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the state. He undertook the task ; and not-
withstanding some opposition, he made a
new division of property, and remodelled
the whole constitution, military and civil.
After Lycurgus had obtained for his insti-
tutions an approving oracle of the god of
Delphi, he exacted a promise from the people
not to make any alterations in his laws before
bis return. He now left Sparta to finish his

life in voluntary exile, in order that Li«
countrymen might be bound by their oath to
preserve his constitution inviolate for ever.
Where and how he died, nobody could tell.
He was honoured as a god at Sparta with a
temple and yearly sacrifices, down to the
latest times. The date of Lycurgus is
variously given, but it is impossible to place
it later than u.c. 825. Lycurgus was re-
garded through all subsequent ages as the
legislator of Sparta, and therefore almost all
the Spartan institutions were ascribed to him
as their author ; but we must not imagine
that they were all his work. — (3) An Attic
orator, bom at Athens, about b.c. 396, was a
disciple of Plato and Isocrates, a warm sup-
porter of the policy of Demosthenes, and one
of the most virtuous citizens and upright
statesmen of his age. He was thrice ap.
pointed TamiaSf or manager of the public
revenue. He died in 323. Only one of his
orations has come down to us.

LtCUS (-i). (1) Of Thebes, put to death
with his wife Dirce, by Amphion and Zethus,
on account of the cruelty wiUi which they
had treated Antiope, the mother of the two
latter by Zeus (Jupiter). For details see
Amphion. (2) Son of Pandion, was expelled
by his brother, Aegeus, and took refuge in the
country of the Termili, which was called
Lycia after him. The Lyceum at Athens is
said to have derived its name from him. — (3)
Name of several rivers, which are said to be so
called from the impetuosity of their current.
1. In Bithynia, falling into the sea S. of
Heraclea Pontica. . 2. In Pontus, rising in
the mountains on the N. of Armenia Minor,
and flowing W. into the Iris at Eupatoria.
3. In Phrygia, flowing from E. to W. past
Colossae and Laodicea into the Maeander.

LYDDA (-orum), a town of Palestine,
S.E. of Joppa, and N.W. of Jerusalem, subse-
quent! jr^ called Diospolis.

LYDIA (-ae), a district of Asia Minor, in
the middle of the W. side of the peninsula,
between Mysia on the N. and Caria on the
S., and between Phrygia on the E. and the
Aegean Sea on the W. In these boundaries
the strip of coast belonging to Ionia is
included, but the name is sometimes used in
a narrower signification, so as to exclude
Ionia. Lydia is divided into 2 unequal
valleys by the chain of Mt. Tmolus ; of which
the S. and smaller is watered by the river
Catsteb, and the N. forms the great plain of
the Herhus. In early times the country had
another name, MaeSnla, by which alone it U
known to Homer. Lydia was an early seat
of Asiatic civilisation, and exerted a very
important influence on the Greeks. The
Lydian monarchy, which was founded at

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Sardis, grew up into an empire, tinder which
the many different tribes of Asia Minor W.
of the river Halys, were for the first time
united. The names and computed dates of
the Lydian kings are : — 1. Gtobs, b.c. 716 —
678; 2. Ardts, 678 — 620; 3. Sadtattbs,
629 — 617; 4. Altattks, 617 — 560; 5.
Cboxsvs, 560 (or earlier) — 546 ; under
whose names an account is given of the rise
of the Lydian empire in Asia Minor, and of
its overthrow by the Persians under Cyrus.
Under the Persians, Lydia and Mysia formed
the 2nd satrapy ; after the Macedonian con.
quest, Lydia belonged first to the kings of
Syria, and next (after the defeat of Antiochus
the Great by the Romans) to those of Per-
gamus, and so passed, by the bequest of
Attains ni., to the Romans, under whom it
formed part of the province of Asia.

LYDLAS or LUDIAS (.ae), a river in
Macedonia, falling into the Axius, a short
distance ft*om the Thermaio gulf. Herodotus,
by mistake, makes the Lydias \mite with the

LYGII or LIGII (.5rum), an important
people in Germany, between ihe Viadus
{Oder) and the Vistula.

LYNCESTIS (-Idis), a district in the S.W.
of Macedonia, upon the frontiers of Illyria,
inhabited by the Ltncestae, an lUyrian
people. The ancient capital of the country
was Ltncts, though Heraclsa at a later
time became the chief town in the district.
Near Lyncus was a river, whose waters are
said to have been as intoxicating as wine.

LYNCEUS (.«, .el or Ji6s). (1) One
of the 50 sons of Aegypius, whose life was
saved by his wife Hypemmestra, when all his
brothers were murdered by the daughters of
Danaus. [Aeoyptus.] Lynceus succeeded
Danaus as king of Argos. — (2) Son of Apha.
reus and Arene, and brother of Idas, was one
of the Argonauts, and famous for his keen
sight. He was slain by Pollux. For details
respecting his death, see Dioscuri.

LYNCUS (-i), king of Scythia, endeavoured
to murder Triptolcmus, who came to him
with the gifts of Ceres, but he was meta.
morphosed by the goddess into a lynx.

LYRCEA (-ae) or LYRCEUM (4), a
«maU town in Argolis, situated on a moun-
tain of the same name.

LYRNESSUS (-i), a town in the Troad,
the birthplace of BrisSis.

LYSANDER (-dri), one of the most dis-
tinguished of the Spartan generals and
diplomatists. Having been appointed to the
command of the Spartan fleet, off the coast of
Asia Minor, he gained the favour of Cyrus,
who supplied him with large sums of money
to pay his sailors. In b.c. 405 he brought

the Peloponnesian war to a conclusion, by
the defeat of the Athenian fleet off Aegos-
potami, and in the following year he entered
Athens in triumph. It was through his
influence that Agesilaus, the brother of Agis,
obtained the Spartan throne in opposition to
Leotychides, the reputed son of the latter.
Lysander accompanied Agesilaus to Asia;
but the king purposely thwarted all his
designs, and refused all the favours which he
asked. On his return to Sparta, Lysander
resolved to bring about a change in the
Spartan constitution, by abolishing hereditary
royalty, and making the throne elective.
But before he could carry his enterprise into
effect, he fell in battle under the walls of
Haliartus, b.c. 395.

Li^SIAS (-ae), an Attic orator, was bom at
Athens, b.c. 458, but was not an Athenian
citizen, being the son of Cephalus, a native of
Syracuse. At the age of 1 5, Lysias joined the
Athenians who went as colonists to Thurii, in
Italy, 443 ; but he returned to Athens after the
defeat of the Athenians in Sicily, 411. During
the rule of the 30 Tyrants (404), he was thrown
into prison ; but he escaped, and joined Thra-
sybulus and the exiles, to whom he rendered
important assistance. He died in 378, at the
age of 80. Lysias wrote a great number of
orations for others, of which several are ex-
tant. They are distinguished by grace and

LYSIMACHIA, or -£A (-ae), an import-
ant town of Thrace, on the gulf of Melas, and
on the isthmus connecting the Thracian
Chersonesus with the mainland, founded b.c.
309 by Lysimachus, who removed to his new
city the inhabitants of the neighbouring town
of Cardia.

LYSIMXCHUS (-i), one of Alexander's
generals, obtained Thrace in the division of
the provinces, after Alexander's death (b.c.
323), and assumed the title of king in 306.
He joined the other generals of Alexander in
opposing Antigonus, and it was he and Se-
leucus who gained the decisive victory at
Ipsus over Antigonus, in which the latter
fell (301). In 291 Lysimachus was taken
prisoner by Dromichaetes, king of the Getae,
whose country he had invaded, but he was
restored to liberty by the latter. In 287
Lysimachus and Pyrrhus expelled Demetrius
from Macedonia. Pyrrhus, for a time,
obtained possession of the Macedonian throne ;
but in the following year he was driven out
of the country by Lysimachus, who now
became king of Macedonia. Towards the end
of his reign the aged Lysimachus put to death
his son Agathocles,- at the instigation of hio
wife, Arsinoe, daughter of Ptolemy Soter,
This bloody deed alienated the minds of his

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subjects; and Seleucus invaded the do-
minions of Lysimachus. The two monarchs
met in the plain of CJorus (Corupedion) ; and
Lysimachus fell in the battle that ensued, b.c.
281, in his 80th year.

LTSIPPUS (-i), of Sicyon, one of the most
distin^ished Greek statuaries, was a con-
temporary of Alexander the Great, who is
reported to have said that no one should
paint him but Apelles, and no one make his
statue but Lysippus.

LTSIS (-Idis), an eminent Pythagorean
philosopher, the teacher of Epaminondas.

LYSTRA (-ae), a city of Lycaonia, on the
confines of Isauria, celebrated as one chief
scene of the preaching of Paul and Barnabas.

■JIJACAE (-arum). (1) A people on the E.
-"-■■ coast of Arabia Felix, probably about
Muscat, — (2) An inliand people of Libya, in
the part of N. Africa between the Syrtes.

MACAREUS (-ei), son of Aeolus, who
committed incest with his sister Canace.
[Canace.] Hence Isse, the daughter of
Macareusjs called Macareis.

MACCABAEI (-orum), the descendants of
the family of the heroic Judas Maccabi or
Maccabaeua, a surname which he obtained
from his glorious victories. (From the He-
brew makkaby "a hammer.") They were
also called Asamonaeif from Asamonaeus, or
Chasmon, the ancestor of Judas Maccabaeus,
or, in a shorter form, Asmonaei or JIasmonaei,
The family first obtained distinction by their
resisting the attempts of Antiochus lY.
Epiphanes, king of Syria, to root out the
worship of Jehovah. They succeeded in de-
livering their country from the Syrian yoke,
and became the rulers of Judea.

MACEDONIA (-ae), a country in Europe,
N. of Greece, said to have been originally
named Emathia. Its boundaries before the
time of Philip, the father of Alexander, were
on the S. Olympus and the Cambunian moun-
tains, which separated it from Thessaly and
Epirus, on the E. the river Strymon, which
separated it ftom Thrace, and on th6 N. and
W. Illyria and Paeonia. Macedonia was
greatly enlarged by the conquests of Philip.
He added to his kingdom Paeonia on the N. ;
a part of Thrace on the E. as far as the
river Nestus, which Thracian district was
usually called Macedonia a^ecta ; the penin-
sula Chalcidice on the S. ; and on the W. a
part of Illyria, as far as the lake Lychnitis.
On the conquest of the country by the Romaiis,
B.C. 168, Macedonia was divided into 4 dis-
tricts, independent of one another ; but the
whole country was formed into a Roman

province after the conquest of the Achaeans,
in 146. The great bulk of the inhabitants
of Macedonia consisted of Thracian and
Illyrian tribes. At an early period some
Greek tribes settled in the S. part of the
country. They are said to have come from
Argos, and to have been led by the 3 sons
of Temenus, the Heraclid. Perdiccas, the
youngest of the three, was looked upon as the
founder of the Macedonian monarchy. A
later tradition, however, regarded Caranus
who was also a Heraclid from Arg^s, as the
founder of the monarchy. These Greek
settlers intermarried with the original inha-
bitants of the country. The dialect which
they spoke was akin to the Doric, but it
contained many barbarous words and forms ;
and the Macedonians accordingly were never
regarded by the other Greeks as genuine
Hellenes. Moreover, it was only in the S,
of Macedonia that the Greek language was
spoken. Very little is known of the history
of Macedonia till the reign of Amyntas I.,
who was a contemporary of Darius Hystaspis ;
but from that time their history is more or
less intimately connected with that of Greece,
till at length Philip, the father of Alexander
the Great, became the virtual master of the
whole of Greece. The conquests of Alexander
extended the Macedonian supremacy over a
great part of Asia; and the Macedonian
kings continued to exercise their sovereignty
over Xlreece till the conquest of Perseus by
the Romans, 168, brought the Macedonian
monarchy to a close.

MACELLA (-ae), a small fortified town in
the W. of Sicily, 8.E. of Segesta.

MACER (-cri) AEMILIUS (-i). (1) A
Roman poet, was a native of Verona, and died
in Asia, b.o. 16. He wrote a poem upon birds,
snakes, and medicinal plants. — (2) We must
distinguish from Aemilius Macer of Verona,
a poet Macer, who wrote on the Trojan war,
and who must have been alive in a.d. 12,
since he is addressed by Ovid in that year
{ex Pont, ii 10, 2).

MACER, LICINIUS. [Licinixts.]

MACETAE (-Enmi), another name of the

MACHAON (-Snis), son of Aesculapius,
the surgeon of the Greeks in the Trojan war,
led, with his brother Podalirius, troops from
Tricca, Ithome, and Oechalia. He was killed
by Eurypylus, the son of Telephus, »

MACRA (-ae : Jfa^ra), a small river
rising in the Apennines and flowing into the
Ligurian sea near Luna, which, from the
time of Augustus, formed the boundary be-
tween Liguria and Etruria.

MACRI CAMPI. [Campi Maori.]


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Roman emperor, April, a.d. 217 — June, 218,
and successor of Caracalla, whom he had
caused to be assassinated. He was defeated
by the generals of Elagabalus and put to death.

MACKOBII (-orum: i.e. Long-lived)^ an
Aethiopian people in Africa, placed by He-
rodotus on the shores of the S. Ocean.

MACROBIUS (-i), a Roman grammarian,
who lived about a.d. 400, wrete several
works, of which the most important are : —
1. A treatise in 7 books, entitled Saturnalia
Omvivia^ consisting of a series of disser-
tations on history, mythology, criticism, and
various points of antiquarian research. 2. A
Commentary on Cicero's Somnium Scipionis.

MACRONES (-um), a powerful and warlike
Caucasian people on the N.E. shore of the
Pontus Euxinus.

MADtTUS (-i), a sea-port town on the
Thracian Chersonesus.

MAEANDER (-dri), a river in Asia Minor,
proverbial for its wanderings, rising in the
S. of Phrygia, close to the source of the
Marsyas, flowing between Lydia and Caria,
of which it forms the boundary, and at last
falling into the Icarian Sea between Myns
and Priene. As a god Maeander is described
as the father of the nymph Cyane, who was
the mother of Caunus. Hence the latter is
called by Ovid Maeandrius juvenis.

MAECENAS (.atis), C. CILNIUS (-1), a
Roman eques, but descended both on his
father's and mother's side from the Lucumones
of Etruria. His paternal ancestors were the
Cilniif a powerful family at Arretium, and
his maternal ancestors the Maecenates, at
Arretium. Maecenas was one of the chief
friends and ministers of Augustus, and en-
joyed for many years the confidence of the
latter. But towards the latter years of his
life a coolness sprang up between them, and
Maecenas retired entirely from public life.
He died B.C. 8. The fame of Maecenas, how-
ever, rests mainly on his patronage of lite-
rature, especially of Virgil and Horace.
Virgil was indebted to him for the recovery
of his farm, which had been appropriated by
the soldiery in the division of lands, in b.c.
41 ; and it was at the request of Maecenas
that he undertook the Oeorgics, To Horace
Maecenas was a still greater benefactor. He
presented him with the means of comfortable
subsistence, a farm in the Sabine country.


MAEDICA (-ae), the country of the Maedi,
a powerful people in the W. of Thrace, on the
W. bank of the Strymon.

MAELIUS (-i), SP., the richest of the ple-
beian knights, employed his fortune in buying
up com in Etruria in the great famine at
Rome in b.c. 440. This com he sold to the

poor at a small price, or distributed it grata,
itously. The patricians accused him of aim-
ing at the kingly power, and appointed
Cincinnatus dictator. C. Servilius Ahala,
the master of the horse, summoned Maelios
to appear before the tribunal of the dictator ;
but as he refused to go, Ahala rushed into
the crowd, and slew him. His property was
confiscated, and his house pulled down ; its
vacant site, which was called the Aequimae-
Uum, continued to subseqn^nt ages a memoria.
of his fate.

MAENADES (-um : sing. Maenas), a name
of the Bacchantes, from fMtivofMn, *< to be
mad," because they were frenzied in the wor-
ship of Dionysus or Bacchus.

MAENALUS (-i), a mountain in Arcadia,
extending from Megalopolis to Tegea, cele-
brated as the favourite haunt of the god Pan.
The Roman poets frequently use the adjec-
tives Maenalius and Maenalis as equivalent
to Arcadian.

MAENIUS (-i), C, consul b.c. 338, with
L. Furius Camillus. The 2 consuls com-
pleted the subjugation of Latium ; they were
both rewarded with a triumph, and eques-
trian statues were erected to their honour in
the forum. The statue of Maenius was placed
upon a column, called Oolumna Maenia^
which appears to have stood near the end
of the forum, on the Capitoline. Maenius,
in his censorship (b.c 318), allowed balconies
to be added to the various buildings surround-
ing the forum, in order that the spectators
might obtain more room for beholding the
games which were exhibited in the fomm :
these balcdnies were called after him Jfoeniana
(sc. aed^cia),

MAEONIA (-ae), the ancient name of Lydia.
Hence Virgil gives the name of Maeonia to
Etruria, because the Etmscans were said to
be descended from Lydians. Hence also
Homer, as a native of Maeonia, is called
Maeonidss and Maeonius senex, and his
poems the Maeoniae chartaey or Maeoniwn
carmen. [Lydia.] — ^Maeonis likewise occurs
as a surname of Omphale and of Arachne,
because both were Lydians.

MAEOTAE. [Maeotis Paltjs.]

MAEOTIS(-Wis) PALUS {Sea of Azov), an
inland sea on the borders of Europe and Asia,
N. of the Pontus Euxinus {Black Sea), with
which it commimicates by the Bosporus
CiMMERnrs. The Scythian tribes on its banks
were called by the collective name of Maeotae
or MaeotYci. The sea had also the names of
Cimmerium or Bosporicum Mare.

MAERA, the dog of Icarius, the father of
Erigone. [Icarfcs, No. 1.]

MAEVIUS, [Bavitjs.]

MAGDOLUM (0. T. Migdol), a city of

Digitized by





Lo-wer E^ypt, near the N. E. jfrontier, where
Pharaoh Necho defeated the Syrians.

MAGETOBRIA {Moigte de Broie, on the
Sa6ne), a town on the W. frontiers of the
Sequani, near which the Gauls were defeated
by the Germans shortly before Caesar's
arrival in Gaul.

MAGI (-orum), the name of the order of
priests and religious teachers among the
Medes and Persians. [Zoroastee.]



MAGNENTIUS (-i), Roman emperor in the
West, A.D. 350 — 353, obtained the throne by
the murder of Constans, but was defeated by
Constantius^ and put an end to his own life.

MAGNESIA (-ae). (l) A narrow sUp of
country along the eastern coast of Thessaly,
extending from the Peneus on the N. to the
Pagasaean gulf on the S. Its inhabitants,
the Magnetes, are said to have founded the
2 cities in Asia mentioned below. — (2) Mag-
nesia AD SiPYLUM, a city in the N.W. of
Lydia, at the foot of Mt. Sipylus, and on the
S. bank of the Hermus, famous as the scene of
the victory gained by Scipio Asiaticus over
Antiochus the Great, b.c. 190. — (3) Mag>
KEsiA ad Maeandrxtm, a city in the S.W. of
Lydia, situated on the river Lethaeus, a
tributary of the Maeander. It was destroyed
by the Cimmerians (probably about b.c. 700)
and rebuilt by colonists from Miletus.

MAGO (-onis), the name of several Car-
thaginians, of whom the most celebrated
were: — (1) Son of Hanulcar Barca, and
youngest brother of the famous Hannibal.
He carried on the war for many years in
Spain ; and after the Carthaginians had been
driven out of that country by Scipio, he
landed in Liguria, where he remained 2 years
(B.C. 205 — 203). — (2) The author of a work
upon ag^culture in the Punic language, in
28 books, which was translated into Latin by
order of the Roman senate.

MAGONTIACUM. [Mooontiacum.]

MAI A (-ae), daughter of Atlas and PlelSne,
was the eldest of the Pleiades, and the most
beautiful of the 7 sisters. In a grotto of Mt.
Cylleng, in Arcadia, she became by Zeus
(Jupiter) the mother of Hermes (Mercury).
Areas, the son of Zeus by Callisto, was given
to her to be reared. [Pleiades.]

MALAGA (-ae : Malaga) ^ an important
town on the coast of Hisp{uiia Baetica, and
on a river of the same name, founded by the

MALEA or £A (-ae), a promontory on the
8.E. of Laconia, separating the Argolio and
Laconic gulfs.


UALIS, a district in the S. of Thessaly, on

the shores of the Maliacus Sinus-, and opposite
the N.W. point of the island of Euboea. It
extended as far as the pass of Thermopylae.
Its inhabitants, the Malienses, were Dorians,
and belonged to the Amphictyonic league.

MALLI (-drum), an Indian people on both
sides of the Htdraotes : their capital is sup-
posed to have been on the site of the cele-
brated fortress of MooUan,

MALLUS (-i), a very ancient city of
Cilicia, on a hill E. of the mouth of the river
Pyramus, said to have been founded at the
time of the Trojan war by Mopsus and Am-

MAMERCUS (-i), the name of a distin-
guished family of the Aemilia gens in the
early times of the republic.

MAMERS (-tis), the Oscan name of the
god Mars.

MAMERTINI. [Messana].

MAmIlIUS (-i), the name of a diatin-
gulshed family in Tusculum. It was to a
member of this family, Octavius Mamilius,
that Tarquinius betrothed his daughter ; and
on his expulsion from Rome, his son-in-law
roused the Latin people against the infant
republic, and perished in the great battle at
the lake Regillus. The Mamilii afterwards
removed to Rome.


MAMURRA (-ae), a Roman eques, bom at
Formiae, was the commander of the en-
gineers {jpraefectus fabrum) in Julius Caesar's
army in Gaul, and amassed great riches.
Horace calls Formiae, in ridicule, Mamur~
rarum urhSy from which we may infer that
the name of Mamurra had become a byeword
of contempt.

MANClNUS, CHOSTILIUS (-i),consulB.c.
137, was defeated by the Numantines, and
purchased his safety by making a peace with
them. The senate refused to recognise it,
and went through the hypocritical ceremony
of delivering him over to the enemy, who re-
fused to accept him.

MANDnBlI (-6rum), a people in Gallia
Lugdunensis, in the modem ^wr^undy, whose
chief town was Alesia.

MANDORIA (-ae), a town in Calabria, on
the road from Tarentum to Hydruntum.

MANES (-Yum), the name which the Ro-
mans gave to the souls of the departed, who
were worshipped as gods. Hence on sepul-
chres we find D. M. S., that is BU Manibua
Sacrum.^ [Lares.]

MANETHO (-6nis), an Egyptian priest in
the reign of the first Ptolemy, who wrote in
Greek an account of the religion and history
of his country. His history of Egypt con-
tained an account of the different dynasties
of kings, compiled from genuine documents.

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The "work itself is lost; but a list of the
dynasties is preserved in Julius Africanus
and Eusebius.

MANIlIUS (-i). (1) C, tribune of the
plebs, B.C. 66, proposed the law (ManiliaLex),
granting to Pompey the command of the war
against Mithridates, and which Cicero sup-
ported in an extant oration. — (2) A Roman
poet, who lived in the time of Augustus, and
the author of an extant astrological poem in
5 books, entitled Astronomiea,

M. MANLIUS (-i), consul B.C. 392, took
refuge in the capitol when Rome was taken
by the Gauls in 390. One night, when the
Gauls endeavoured to ascend the capitol,
Manlius was roused from his sleep by the
cackling of the geese ; collecting hastily a
body of men, he succeeded in driving back
the enemy, who had just reached the summit
of the hilL From this heroic deed he is said
to have received the surname of Capitolints.
[n 385, he defended the cause of the ple-
beians, who were suflFcring severely from the
harsh and cruel treatment of their patrician
creditors. In the follo\y^ing year, he was
charged with high treason by the patricians ;
and being condemned to death by the people,
he was hurled down the Tarpeian rock by the
tribunes. The members of the Manila gens
accordingly resolved that none of them should
ever bear in future the praenomen of Marcus.

MANLIUS TORQUlTUS. [Torquattjs.]

MANTINEA (-ae), one of the most ancient
and important towns in Arcadia, situated on
the small river Ophis, near the centre of the
E. frontier of the country. It is celebrated

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