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spent in Home, but he returned to his native

town before his death, which happened at the
age of 76, in the fourth year of Tiberius, a.d*
17. His literary talents secured the patronage
of Augustus ; and so great was his reputation,,
that a Spaniard travelled from Cadiz to Rome,
solely for the purpose of beholding him, and
having gratified his curiosity, immediately
returned home. The great work of Livy is a
History of Rome, extending from the founda-
tion of the city to the death of Drusus, b.c. 9,
and comprised in 142 books. Of these 35
have descended to us ; but of the whole, with
the exception of 2, we possess JSpitomes. The
work has been divided into decadeSy contain-
ing 10 books each. The 1st decade (bks. i — x.)
is entire, and embraces the period from the
foundation of the city to the year b.c 294,
The 2nd decade (bks. xi — xx) is lost, and
embraced the period from 294 to 219, com-
prising an account, among other matters, of
the invasion of Pyrrhus and of the first Punic
war. The 3rd decade (bks. xxi — xxx) is en-
tire. It embraces the period from 219 to 201,
comprehending the whole of the 2nd Punic
war. The 4th decade (bks. xxxi — xl) is en-
tire, and also one half of the 5th (bks. xli —
xlv). These 15 books embrace the period
from 201 to 167, and develope the progress
of the' Roman arms in Cisalpine Gaul, in Mace-
donia, Greece, and Asia, ending with the
triumph of Aemilius Paulus. Of the remain,
ing books nothing remains except inconsider-
able fragments. The style of Livy is clear,
animated, and eloquent ; but he did not take
much pains in ascertaining the truth of the
events he records. His aim was to offer to his
countrymen a clear and pleasing narrative,
which, while it gratified their vanity, should
contain no startling improbabilities nor gross
perversion of facts.

Livius ANDRONICUS (-1), the earUest
Roman poet, was a Greek, and the slave of
M. Livius Salinator, by whom he was manu-
mitted, and from whom he received the
Roman name Livius. He wrote both tragedies
and comedies in Latin, and his first drama
was acted b.c. 240.

LiVIUS SALInATOR. [Salinator.]
LIXUS (-i), a city on the AV. coast of
Mauretania Tingitana, in Africa, at the mouth
of a river of the same name : it was a place
of some commercial importance.

LOCRI (.orum), sometimes called LOG-
RENSES (-lum), by the Romans, the in-
habitants of two districts in Greece, called
LOCRIS. — (1) Eastern Locris, extending
from Thessaly and the pass of Thermopylae
along the coast to the frontiers of Boeotia,
and bounded by Doris and Phocis on the
W. It was a fertile and well cultivated

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country. The N. part was inhabited by the
Loc&i Epicnemidii, "who derived their name
from Mt. Cnemis. The S. part was inhabited
by the Locri Opuntii, who derived their
name from their principal town, Opus. The
2 tribes were separated by Daphnus, a small
slip of land, which at one time belonged to
Phocis. The Epicnemidii were for a long
time subject to the Phocians, ai^d were in-
cluded under the name of the latter people ;
whence the name of the Opuntii occurs more
frequently in Greek history. — (2) Western
LocRis, or the country of the Locbi Ozolae,
was bounded on the N. by Doris, on the W.
by Aetolia, on the E. by Phocis, and on the
S. by the Corinthian gulf. The country is
moimtainous, and for the most part unpro.
ductive. Mt. Corax from Aetolia, and Mt.
Parnassus from Phocis, occupy the greater
part of it. The Locri Ozolae were a colony
of the Western Locrians, and were more un-
civilised than the latter. They resembled their
neighbours, the Aetolians, both in their pre-
datory habits and in their mode of warfare.
Their chief town was Amphissa.

LOCRI EPIZEPHtRII (-drum), one of the
most ancient Greek cities in Lower Italy,
situated in the S.E. of Bruttium, N. of the
promontory of Zephyrium, from which it was
said to have derived its surname Epizephyrii,
though others suppose this name given to
the place, simply because it lay to the W.
of Greece. It was founded by the Locrians
from Greece, b.c. 683. The inhabitants re-
garded themselves as descendants of Ajax
Oileus ; and as he resided at the town of
Naryx among the Opuntii, the poets gave the
name of Narycia to Locris, and called the
founders of the town the Narydi Locri. For
the same reason the pitch of Bruttium is
frequently called Narycia. Locri was cele-
brated for the excellence of its laws, which
were drawn up by Zaleucus soon after the
foundation of the city. [Zaleucus.] Near
the town was an ancient and wealthy temple
of Proserpina.

LOCUSTA, or, more correctly, LtJCUSTA
(-ae), a famous female poisoner, employed by
Agrippina in poisoning the emperor Claudius,
and by Nero for despatching Britannicus.
She was j)ut to death in the reign of Galba.

LOLLIUS (-i), M., consul, B.C. 21, and
governor of Gaul, b.c. 16, was appointed by
Augustus as tutor to his grandson, C. Caesar,
whom he accompanied to the East, b.o. 2.
Horace addressed an Ode (iv. 9) to Lollius,
and 2 Epistles (i. 2, 18) to the eldest son of

LONDlNITrM(-i) orLONDlNUM(Xoncfon),
the capital of the Cantii in Britain, was
originally situated on the 8. bank of the

Thames in the modem Southwark, It after-
wards spread over the N. side of the river,
and was hence called a town of the Trino-
bantes. It is first mentioned in the reign of
Nero as a flourishing and populous town,
much frequented by Roman merchants. It
was taken and its inhabitants massacred
by the Britons, when they revolted under
Boadicea, a.d. 62. The quarter on the N.
side of the river was surrounded with a
wall and ditch by Constantine the Great or
Theodosius, the Roman governor of Britain.
This wall probably commenced at a fort near
the present site of the tower, and continued
along the Minories, to Cripplegate, Newgate,
and Ludgate. London was the central point,
from which all the Roman roads In Britain
diverged. It possessed a Milliarium Aureum,
from which the miles on the roads were num-
bered; and a fragment of this Milliarium,
the celebrated London Stone, may be seen
affixed to the wall of St. Swithin's Church
in Cannon Street. This is almost the only
monument of the Roman Londinium still ex-
tant, with the exception of coins, tesselated
pavements, and the like, which have been
found buried under the ground.

LONGINUS (-i), a distinguished Greek
philosopher and grammarian of the 3rd cen-
tury of our era. He taught philosophy and
rhetoric at Athens for many years with great
success ; and among his pupils was the cele-
brated Porphyry. He afterwards went to the
East, where he became acquainted with
Zenobia, of Palmyra, who made him her
teacher of Greek literature. It was mainly
through his advice that she threw off her
allegiance to the Roman empire. On her
captur^by Aurelian in 273, Longinus waa
put to death by the emperor. Longinus was
a man of excellent sense, sound judgment,
and extensive knowledge. His treatise On
the Sublime^ a great part of which is stiL
extant, is a work of great merit.


LONGOBARDI. [Langobardi.]

LONGXJlA (-ae), a town of the Volsci in
Latium, not far from Corioli.

LONGUS (-i), a Greek sophist, of uncertain
date, the author of an extant erotic work.

LORIUM (-i) or LORII (-drum), a smaU
place La Etruria, on the Via Aurelia, where
Antoninus Pius was brought up and died.

LOrI^MA (-dnmi), a city on the S. coast of

LOTIS (-Ydis), a nymph, who, to escape the
embraces of Priapus, was metamorphosed
into a tree, called after her Lotus.

LOTOPHAGI (-orum, i.e. lotus-eaters).
Homer, in the Odyssey, represents Ulysses
as coming in his wanderings to a coast in«

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habited by a people who fed upon a fruit
called lotus, the taste of which was so deli,
clous that every one who eat it lost all wisL
to return to his native country. Afterwards,
in historical times, the Greeks found that the
people on the N. coast of Africa, between the
Syrtes, used, to a great extent, as an article
of food, the fruit of a plant, which they iden-
tified with the lotus of Homer, and they called
these people Lotophagi. They carried on a
commercial intercourse with Egypt and with
the interior of Africa, by the very same
caravan routes which are used to the present

LIJA (-ae), also caUed LtJA MiTER or
LtJA 8ATURNI, one of the early Italian
divinities, to whom were dedicated the arms
taken in battle.

LtTCA (-ae : Lucca) , a Ligurian city in
Upper Italy, at the foot of the Apennines and
on the river Ausus, N.E. of Pisae.

LtJCANLA (-ae), a district in Lower Italy,
bounded on the N. by Campania and Sam-
nium, on the £. by Apulia and the gulf of
Tarenttmi, on the S. by Bruttium, and on the
"W. by the Tyrrhene sea. It was separated
from Campania by the river Silarus, and
ftom Bruttitmi by the river Laus. Lucania
was celebrated for its excellent pastures ; and
its oxen were the finest and largest In Italy.
Hence the elephant was at first called by the
Bomans a Lucanian ox {Lucas bos). The
coast of Lucania was inhabited chiefly by
Greeks, whose cities were numerous and
flourishing. The interior of the country
was originally inhabited by the Chones and
Oenotrians. The Lucanians proper were
Samnites, a brave and warlike race, who left
their mother-country Eind settled 1)oth in
Lucania and Bruttium. They not only ex-
pelled or subdued the Oenotrians, but they
gradually acquired possession of most of the
Greek cities on the coast. They were sub-
dued by the Bomans after Fyrrhus had left

LtJClNUS, M. ANNAEUS (-i), usually
called LUCAN, a Roman poet, bom at Cor-
duba in Spain, a.d. 39. His father was L.
Annaeus Mella, a brother of M. Seneca, the
philosopher. Lucan was brought up at Rome at
an early age. He embarked in the conspiracy
of Fiso against the life of Nero ; and upon the
discovery of the plot was compelled fo put an
end to his life. He died a.d. 65, in the 26th
year of his age. There is extant an heroic
poem, by Lucan, in 10 books, entitled Fliar.
salittf in which the progress of the struggle
between Caesa and Pompey is fully detailed.
The 10th book is imperfect, Eindthe narrative
breaks oflf abruptly in the middle of the
Alexandrian war.

L0CANUS, OCELLUS. [Ocellus.]

LUCCEIUS (-i), L., an old friend and
neighbour of Cicero, was an unsuccessful
candidate for the consulship, along with Julius
Caesar, in b.c. 60. He wrote a contemi>o-
raneous history of Rome, commencing with
the Social or Marsio war.

LUCERIA (-ae : Lucera), sometimes called
NUCERIA, a town in Apulia on the borders
of Samnium, and subsequently a Roman

LUCIaNUS (-i), usually called LUCIAN, a
Greek writer, bom at Samosata, the capital
of Gommagrene, in Syria, flourished in the
reign of M. Aurelius. He practised for
some time as an advocate at Antioch, and
afterwards travelled through Greece, giving
instruction in rhetoric. Late in life he
obtained the office of procurator of part of
Egjrpt. The most important of Lucian's
writings are his Dialogues. They are
treated in the greatest possible variety of
style, from seriousness down to the broadest
humour and buffoonery. Their subjects and
tendency, too, vary considerably ; for while
some are employed in attacking the heathen
philosophy and religion, others are mere pic-
tures of manners without any polemic drift.
Lucian's merits as a writer consist in his
knowledge of human nature, his strong com-
mon sense, and the simplici^ and Attic grace
of his diction.

LUCIFER (.gri), or PHOSPHORUS (-i),
that is, the bringer of light, is the name of
the planet Ycnus, when seen in the morning
before sunrise. The same planet was called
HesperuSy Vesperugo^ Vesper^ Noct^fer^ or
NoctumuSf when it appeared in the heavens
after sunset. Lucifer as a personification is
called a son of Astraeus and Aurora or Eos,
of Cephalus and Aurora, or of Atlas. By
Philonis he is said to have been the father of
Ceyx. He is also called the father of Daeda-
lion and of the Hesperides. Lucifer is also a
surname of several goddesses of light, as
Artemis, Aurora, and Hecate.

LUCILIUS (-i), C, the Roman satirist, was
bom at Suessa of the Aurunci, b.c 148, and
died at Naples, 103, in the 46th year of his
age. He lived upon terms of the closest
familiarity with Scipio and Laelius. He was
the first to mould Roman satire into that
form which afterwards received full develop-
ment in the hands of Horace, Fersius, and

LUcINA (-ae), the goddess of Ught, or
rather the goddess that brings to light, and
hence the goddess that presides over the birth
of children. It was therefore used as a sur-
name of Juno and Diana. Lucina corresponded
to the Greek goddesb Ilithtia.

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LUCRExtA (-ae), the wife of L. Tarqui-
nins CoUatinus, whose rape by Sex. Tarqninius
led to the dethronement of Tarquinius Super-
bus and the establishment of the republic.


LUCRETILIS (-is), a pleasant mountain
in the country of the Sabines, overhanging
Horace's villa.

LUCRETIuS CARUS, T.,the Roman poet,
bom B.C. 95, is said to have been driven
mad by a love potion, and to have periled
by his own hand, b.c. 52 or 51. It is
however not improbable that the story of
the love potion and of his death was an
invention of some enemy of the Epicureans.
Lucretius is the author of a philosophical
poem, in heroic hexameters, divided into 6
books, addressed to C. Memmius Gemellus,
who was praetor in 58, and entitled De Eerum
Natwa. It contains an exposition of the
doctrines of Epicurus. This poem has been
admitted by all modem critics to be the
greatest of didactic poems. The most abstruse
speculations are clearly explained in majestic
verse ; while the subject, which in itself was
dry and dull, is enlivened by digressions of
power and beauty.

LUORINUS (-i), LACUS, was properly the
inner part of the Sinus Cumanus or Puteo-
lanus, a bay on the coast of Campania,
bcftween the promontory Misenum and
Puteoli, running a considerable way inland.
But at a very early period the Lucrine lake
was separated from the remainder of the bay
by a d Jke 8 stadia in length, and thus assumed
the character of an inland lake. Its waters
still remained salt, and were celebrated for
their oyster beds. Behind the Lucrine lake
was another lake called Lacus Avbbntjs. In
the time of Augustus, Agrippa made a
communication between the lake Avemus
and the Lucrine lake, and also between
the Lucrine lake and the Sinus Cumanus,
thus forming out of the 3 the celebrated
Julian Harbour. The Lucrine lake was
filled up by a volcanic emption in 1538,
when a conical mountain rose in its place,
called Monte Nuovo.

LtJCULLUS, L. LICINIUS (-i), celebrated
as the conqueror of Mithridates, fought on
the side of Sulla in the civil wars with the
Marian party, was praetor b.c. 77, and consul
74. In the latter year he refceived the
conduct of the war against Mithridates,
which he carried on for 8 years with great
success. [MrraaiDATES.] But being unable
to bring the war to a conclusion in con-
sequence of the mutinous disposition of
his troops, he was superseded in the command
by Acilius Glabrio, b.c. 67. Glabrio however
never took the command ; but in the follow-

ing year (66),_Lucullu8 had to resign the
command to Pompey, who had been appointed
by the Manilian law to supersede both him
and Glabrio. On his retum to Rome
Lucullus devoted himself to a life of indolence
and luxury, and lived in a style of extraor-
dinary magnificence. He died in 57 or 56.
He was the first to introduce cherries into
Italy, which he had brought with him ftom
Cerasus in Pontus. He was a patron of the
poet Archias, and of literary men in general.
He also composed a history of the Marsic
war in Greek.

LltCt^IO. [TAEauiNirs.]

LUGDCNUM (-i). (1) {Lyon\ the chief
town of Gallia Lugdunensis, situated at the
foot of a hill at the confluence of the Arar
{S(^ne) and the Rhodanus {Rhone) ^ was made-
a Roman colony b.c. 43, and became under
Augustus the capital of the province, and the
residence of the Roman governor. Lugdunum
is memorable in the history of the Christian
church as the seat of the bishopric of
Irenaeus. — (2) L. Batavoexjm {Ley den) ^ the
chief town of the Batavi. [Batavi.]

LtNA (-ae). (1) The goddess of the
Moon. [Selenb.] — (2) {iMni)^ an Etruscan
town, situated on the left bank of the Macra,
about 4 miles from the coast, originally
formed part of Liguria, but became the most
N.-ly city of Etmria, when Augustus ex-
tended the boundaries of the latter country
as far as the Macra. It possessed a large and
commodious harbour at the mouth of the
river, called Lunae Portus {OtUf of Spezzia),
In b^c. 177 Luna was made a Roman colony.

LUPERCUS (-i), an ancient Italia9 divi-
nity, worshipped by shepherds as the protector
of their flocks against wolves. The Romans
sometimes identified Lupercus with the
Arcadian Pan. Re8i>ecting the festival cele-
brated in honour of Lupercus and his priests,
the Lupcrci, see Diet, of Ant.

LUPPIA or LUPIA (-ae : Lippe)^ a river
in the N. W. of Germany, falling into the
Rhine at Wesel in Westphalia^ and on which
the Romans built a fortress of the same

. LtJPUS, RtriLIUS (-i), the author of an
extant rhetorical treatise in 2 books, entitled
Be Figuria Sententiarum et Elocutionis^ ap-
pears to have lived in the time of Augustus.

LtJSlTANIA, LtJSITANI. [Hispania.]

LtTATIUS CAT0LUS. [Catulus.]

LtJTfixiA (-ae), or, more commonly,
LxjTBTiA Pajusiobum {Paris)^ the capital of
the Parisii in Gallia Lugdunensis, was
situated on an island in the Sequana {Seine),
and was connected with the banks of the
river by 2 wooden bridges. Under the em-
perors it became a place of importance, and

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the chief naval station on the Sequana. Here
Julian was proclaimed emperor, a.d. 360.

L'tCABETTUS (-i : St. Oeorge)^ a monn-
tain in Attica, belonging to the range of
Pentelious, close to the walls of Athens on
the N.E. of the city.

LtCAEUS or Ltc£US (-1), a lofty moun-
tain in Arcadia, N.W. of Megalopolis, one of
the chief seats of the worship of Zeus (Jupi-
ter), and of Pan, each of whom was therefore
called Lycaetu,

L'tCAMBES. [Archilochus.]

L'tCAON (-5nis), king of Arcadia, son of
Pelasgus, an impious king, who served
before Zeus (Jupiter), a dish of human flesh,
when the god visited him. Lycaon and all
his sons, with the exception of Nyctimus,
were killed by Zeus with a flash of lightning,
or according to others, were changed into
wolves. — Callisto, the daughter of Lycaon, is
said to have been changed into the constella-
tion of the Bear, whence she is called by the
poets Lycaonis Arctos, lycaonia ArctoSf or
Lycaonia VirgOf or by her patronymic

LtCAONIA (-ae), a district of Asia Minor,
forming the S.E. part of Phrygia. The
people were, so far as can be traced, an
aboriginal race, speaking a language which
is mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles as a
distinct dialect : they were warlike, and
especially skilled in archery.

LtCEUM (-i), the name of one of the 3
ancient gymnasia at Athens, called after the
temple of Apollo Lyceus, in its neighbourhood.
It was situated S.E. of the city, outside the
walls, and just above the river Ilissus. It is
celebrated as the place where Aristotle and
the Peripatetics taught.

Lt'CEUS (-i), a surname of Apollo, the
meaning of which is not quite certain. Some
derive it from A^«»s, a wolf, so that it would
mean " the wolf-slayer ;" others from XiJ«ij,
light, according to which it would mean
** the giver of light ;" and others again from
the country of Lycia.

LYCHNIDUS (-i), more rarely LTCHNI-
DIUM (-i), or LYCHNIS (-Idis), the ancient
capital of the Dessaretii in the interior of
lUyricum, situated on a height on the N.
bank of the lake Lychnltis.

L"?ciA (-ae), a small district on the S. side
of Asia Minor, between Caria and Pamphylia.
According to tradition, the most ancient
name of the coxmtry was Miiyas, and the
earliest inhabitants were called Miiyae, and
afterwards Sol^mi : subsequently the Termi-
lae, from Crete, settled in the country : and
lastly, the Athenian Lyous, the son of Pandion,
fled from his brother Aegeus to Lycia, and
gave his name to the country. Homer, who

gives Lycia a prominent place in the Iliad,
represents its chieftains, Glaucus and
Sarpedon, as descended from the royal family
of Argos (Aeolids). He speaks of the Solymi
OS a warlike race, inhabiting the mountains,
against whom the Greek hero BeUerophontes
is sent to flght, by his relative the king of
Lycia. Besides the legend of Bellerophon
and the chimaera, Lycia is the scene of
another popular Greek story, that of the
Harpies and the daughters of Pandareos ; and
memorials of both are preserved on the
Lycian monuments now in the British
Museum. On the whole, it is clear that
Lycia was colonised by the Greeks at a very
early period, and that its historical inhabi-
tants were Greeks, though with a mixture of
native blood. The earlier names were pre-
served in the district in the N. of the country
called Milyas, and in the mountains called
Solyma. The Lycians always kept the repu-
tation they have in Homer, as brave warriors.
They and the Cilicians were the only people
W. of the Halys whom Croesus did not con-
quer, and they were the last who resisted the
Persians. [Xanthus.]

L"fciUS (-i), the Lycian^ a surname of
Apollo, who was worshipped in several places
of Lycia, especially at Patara, where he had
an oracle. Hence the Lyciae sortes in Yirgil
are the responses of the oracle at Patara.

LtCOM£D£S (-is), king of the Dolopians,
in the island of Scyros, to whose court
Achilles was sent, disguised as a maiden, by
his mother Thetis, who was anxious to
prevent his going to the Trojan war. Here
Achilles became by Deidamla, the daughter
of Lycomedes, the father of Pyrrhus or Ne-
optolemus. Lydomedes treacherously killed
Theseus by thrusting him down a rock.

LYCON (-6nis), of Troas, a distinguished
Peripatetic philosopher, and the disciple of
Straton, whom he succeeded as the head of
the Peripatetic school, b.c. 272.

Lt^COPHRON (-finis), a grami^arian and
poet, was a native of Chalcis in Euboea, and
lived at Alexandria, under Ptolemy Phila.
delphus (B.C. 285 — 247). He was the author
of an extant poem, entitled Cassandra or
Alexandra, in which Cassandra is made to
prophesy the fall of Troy, with numerous
other events. The obscurity of this work ia
proverbial. Among the numerous ancient
commentaries on the poem, the most impor-
tant are the Scholia of Isaac and John Tzetzes,
which are far more valuable than the poem

Lt COpSlIS (-is), a city of Upper Egypt,
on the W. bank of the Kile, between Hermo-
polls and Ptolemais.

l1^C0r£A (-ae), an ancient town at the

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foot of Mt. Lycorea, which was the southern
of the 2 peaks of Mt. Parnassus. [Par-
nassus.] Hence Apollo derived the surname
of Lcyoreus.

LtCORIS. [Cttheris.]

LYCTUS or LYTTUS (-i), an important
town in the E. of Crete, situated on a height,
80 stadia from the coast. It is said to have
"been a Spartan colony.

LtCURGUS (-i). (1) Son of Dryas, and
king of the Edones in Thrace, famous for his
persecution of Dionysus (Bacchus) and of his
worship in Thrace. He was driven mad by
the gods on account of his impiety, and was
•subsequently killed, but the manner of his


Ljcurjfus infuriate. (Osterley, Denk. der alt. Kunst,
part 2, tav. 37.)

death is variously related. — (2) The Spartan
legislator, was the son of Eunomus, king of
"Sparta, and brother of Polydectes. The
latter succeeded his father as king of Sparta,
and afterwards died, leaving his queen with
tihild. The ambitious woman proposed to
Lycurgus to destroy her oflFspring if he would
share the throne with her. He seemingly
consented ; but when she had given birth to
a son (Charilaus), he openly proclaimed him
king ; and as next of kin, acted as ^is
guardian. But to avoid all suspicion of
ambitious designs, Lycurgus left Sparta, and
«et out on his celebrated travels. He is said
to have visited Crete, Ionia, and Egypt, and
to have penetrated even as far as India. His
return to Sparta was hailed by all parties.
Sparta was in a state of anarchy and licen-
tiousness, and he was considered as the man
who alone could cure the growing diseases of

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