William Smith.

A smaller classical dictionary of biography, mythology, and geography ... online

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the conunoa idea vaa th.i
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vander aboat at night :
! torment and frighten the

propitiate them the Ro

featiral of the Lemurali

LENAEUS (-i), a P>

fi^vtvAfl f(vwn I^&ktiM tXvi^a

Digitized by



M s. or
.. .u the

■ >sc to a
. h.iving a

-.a' : JHa7ia)y

. ui Paestum,

. 10 have been

. ,''tite Syrians) y

■^s to the inha-

> were of the

. tion to the Sy-

.^jur beyond the


-;», was previously

IS. [Athamas.] —

,y Ionian king Orcha-

i by Apollo, was
iiT ; whereupon
r into an incense

a small town in

1 from Plataeae to.

T the victory of Epa-

jans over the Spartans,

.■:X(->Bil (-orum), a people

isis, on the Ocean, W. of

Npq liana: their capital was

^ lUx).

-1}, a distin^nished Greek
.etorician, was the teacher of
\ ^t. Chrysostom, and the firiecd
. ror Julian. He was born at
tie Orontes, about a.o. 814, and
Vdb. Several of his works are

N r;s (-1), a range of mountains on

nos of Syria and Palestine, dividing

■ 11' from Coele-Syria. Its highest sum.

^ .re covered with perpetual snow, and

- k 3 were in ancient times clothed with

~ s of cedars. It is considerably lower

.1 the opposite range of AimLiBAMirs. In

Scriptures the word Lebanon is used for

h ranges, and for either of them ; but in

ssical authors the names Libarius and

' i.tilibanus are distinctive terms, being ap-

j^^iieil to the W. and E. ranges respectively.

(-ne), a surname of Venus among the Romans,
by which she is described as the goddess of
sensual pleasure.

LIBER (-bri), or lIbER pItER, a name
frequently given by the Roman poets to the
Greek Bacchus or Dionysus. But the g«Kl
Liber, aqd the goddess Libkka were ancient
Italian divinities, presiding over the culti.
vatiou of the vine and the fertility of the
fields. Hence they were worshipped in early
times in conjunction with Cer«s. The female
Libera was identified by tne Romans with
Cora or Proserpina, the daughter of Demcter
(Ceres) ; whence Cicero calls Liber and
Libera, children of Ceres; whereas Ovid
calls Ariadne, Libera.
LIBERA. [Liber.]

LIBERTAS (-atis), the goddess of Liberty,
to whom several temples were erected at
Rome. These temples must be distinguished
from the Atrium Libertatis, which was used
as an office of the censors. Libertas Ls
represented in works of art as a matron, with
the pileus, the symbol of liberty, or a wreath
of laurel. Sometimes she appears holding
the Phrvgian cap in her hand.
LIBfiTHRIDES [Libbthrum.]
lIbETHRIUS MONS, a mountair

Digitized by





for himself. He was easily subdued by
Augustus, who spared his life, but deprived
him of his triumvirate, his army, and his
provinces, and commanded that he should
live at Circeii, under strict surveillance. He
allowed him, however, to retain his dignity
of pontifex maximus. He was not privy to
tb« conspiracy which his son formed to
assassinate Augustus in 30. He died in 13.
Augustus succeeded him as pontifex maximus.

LEPONTII (-drum), an Alpine people,
dwelling near the sources of the Rhine, on
the 8. slope of the St. Gothard and the
Simplon : their name is still retained in the
Fal Loventina. Their chief town was Oscela
{Domo <r Ossola).

LEPREUM (-i), a town of Elis In Triphylia,
situated 40 stadia ftrom the sea.

LEFT1NE8, an Athenian, known only as
the proposer of a law taking away all special
exemptions f^om the burden of public charges
against which the oration of Demosthenes
Is directed, usually known as the oration
against Leptines, b.o. 355.

LEPTIS (-is). (1) Leptis Magna or
Nrapous, a city on the coast of N. Africa,
between the Syrtes, E. of Abrotonum, was a
Phoenician colony, with a flourishing com-
merce, though it possessed no harbour. It
was the birthplace of the emperor Scptimius
Severus. — (2) Lbptis Minor or Parva, usually
called simply Leptis, a Phoenician colony on
the coast of Byzacium, in N. Africa.

LERNA (-ae) or LERNfi (-€8), a district
in Argolis, not far from Argos, in which was
a marsh and a small river of the same name.
It was celebrated as the place where Hercules
killed the Lernean Hydra. [See p. 196.]

LEROS, a small island, one of the Sporades,
opposite to the mouth of the Sinus lassius,
on the coast of Caria.

LESBOS or LESBUS (-i), a large island in
the Aegean, off the coast of Mysia iu Asia
Minor. It was colonised by Aeolians, who
founded m it an Hexapolis, consisting of the
6 cities, Mytilene, Methymna, Eresus, Pyrrha,
Antissa, and Arisbe, afterwards reduced to 5
through the destruction of Arisbe by the
Methymnaeans. The chief facts in the history
of Lesbos are connected with its principal
city, Mytilene. [Mytilbnk.] The island is
most important in the early history of Greece,
as the native region of the Aeolian school of
l>Tic poetry. It was the birthplace of the
poets Terpander, Alcaeus, Sappho, and Arion,
of the sage Pittacus, of the historian Hellani-
cus, and of the philosopher Theophrastus.

LfiTHE, (-€s), a river in the lower world,
f^om which the shades drank, and thus
obtained forgetfulness of the past.

L£tO (-Qs), caUed LItONA (-ae), by the

Romans, daughter of the Titan Coeus and
Phoebe, and mother of Apollo and Artemis
(Diana), by Zeus (Jupiter). The love of the
king of the gods procured for Leto the enmity
of Hera (Juno). Persecuted by this goddess,
Leto wandered fW)m place to place, till she
came to Delos, which was then a floating
island, and bore the name of Asteria or
Ortygia. Zeus fastened it by adamantine
chains to the bottom of the sea, that it might
be a secure resting-place for his beloved, and
there she gave birth to Apollo and Artemis.
Leto was generally worshipped only in con-
junction with her children. Delos was the
chief seat of her worship. From their mother,
Apollo is frequently called Letdtus or Lato^px^
and Artemis (Diana) 2>toi'a, X«tot«, LatcXtf or

W svT

Leto (Latona). (From a Piduted Vaae.)

LEUCA (-5rum), a town at the extremity
of the lapygian promontory in Calabria.

LEUCAE (-drum), LEUCA, a small town
on the coast of Ionia, in Asia Minor, near

LEUCAS (-ildis) or LEUCXdIA (-ae : Santa
Maura) J an island in the Ionian sea, off the
W. coast of Acamania, about 20 miles in
length, and from 5 to 8 miles in breadth. It
derived its name fh>m the numerous oalca.
reous hills which cover its surface. It was
originally united to the mainland at its N.E.
extremity by a narrow isthmus. Homer
speaks of it as a peninsula, and mentions its
well lortifted town NerUmt, It was at that
time inhabited by the Teleboans and Leleges.
Subsequently the Corinthians imder Cypselus,
between b.c. 665 and 625, founded a new
town, called Leucas, They also cut a canal
through the isthmus, and thus converted the
peninsula into an ishind. This canal was
afterwards filled up by deposits of sand, but

Digitized by





was opened again by the Romans. At pre-
sent the channel is dry in some parts, and
has from 3 to 4 feet of water in others.
During the war between Philip and the
Romans Leucas was the place where the
meetings of the Acamanian league were held.
At the S. extremity of the island, opposite
Cephallenia, was the celebrated promontory,
variously called Letteas^ Lettcdtas, LeucdteSy
or Leucdte^ on which was a temple of Apollo
Leucadius. At the annual festival of the
god it was the custom to cast down a criminal
from this promontory into the sea: birds
were attached to him, in order to break his
fall ; and if he reached the sea uninjured,
boats were ready to pick him up. This ap-
pears to have been an expiatory rite ; and it
gave rise to the well known story that lovers
leaped from this rock, in order to seek relief
from the pangs of love. Thus Sappho is said
to have leapt down from this rock, when in
love with Phaon. [Sappho.]

LEUCI (-drum), a people in the S.E. of
Gallia Belgica, S. of the Mediomatrici, be-
tween the Matrona and Mosella : theii* chief
town was Tullum (Tom/).

LEUCIPPE. [Alcathok.]

I.EUCIPPIDES. [LBuciPprs, No. 2.]

LEUCIPPCJS (-1). (1) Son of Oenomaus,
the lover of Daphne. (2) Son of Perieres,
prince of the Messenians, and father of
Phoebe and Hilaira, usiially called Leucip-
pides, who were betrothed to Idas and
Lynceus, the sons of Aphareus, but were
carried off by Castor and Pollux. — (3) A
Grecian philosopher, the foimder of the
atomic theory of philosophy, which was
more fully developed by Democritus. His
date is uncertam.

LEUCOPETRA (-ae: 0. deW Armi), a
promontory in the S.W. of Bruttium, ^n
the Sicilian straits, and a few miles S. of
Rhegium. It derived its name from the
white colour of its rocks.

LEUCOPHRYS, a city of Caria, close to a
curious lake of warm water, and having a
renowned temple of Artemis Leucophr3ma.

LEUCOSIA or LEUCASIa (-ae : Piajia),
a small island in the S. of the gulf of Paestum,
off the coast of Lucania, said to have been
called after one of the Sirens.

LEUCOSTRI (-drum.: i.e. White Syrians),
the name given by the Greeks to the inha-
bitants of Cappadocia, who were of the
Syi'ian race, in contradistinction to the Sy-
rian tribes of a darker Colour beyond the

(-es). (1) A marine goddess, was previously
I no, the wife of Athamas. [Athamas.] —
(2) Daughter of the Babylonian king Orcha-

mus and Eurynome, beloved by Apollo, waa
buried alive by her father ; whereupon
Apollo metamorphosed her into an incense

LEUCTRA (-6rum), a small town in
Boeotia, on the road from Plataeae to.
Thespiae, memorable for the victory of Epa-
minondas and the Thebans over the Spartans,
B.C. 371. ^

LEXOVII or LEXOBII (-orum), a people
in Gallia Lugdunensis, on the Ocean, W. of
the mouth of the Sequana : their capital waa
Noviomagus {Li»ieitz),

LIBANIUS (-i), a distinguished Greek
sophist and rhetorician, was the teacher of
St. Basil and St. Chrysostom, and the firiecd
of the Emperor Julian. He was bom at
Antioch, on the Orontas, about a.d. 814, and
died about 395. Several of his works are

LIBANUS (-1), a range of mountains on
the confines of Syria and Palestine, dividing
Phoenice from Coele-Syria. Its highest sum-
mits are covered with perpetual snow, and
its sides were in ancient times clothed with
forests of cedars. It is considerably lower
than the opposite range of Antilibanus. In
the Scriptures the word Lebanon is used for
both ranges, and for either of them ; but in
classical authors the names Libanus and
Antilibanus are distinctive terms, being ap-
plied to the W. and E. ranges respectively.

(-ae), a surname of Venus among the Romans,
by which she is described as the goddess of
sensual pleasure.

LIBER (-bri), or lIbER PATER, a name
frequently given by the Roman poets to the
Greek Bacchus or Dionysus. But the god
Liber, aqd the goddess Libkka were ancient
Italian divinities, presiding over the culti-
vation of the vine and the fertility of the
fields. Hence they were worshipped in early
times in conjunction with Cer«s. The female
Libera was identified by tne Romans with
Cora or Proserpina, the daughter of Demeter
(Ceres) ; whence Cicero calls Liber and
Libera, children of Ceres; whereas Ovid
calls Ariadne, Libera,

LIBERA. [Liber.]

LIBERTAS (-atis), the goddess of Liberty,
to whom several temples were erected at
Rome. These temples must be distinguished
from the Atrium Libertatis, which was used
as an office of the censors. Libertas Ls
represented in works of art as a matron, with
the pileus, the symbol of liberty, or a wreath
of laurel. Sometimes she appears holding
the Phrygian cap in her hand.

LIBETHRIDES [Libethrum.]

LIBETHRIUS MONS, a mountain Ip

Digitized by





Qoeotia, a branch of Mt. Helicon, possessing
a grotto of the Libethrian nymphs.

LIbETHRUM (-i) or LIbETHRA (-ae),
an ancient Thracian to'wn in Pieria In Mace-
donia, on the slope of Olympus, -where
Orpheus is said to have lived. It was sacred
to the Muses, who were hence called Libe-
thHdes ; and it Is probable that the worship
of the Muse8 under this name was transferred
from this place to Boeotia.

LIBITINA (-ae), an ancient Italian divinity,
identified by the later Romans with Perse-
phdne (Proserptna), on account of her con-
nection with the dead and their burial. At
her temple at Rome every thing necessary
for funerals was kept, and persons might
there either buy or hire such things. Hence
a person undertaking the burial of a person
(an undert&ker) was called libUinarittSy and
his business libitinj ; hence the expression
llhitina funeribus non wffidehat^ i.e. they
could not all be buried. Owing to the con-
nection of Libitina with the dead, Roman
poets frequently employ her name in the
sense of death itself.

LIBtPHOENICES (-um), the Inhabitants of
the cities founded by the Phoenicians on the
coast of the Carthaginian territory, and so
called trovci their being a mixed race of the
Libyan natives with the Phoenician settlers.

LIBUI (-orum), a Gallic tribe in Gallia
Cispadana, to whom the towns of Brixia and
Verona formerly belonged, from which they
were expelled by the Cenomani.

LIBURNIA (-ae), a district of lUyricum,
along the coast of the Adriatic sea, separated
from Istria by the river Arsii, and from
Dalmatia by the river Titius. Its inhabitants,
the LiBURNi, supported themselves chiefly by
commerce and navigation. They were cele-
brated at a very early period as bold and
skilful sailors. Their ships were remarkable
for their swift sailing; and hence vessels
built after the same model were called X*-
burnicae or lAhumae naves. It was to light
vessels of this description that Augustus was
mainly indebted for his victory over Antony's
fleet at the battle of Actium. The Libur-
nians were the first Illyrian people who
submitted to the Romans.

LIBt^A (-ae), tbe Greek name for the con-
tinent of Africa in general. [Africa.]

LICHAS (-ae), an attendant of Hercules,
brought his master the poisoned garment,
and was hurled by him into the sea. The
Lichades, 3 small islands between Euboea and
Locris, were believed to have derived their
name from him.

LiCINIA GENS, to which belonged the
distinguished families of Cbassus, Lvcvllus,
and MvBENA.

LICINIUS (-1). (1) C. LiciNius Calvus,
sumamed Stolo, a name said to be derived
from the care with which he dug up the
shoots springing from the roots of his vines
He brought the contest between the patri.
cians and plebeians to a happy termination,
and thus became the founder of Rome*8
greatness. He was tribune of the people
from B.C. 876 to 867, and was faithfully
supported in his exertions by his colleague,
L. Sextius. The laws which he proposed
were : — 1. That in future no more consular
tribunes should be appointed, but that con-
suls should be elected, one of whom should
always be a plebeian. 2. That no one should
possess more than 500 jugera of the public
land, or keep upon it more than 100 head of
large, and 500 of small cattle. 3. A law
regulating the affairs between debtor and
creditor. 4. That the Sybilline books should
be entrusted to a college of ten men (decem-
viri), half of whom should be plebeians.
These rogations were passed after a vehe-
ment opi)Osition on the part of the patricians,
and L. Sextius was the first plebeian who
obtained the consulship, 366. Licinius him-
self was elected twice to the consulship, 364
and 361. Some years later he was accused
. by M. Popilius Laenas of having transgressed
his own law respecting the amount of public
land which a person might possess. He was
condemned and sentenced to pay a heavy
fine. — (2) C. Licinius Macer, an annalist
and an orator, was impeached of extortion by
Cicero, and finding that the verdict was
against him, committed suicide, b.c. 66. —
(3) C. Licinius Macer Calvus, son of the
last, a distinguished orator and poet, was
bom B.C. 82, and died about 47 or 46, in his
35 th or 36th year. His most celebrated
oration was delivered against Vatinius, who
was defended by Cicero, when he was only
27 years of age. His elegies have been
warmly extolled by Catullus, Propertius, and
Ovid. ^ All his works are lost.

LICINIUS (-i), Roman emperor a.d. 307 —
324, was a Dacian peasant by birth, and was
raised to the rank of Augustus by the em-
peror Galerius. He afterwards had the do-
minion of the East. He carried on war first
with Maximinus II., whom he defeated a.d.
314, and subsequently with Constantine, by
whom he was in his turn defeated, 315. A
second war broke out between Licinius and
Constantine in 323, in which Licinius was
not only defeated, but deprived of his throne.
In the following year he was put to death by
Constantine, 324.

LIDE (-es), a mountain of Caria, above

LIGARIUS (.1), Q., fought on the side of the

Digitized by





Pompeian party in Africa, and -was defended
by Cicero before Caesar in a speech still ex-
tant. Ligarius joined the conspirators, who
assassinated Caesar in b.c. 44, and perished
in the proscription of the triumvirs in 43.

LIGER or UGERIS (-is: i<nVc),a large river
in Gaul, rising in Mt. Cevenna, flowing through
the territories of the Arvemi, Aedui, and Car-
nutes, and falling into the ocean between the
territories of the ^amnetes and Pictones.

LIGURIA (-ae), a district of Italy, bounded
on the W. by the river Varus, and the Mari-
time Alps, which separated it from Trans-
alpine Gaul, on the S.E. by the river Macra,
which separated it from Etruria, on the N.
by the river Po, and on the S. by the Mare
Ligusticum. The Maritime Alps and the
Apennines run through the greater part of
the country. The inhabitants were called by
the Greeks Lioyes and Lioystini, and by the
Romans Lioures (sing. lAgus^ more rarely
Ligur), They were in early times widely
spread, and inhabited the coasts of Gaul and
Italy, from the mouth of the Rhone to Pisae
in Etruria. They were divided by the Romans
into lAguret Trarualpini and Oisalpini. The
names of the principal tribes were : — on the
"W. side of the Alps, the Salves or SAXLtrvii,
OxYBii, and Deciates ; on the £. side of the
Alps, the Intemelii, Inoauni and Apitani
near the coast, the Vaoienni, Salassi and
Taurini on the upper course of the Po, and
the Labvi and Ma&isci N. of the Po. — The
Ligurians were small of stature, but strong,
active, and brave. In early times they served
as mercenaries in the armies of the Cartha-
ginians, and they were not subdued by the
Romans till after a long and fierce struggle.

LILAEA (-ae), an ancient town in Phocis,
near^the sources of the Cephissus.

LILYBAEUM (-i : Marsala), a town in the
W. of Sicily, with an excellent harbour, situ-
ated on a promontory of the same name,
opposite to the Prom. Hermaeum or Mercurii
(C. Bon) in Africa, the space between the two
being the shortest distance between Sicily and
Africa. The town was foimded by the Car-
thaginians about B.C. 397, and was the prin-
cipal Carthaginian fortress in Sicily.

LlMITES (-um) ROmANI (-6rum), the
name of a continuous series of fortifications,
consisting of castles, walls, earthen ramparts,
and the like, which the Romans erected along
the Rhine and the Danube, to protect their
possessions from the attacks of the Germans.

LIMNAE (-arum), a town in Messenia, on
the frontiers of Laconia, with a temple of
Artemis (Diana) Limnatis.
• LIMNAEA (-ae), a town in the N. of Acar-
nania, near the Ambracian gulf, on which it
had a harbour.

LIMONUM. [Pictones.]

LIMtRA (-ae), a city in the S.E. of Lycia,
on the river Limyrus.

LINDUM (-i: Lincoln), a town of the
Coritani, in Britain, on the road from Lon-
dinium to Eboracum, and a Roman colony.
The modem name Lincoln has been formed
out of Lindum Colonia.

LINDUS (-i), one of the 3 Dorian cities in
the island of Rhodes, situated on the E. coast.

LINGONES (-um). (1) A powerful people
in Transalpine Gaul, tx>unded by the Treviri
on the N., and the Sequani on Uie S. Their
chief town was Andematurinum, afterwards
Lingones {Langres). — (2) A branch of the
above-mentioned people, who migrated into
Cisalpine Gaul along with the Boii, and dwelt
in the neighbourhood of Ravenna.

LINTERNUM. [Liternxjii.]

LINTJS (-i), the personification of a dirge
or lamentation, and therefore described as a
son of Apollo by a muse (Calliope, or by
Psamathe or Chalciope). Both Argos and
Thebes claimed the honour of his birth. An
Argive tradition related, that Linus was ex-
posed by his mother after his birth, and was
brought up by shepherds, but was afterwards
torn to pieces by dogs. Psamatbe's grief at
the occurrence betrayed her misfortune to
her father, who condemned her to death.
Apollo, indignant at the father's cruelty,
visited Argos with a plague ; and, in obe-
dience to an oracle, the Argives endeavoured
to propitiate Psamathe and Linus by means of
sacrifices and dirges which were called lini. Ac-
cording to a Boeotian tradition Linus was killed
byApoUo, because he had ventured upon a mu-
sical contest with the god^ The Thebans distin-
guished between an earlier and later Linus;
the latter is said to have instructed Hercules
in music, but to have been killed by the hero.



LIPS, the S. W. wind, corresponding to the
Latin Africus^


LIQUENTIA (.ae: Livenza), a river la

Digitized by





Yenetia in the N. of Italy, flowing into the
Sinus Tergestinos.

LlRIS (-is : Oarigliano), more anciently
calledCLANIS(-i8)orGLANIS, one of the
principal rivers in central Italy, rising in the
Apennines AV. of lake Fucinus, flowing into the
Sinus Caietanus near Mintumae, and forming
the boundar> between Latium and Campania,
Its stream was sluggish, whence the " Liris
quieta aqua " of Horace.

LISSUS (-i), a town in the 8. of Dalmatia,
at the mouth of the river Drilon, founded by
Dionysius of Syracuse, b.c. 385, and possess,
ing a strongly fortified acropolis called Acro-
Lissrs, which was considered impregnable.

LITANA SILVA, a large forest on the
Apennines, in Cisalpine Gaul, S.E. of Mutina.

a town on the coast of Campania, at the
mouth of the river Clanis or Glanis, which
in the lower part of its course takes the name
of LixBaNUB, and which flows through a
marsh to the N. of the town, called LriEaNA
Palus. It was to this place that the elder
Scipio Africanus retired, when the tribunes
attempted to bring him to trial, and here he
is said to have died.

LIViA(-ae). (1) Sister of M.LiviusDrusus,
the celebrated tribune, b.c. 91, married first
to M. Porcius Cato, by whom she had Cato
Uticensis, and subsequently to Q. Servilius
Caepio, by whom she had a daughter, Servilia,
the mother of M. Brutus, who killed Caesar.
— (2) Li VIA Drusilla, the daughter of
Livius Drusus Claudianus [Dexjsus, No. 3],
married first to Tib. Claudius Nero; and
afterwards to Augustus, who compelled her
husband to divorce her b.c. 38. She had
already borne her husband one son, the
future emperor Tiberius, and at the time of
her marriage with Augustus was 6 months
pregnant with another, who subsequently re-
ceived the name of Dmsus. She never had
any children by Augustus, but she retained
his affections till his death. On the accession
of her son Tiberius to the throne, she at first
attempted to obtain an equal share in the
government ; but this the jealous temper of
Tiberius would not brook. She died in a.d.
29, at the age of 82 or 86. — (3) Or Livilla,
the daughter of Drusus senior and Antonia,
and the wife of Drusus junior, the son of
the emperor Tiberius. She was seduced by
Sejanus, who persuaded her to poison her
husband, a.d. 23. — (4) Julia Liviixa, daugh.
ter of Germanicus and Agrippina. [Julia,
No. 7J

LIyiUS (-1), T., the Boman historian, was
bom at Patavium {Padua), in the N. of Italy,
B.C. 59. The greater part of his life was

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