius Rome
was admitted into the Latin League ; and his
successor Tarquinius Superbus compelled the
other Latin towns to acknowledge Rome as
the head of the league. But upon the ex-
pulsion of the kings the Latins asserted their
independence, and commenced a struggle
^rith Rome, which was not brought to a final
close till B.C. 340, when the Latins were de-
feated by the Romans at the battle of Mt.
Vesuvius. The Latin League was now dis-
solved. Several of the towns, such as
Lanuvium, Aricia, Nomentum, Pedum, and
Tusculum, received the Roman firanchise ;
and the others became Roman Socii, and are
mentioned in history under the general name
of Nomen Latinum or Latini. They obtained
certain rights and privileges, which the other
Socii did not enjoy. The Romans founded
in various parts of Italy many colonies, con-
sisting of Latins, which formed a part of the
Nomen Latinum^ although they were not situ-
ated in Latium. Thus the Latini came eventu-
ally to hold a certain status intermediate be-
tween that of Roman citizens and peregrini.



LATMICUS SINUS (-i), a gulf on the
cost of Ionia, in Asia Minor, into which the
river Maeander fell, named from Mt. Latmus,
which overhangs it. Through the changes
effected on this coast by the Maeander, the
gulf is now an inland lake, called Akees-Chai
or Ufa-Basn.

LATMUS (-1), a mountain in Caria, extend,
ing in a S.£. direction from the Sinus Lat-
micus. It was the mythological scene of the
story of Selene (Luna) and Endymion, who
is hence called by the Roman poets Latmius
heros and Latmii4S venator.

LATOBRIGI (-orum), a people in Gallia
Belgica, neighbours of the Helvetii, probably
dwelling near the sources of the Rhine, in
Switzerland.

LATONA. [Leto.]

LAURENTUM (-i), an ancient town of
Latium, the residence of the mythical La-
tinus, situated on a height between Ostia and
Ardea, not far from the sea, and surrounded
by a grove of laurels, whence it was sup-
posed to have derived its name.

LAURIUM (-i), a mountain in the S. of
Attica, a little N. of the .Prom. Simium,
celebrated for its silver mines, which in early
times were very productive, but in the time
of Augustus yielded nothing.

LAURON (-onis), a town in the E. of His-
pania Tarraconensis, near the sea and the
river Sucre.

LAUS (-i), a Greek city in Lucania, near
the mouth of the river Laus, which formed
the boundary between Lucania and Bruttium,

LAUS POMPEII {Lodi Vecchio), a town in
Gallia Cisalpina, N.W. of Placentia, and S.E.
of Mediolanum, made a municipium by the
father of Pompey, whence its name.

LAUSUS (-i). (1) Son of Mezentius, king
of the Etruscans, slain by Aeneas. — (2) Son
of Numitor and brother of Ilia, killed by
Amulius.

LAUTULAE (-arum), a village of the Volsci
in Latium, in a narrow pass between Tarracina
and Fundi.

LAVERNA (-ae), the Roman goddess of
thieves and impostors, from whom the porta
Lavemalis derived its name.

LAVICUM. [Labicttm.]

LAVINIA and LAVINIA (-ae), daughter of
Latinus and Amata, betrothed to Tumus, but
married to Aeneas. [TiraNus.]

LAVINIUM, LAVINIUM, LAvXnIUM
(-i), an ancient town of Latium, 3 miles
from the sea and 6 miles E. of Laurentum, on
the Via Appia, founded by Aeneas, and called
Lavinium, in honour of his wife Lavinia.

LEANDER (-dri), the famous youth of
Abydos, who swam every night across the
Hellespont to visit Hero, the priestess ol



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LEBADEA.



236



LENTULUS.



Aphrodite { Venus), In Sestua. One night he
perished in the waves ; and when his corpse
was washed next morning on the coast of
"^stus, Hero threw herself into the sea.

LEBADEA (-ae), a town in Boeotia, be.
tween Chacron^a and Mt. Helicon, at the foot
of a rock, in a cave of which was the ccle-
brated oracle of Trophonius.

LEBEDUS (-i), one of the 12 Ionic cities,
situated on the coast of Lydia, between Colo-
phon and Teos. It was nearly deserted in
the time of Horace.

LEBINTIIUS or L^BYNTHUS (-1), an
Island in the Aegaean sea, one of the Sporades.

LECHAEUM. [Corinthus.]

LECTUM (-i), the S.W. promontory of the
Troad, formed by Mt. Ida jutting out into the
sea.

LCDA (-ae), daughter of Thestius, whence
she is called Thestias^ wife of Tyndareus, king
of Spaita, and mother, either by Zeus
(Jupiter) or by Tyndareus, of Castor and
Pollux, Clytaemnestra and Helena. Accord-
ing to the common legend Zeus visited Leda
in the form of a swan ; and she brought forth
2 eggs, from the one of which issued Helena,
and from the other Castor and Pollux.

LELEGES (.um), an ancient race, ft^uently
mentioned along with the Pelasgians as the
most ancient inhabitants of Greece. The
Leleges were a warlike and migratory race,
who first took possession of the coasts and
the islands of Greece, and afterwards pene.
trated into the interior. Piracy was probably
their chief occupation ; and they are reprc-
(tented as the ancestors of the Teleboans and
the Taphians, who were notorious for their
piracies. The name of the Leleges was de-
rived by the Greeks troia an ancestor Lelex,
who is called king either of Megaris or Lace-
daemon. They must be regarded as a branch
of the great Indo-Germanic race, who became
gradually incorporated with the Hellenes,
and thus ceased to exist as an independeL,c
people.

LELEX. [Leleobs.]

LEMANNUS or LEMXNUS LACUS {Lake
of Geneva), a large lake formed by the river
Rhodanus, the boundary between the old
Roman province in Gaul and the land of the
Helvetii.

LEMNOS or LEMNUS (-i), one of the
largest islands in the Aegaean sea, situated
nearly midway between Mt. Athos and the
Hellespont. It was sacred to Hephaestus
(Vulcan), who is said to have fallen here,
when he was hurled down from Olympus.
Hence the workshop of the god is sometimes
placed in this island. The legend appears to
liave arisen from the volcanic nature of
Lcmnos. Its earliest inhabitants, according



to Homer, were the Thracian Sinties. When
the Argonauts landed at Lemnos, they found
it inhabited only by women, who had mur«
dered all their husbands. [Hypsiptlk.] B;
the Lemnian women the Argonauts became
the fathers of the Minyae, who inhabited the
island till they were expelle<l by the Pelas-
gians. Lemnos was conquered by one of the
generals of Darius ; but Miltiades delivered it
from the Persians, and made it subject to
Athens.

LEMONIA, one of the country tribes of
Rome, named after a village Lcmontum,
situated on the Via Latina before the Porta
Capena.

LEMOVlCES (-ium), a people in Gallia
Aquitanica, between the Bituriges and Ar-
vemi, whose chief town was Augustoritum,
subsequently called Lemovices, the modem
Limoges.

LEMOVll (-drum), a people of Germany,
mentioned along with the Rugii, inhabiting
the shores of the Baltic in the modem Pom-
meraiiin.

LKMt^RES (-um), the spectres or spirits
of the dead. Some writers describe Lemures
as the common name for all the spirits of the
dead, and divide them into 2 classes ; the
Larea, or the souls of good men, and the
Larvae, or the souls of wicked men. But
the common idea was that the Letnurea and
Larvae were the same. They were said to
wander about at night as spectres, and to
torment and frighten the living. In order to
propitiate them the Romans celebrated the
festival of the Lemuralia or Lemuria,

LENAEUS (-i), a surname of Dionysus,
derived from lenus (Xiprk), the wine-press or
the vintage.

LENTOLUS, a haughty patrician family
of the Cornelia gens, of which the most im-
portant persons were: — (1) P. Cornkuvs
Lentvlcs. Sura, the man of chief note in
Catiline's crew. He was quaestor to Sulla
B.C. 81 ; praetor in 75 ; consul in 71. In the
next year he was ejected from the senate,
with 63 others, for infamous life and manners.
It was this, probably, that led him to join
Catiline and his crew. From his distin-
guished birth and high rank, he calculated
on becoming chief of the conspiracy ; and a
prophecy of the Sibylline books was applied
by flattering haruspices to him. 3 Comelii
were to rule Rome, and he was the 3rd after
Sulla and Cinna ; the 20th year after the
burning of the capitol, &c., was to be fatal
to the city. To gain power, and recover his
place in the senate, he became praetor again
in 63. When Catiline quitted the city for
Etruria, Lentulus was left as chief of the
home conspirators, and his irresolution pro.



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LEONIDAS.



287



LEPIDUS.



bably saved the city from being flred. For
it was by his over-caution that the negotiation
with the ambassadors of the AHobroges was
entered into : these unstable allies revealed
the secret to the consul Cicero. The sequel
will be found under the life of Catiline. Len-
tulus was deposed from the praetorship, and
was strangled in the Capitoline prison on
the 6th of December.— (2) P. Cornelius
Lentulits Spinthee, curule aedile in 63 ;
praetor in 60 ; and consul in 57. In his con-
sulship he moved for the immediate recal of
Cicero, and afterwards received Cilicia as his
province. On the breaking out of the civil
war in 49, he joined the Pompeian party. —
(3) L. CoRNELTOS Lentulus Crus, praetor in
58, and consul in 49, when he took a very
active part against Caesar. After the battle
of Pharsalia, he fled to Egypt, and was put to
death bvj'oung Ptolefny's ministers.

LEONIDAS (-ae). (1) I. King of Sparta,
B.C. 491 — 480, son of Anaxandrides, and
successor of his half-brother Cleomenes.
>\Tien Greece was invaded by Xerxes, 480,
Leonidas was sent with a small army to make
a stand against the enemy at the pass of
Thermopylae. His forces amounted to some-
what more than 5000 men, of whom only 300
were Spartans. The Persians in vain attempted
to force their way through the pass of Ther-
mopylae. They were driven back by Leonidas
and his gallant band with immense slaughter.
At length the Malian Ephialtes betrayed the
mountain path of the Anopaea to the Persians,
who were thus able to fall upon the rear of
the Greeks. When it became known to
I.eonidas that the Persians were crossing the
mountain, he dismissed all the other Greeks,
except the Thespian and Theban forces,
declaring that he and the Spartans under his
command must needs remain in the post they
had been sent to guard. Then, before the
body of Persians, who were crossing the
mountain, could arrive to attack him in the
rear, he advanced from the narrow pass and
charged the myriads of the enemy with his
handful of troops, hopeless now of preserving
their lives, and anxious only to sell them
dearly. In the desperate battle which ensued,
Leonidas himself fell soon. — (2) II. King of
Sparta, son of Cleonymus, ascended the
throne, about 256. Being opposed to the
projected reforms of his contemporary Agis
IV., he was deposed and the throne was trans-
ferred to his son-in-law, Cleombrotus ; but
he was soon afterwards recalled, and caused
Agis to be put to death, 240. He died about
236, and was succeeded by his son, Cleo-
menes III.

LEONNATUS (-1), a Macedonian of Pella,
one of Alexander's generals. He crossed



over into Europe in b.c. 322, to a^isist Anti-
pater against the Greeks ; but he was defeated
by the Athenians and their allies, and fell in
battle.

LEONTInI (-orum : lentini), a town in
the E. of Sicily, about 5 miles from the sea,
N.W. of Syracuse, founded by Chalcidians
from Naxos, b.c. 730, but never attained
much political importance in consequence of
its proximity to Syracuse. The rich plains
N. of the city, called Leontini Campi, were
some of the most fertile in Sicily, and pro-
duced abundant crops of most excellent wheat.
It was the birthplace of Gorgias.

LEOPREPIDES, i. e. the poet Simonides,
son of Leoprepes.

LEOSTHENES (-is), an Athenian com-
mander of the combined Greek army in the
Lamian war, slain while besieging Antipater
in the town of Lamia, b.c. 322.

LEOTYCHIDES.— (1) King of Sparta,
B.C. 491 — 469. He commanded the Greek
fleet in 479, and defeated the Persians at the
battle of Mycale. — (2) The reputed son of
Agis II., excluded from the throne, in con-
sequence of his being suspected to be the son
of Alcibiades by Timaea, the queen of Agih.
His uncle, Agesilaus II., was substituted in
his room.

LEPIDaS, M. AEMILIuS (-i), the tri-
umvir, son of M. Lepidus, consul b.c. 78,
who took up arms to rescind the laws of
Sulla, but was defeated by Pompey and
Catulus. His son was praetor in 49, and
supported Caesar in the civil war. In 46 he
was consul with Caesar, and in 44 he received
from the latter the government of Narbonese
Gam and Nearer Spain. He was in the neigh-
bourhood of Borne at the time of the dictator's
death, and having the command of an army«
he was able to render M. Antony efficient
assistance. Lepidus was now chosen pontifez
maximns, which dignity had become vacant
by Caesar's death, and then repaired to his
provinces of Gaul and Spain. Antony after
his defeat at Mutina (43) fled to Lepidus, who
espoused his cause against the senate. They
crossed the Alps at the head of a powerfiU
army, and were joined in the N. of Italy, by
Octavian (afterwards Augrnstus). In the month
of October the celebrated triumvirate was
formed, by which the Roman world was
divided between Augustus, Antony, and
Lepidus. [See p. 70.] In the fresh divisioi^
of the provinces after the battle of Philippi
(42), Lepidus received Africa, where he re-
mained till 36. In this year Augustus sum-
moned him to Sicily to assist him in the war
against Sex. Pompey. Lepidus obeyed, but
tired of being treated as a subordinate, he
resolved to make an effort to acquire Sicily



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Online LibraryWilliam SmithA smaller classical dictionary of biography, mythology, and geography ... → online text (page 45 of 90)