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Roman empire.



AGRICOLA (-ae), CN. JtJiJUS (^l), bom
June 13th, a.d. 37, at Forum Julii (JV-<fu«, in
Provence), was the son of Julius Graecinus,
who was executed by Caligula,and of Julia Pro-
cilia. He received a careful education ; he first
served in Britain, a.d. 60, xmder Suetonius
Paulinus ; was quaestor in Asia in 63 ; was
governor of Aquitania from 74 to 76 ; and
was consul in 77, when he betrothed his
daughter to the historian Tacitus, and in the
following year gave her to him in marriage.
In 78 he received the government of Britain,
which he held for 7 years, during which time
he subdued the whole of the coimtry with the
exception of the highlands of Caledonia, and
by his wise administration introduced among
the inhabitants the language and civilisation
of Rome. He was recalled in 85 through the
jealousy of Domitian, and on his return lived
in retirement till his death in 93, which
according to some was occasioned by poison,
administered by order of Domitian. Hi»
character is drawn in the brightest colours
by his son-in-law Tacitus, whose Life of
Agricola has come down to us.

AGRIGENTUM (-i), called ACRAGAS
(-antis) by the Greeks {Girgenti)f a city
on the S. coast of Sicily, about 2i miles
from the sea. It was celebrated for its
wealth and populousness, and was one
of the most splendid cities of the ancient
world. It was founded by a Doric colony
from Gela, about b.c. 579, was under the
government of the cruel tyrant PhalSris
(about 560), and subsequently under that of
Theron (488-472). It was destroyed by the
Carthaginians (405), and, though rebuilt by
Timoleon, it never regained its former great-
ness. It came into the power of the Romans
in 210. It was the birthplace of Empe-
docles. There are still gigantic remains of
the ancient city.

AGRIPPA (-ae), HERODES (-is). (1) Called
" Agrippa the Great," son of Aristobulus and
Berenice, and grandson of Herod the Great.
He was educated at Rome, and live4 on inti-
mate terms with the future emperors Caligula
and Claudius. Calig^ula gave him the
tetrarchies of Abilene, Batanaea, Trachonitis,
and Auranitis ; and Claudius annexed Judaea
and Samaria to his dominions. His govern-
ment was exceediDgly popular amongst the
Jews. It was probably to increase his popu-
larity with the Jews that he caused the Apostle
James to be beheaded, and Peter to be cast
into prison (a.d. 44). The manner of his
death, which took place at Caesarea in the
same year, is related in Acts xii. — (2) Son of
the preceding, king of Chalcis. On the break-
ing out of the Jewish war he sided with the
Romans, and after the capture of Jerusalem,



c 2



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AGRIPPA.



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AHENOBARBUS.



he went with his sister Berenice to BrOme,
and died in the 70th year of his age, a.d. 100.
It was before this Agrippa that the apostle
Paul made his defence, a.d. 60 {ActSf zxt.
xxvi.)*

AGBIPPA (-ae), M. VIPSANIUS (4), bom
in B.C. 63, of an obscure family, studied with
young Octavius (afterwards the emperor Au-
gustus) at Apollonia in lUyria ; and upon the
murder of Caesar in 44, was one of the friends
of Octavius, who advised him to proceed im-
mediately to Bome. In the civil wars which
followed, and which terminated in giving
Augustus the sovereignty of the Roman
world, Agrippa took an active part ; and his
military abilities contributed greatly to that
result. He commanded the fleet of Augustus
at the battle of Actium in 31. He was thrice
consul, and in his third consulship in 27 he
built the Pantheon. In 21 he married Julia,
daughter of Augustus. He continued to be
employed in various military commands till
his death in b.c. 12. By his first wife Pom-
ponia, Agrippa^ had Yipsania, married to
Tiberius, the successor of Augustus ; and by
Julia he had 2 daughters, Julia and Agrippina,
and 3 sons, Caius Caesar, Lucius Caesar
[Cabsar], and Agrippa Postumus : the last
was banished by Augustus to the island of
Planasia, and was put to death by Tiberius at
his accession, a.d. 14.

AGRIPPINA (-ae) . (1) Daughter of M.Vip-
sanius Agrippa and of Julia, the daughter of
Augustus, married Germanicus, by whom she
had 9 children, among whom were the emperor
Caligula, and Agrippina, the mother of Nero.
She was distinguished for her virtues and
heroism, and shared all the dangers of her
husband's campaigns. On his death in a.d. 1 7
she returned to Italy ; but the favour with
which she was received by the people in-
creased the hatred which Tiberius and his
mother Livia had long entertained towards
her. At length in a.d. 30 Tiberius banished
her to the island of Pandataria, where she
died 3 years afterwards, probably by volun-
tary starvation. — (2) Daughter of Germanicus
and Agrippina [No. 1], and mother of the
emperor Nero, was bom at Oppidum Ubiorum,
afterwards called in honour of her Colonia
Agrippina, now Oologns, [Colonia.] She was
beautifiil and intelligent, but licentious, cruel,
and ambitious. She was first married to Cn.
Domitius Ahenobarbus (a.d. 28), by whom
she had a son, afterwards the emperor Nero ;
next to Crispus Passienus; and thirdly to
the emperor Claudius (49), although she was
his niece. In 50 she prevailed upon Claudius
to adopt her son, to the prejudice of his own
son Britannicus ; and in ord^ to secure the
sucoeesion for her son, she poisoned the



emperor in 54. The young emperor soon
became tired of the ascendancy of his mother,
and after making several attempts to shake
off her authority, he caused her to be assas-
sinated in 59.

AGRIUS (-i), son of Porthaon and Euryte,
and father of Thersites and 5 other sons.

AGYIEUS (trisyll.), a surname of Apollo,
as the protector of the streets and public
places.

AGTLLA. [Caxbb.]

AGtRIUM, a town in Sicily on the Cya-
mosorus, N.W. of Centuripae and N.E. of
Enna, the birthplace of the historian Di(^orus.

AHlLA (-ae), C. SERVILIUS (-i), magister
equitum in b.c. 439 to the dictator L. Cincin-
natus, when he slew Sp. Mazlivs in the
forum, because he refused to appear before the
dictator. Ahala was brought to trial, and only
escaped condemnation by a voluntary exile.

AHARNA (-ae), a town in Etruria, N.E. of
Volsinii.

AHENOBARBUS, (-1), the name of a dis-
tinguished family of the Domitia gens. They
are said to have obtained the surname of Ahe-
nobarbus, i. e. "Brazen-Beard" or "Red-
Beard," because the Dioscuri (Castor and
Pollux) announced to one of their ancestors
the victory of the Romans over the Latins at
lake Regillus (b.o. 496), and, to confirm the
truth of what they said, stroked his black hair
and beard, which immediately became red. —
(1) Cn. Domitixts Ahenobarbus, consul, b.c.
122, conquered the Allobroges in Gaul, at
the confluence of the Sulga and Rhodanus.
— (2) Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, tribune of
the plebs, 104, brought forward the law {Lex
Domitia) f by which the election of the priests
was transferred from the collegia to the
people. The people afterwards elected him
Pontifex Maximus out of gratitude. He was '
consul in 96, and censor in 92, with Licinius
Crassus, the orator. — (3) L. Domitius Ahe-
nobarbus, married Porcia, the sister of
M. Cato, and was a staunch and courageous
supporter of the aristocratical party. He
was aedile in 61, praetor in 58, and
consul in 54. On the breaking out of the
civil war in 49 he threw himself into Cor-
flnium, but was compelled by his own troops
to surrender to Caesar. He next went to
Massilia, and, after the surrender of that town,
repaired to Pompey in Greece : he fell in the
battle of Pharsalia (48), where he commanded
the left wing, and, according to Cicero's asser-
tion in the second Philippic, by the hand of
Antony. — (4) Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus.
son of No. 8, was taken with his father at
Corfinium (49), was present at the battle ol
Pharsalia (48), and returned to Italy in 46,
when he was pardoned by Caesar. He ac-



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AIDES.



21



ALBA.



companied Antony in his campaigrn against
the Parthians in 36. He was consul in 32,
and deserted to Augustus shortly before the
battle of Actium. — (5) Cn. Dourrnrs Ahsno-
BARBxrs, consul A.D. 32, married Agrippina,
daughter of Germanicus, and was father of
the emperor Nero. [Aohippina.]
AIDES or AIDONEUS. [Hadbs.]
AITJS (4) LOCDTIUS (-i) or LOQUENS
(•■entis), a Roman divinil^. A short time
before the Gauls took Rome (b.c. 390) a
voice was heard at Rome during the silence
of eight, announcing that the Gauls were
approaching. The Romans afterwards
erected on the spot where the voice had been
heard, an altar with a sacred enclosure
around it, to Aius Locutius, or the '*An.
nouncing Speaker."

AJAX (-acis), called AIAS by the Greeks.
— (l)8on of Telamon, king of Salamis, and
grandson of Aeacus. Homer calls him Ajax




Ajax.. (Aeg^na Marbles.)

the Telamonian, Ajax the Great, or simply
Ajax, whereas the other Ajax, son of
OUeus, is always distinguished from t)ie
former by some epithet. He sailed against
Troy in 12 ships, and is represented in the
niad as second only to Achilles in bravery.
In the contest for the armour of Achilles,
he was conquered by Ulysses, and this,
i<ays Homer, was the cause of his death.
Later poeto relate that his defeat by Ulysses



threw him into an awful state of madness :
that he rushed from his tent and slaughtered
the sheep of the Greek army, fancying they
were his enemies ; and that at length he put
an end to his own life. From his blood there
sprang up a purple flower bearing the letters
At (Ai) on its leaves, which were at once the
initials of his name and expressive of a sigh.
Homer does not mention his mistress
Tbchessa. — (2) Son of Oileus, king of the
Locrians, also called the lesser Ajax, sailed
against Troy in 40 ships. He is described as
small of stature, but skilled in throwing th^
spear, and, next to Achilles, the most swift,
footed among the Greeks. On his return
from Troy his vessel was wrecked ; he himself
got safe upon a rock through the assistance of
Poseidon (Neptune) ; but as he boasted that
he would escape in defiance of the immortals,
Poseidon split the rock with his trident, and
Ajax was swallowed up by the sea. This is
the account of Homer. Virgil tells us that
the anger of Athena (Minerva) was excited
against him, because, on thq night of the
capture of Troy, he violated Cassandra in the
temple of the goddess.

ALABANDA (-orum), an inland town
of Caria, near the Marsyas, to the S. of the
Maeander, situated between two hills. It
was a prosperous place, but one of the most
eomipt and luxurious towns in Asia Minor.

ALALCOMENAE (^rum), an ancient
town of Boeotia, E. of Coronga, with a temple
of Athena (Minerva), who is said to have bee^
born in the town, and who was hence called
Alalcomeneis.

ALALLA.. [Aleuia.]

ALANI (-6rum), a great Asiatic people,
included under the general name of Scythians.
They are first found about the £. part of the
Caucasus, in the country called Albania, which
appears to be only another form of the same
name. At a later time they pressed into
Europe, as far as the banks of the Lower
Danube, where, towards the end of the 5th
century, they were routed by the Huns, who
then compelled them to become their allies.
In A.D. 406, some of the Alani took part with
the Vandals in their irruption into Gaul and
Spain, where they gradually disappear from
history.

ALARTCUS, (-i) in German Al~rie, 1. e.
" AU-rich," king of the Visigoths, who took
and plundered Rome, 24th of August, a.d.
410. He died shortly afterwards at Consentia
in Bruttium.

ALBA (-ae) SILVIUS (-i), one of the
mythical kings of Alba, son of Latinus,
reigned 39 years.

ALBA (-ae). (1) Fuckntia or Fuckntis,
a town of the Marsi, and subsequently a



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ALBANIA.



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ALCAEUS.



Roman colony^ situated on a lofty rock near
the lake Fnclnus, and used by the Romans
as a state prison. — (2) Lonoa, the most
ancient town In Latiom, is said to have been
built by Ascanius, and to have founded
Rome. It was called Longa, from its stretch,
ing in a long line down the Alban Mount
towards the Alban Lake. It was destroyed
by TuUus Hostilius, and was never rebuilt ;
its inhabitants were removed to Rome. At
a later time the surrounding country was
studded with the splendid villas of the Roman
aristocracy and emperors (Pompcy's, Domi-
tian*s, &c.), each of which was called Albanutn,
— (3) PouPBiA, a town in Liguria, colonised
by Pompeius Magnus, the birthplace of the
emperor Pertinax.

ALBlNIA (-ae : in the S.E. part of Georgia)^
a country of Asia on the W. side of the Caspian,
extending ftrom the rivers Cyrus and Araxes
on the S. to M. Ceraunius (the E. part of the
Caucasus) on the N., and bounded on the W.
by Iberia. It was a fertile plain, abounding
in pasture and vineyards ; but the inhabitants
were fierce and warlike. They were a
Scythian tribe, identical with the Alaki.
The Romans first became acquainted with
them at the time of the Mithridatic war, when
they encountered Pompey with a large army.

ALBlNUM. [Alba, No. 2.]

ALBANUS (-i) LACUS, a small lake
about 5 miles in circumference, W. of the
IVIons Albanus between Bovillae and Alba
Longa, is the crater of an extinct volcano,
'«nd is many hundred feet deep. The emis-
sarium which the Romans bored through the
solid rock during the siege of Veil, in order
to carry off the superfluous water of the lake,
is extant at the present day.

ALBlNUS M0N8, was, in its narrower
signification, the mountain in Latium on
whose declivity the town of Alba Longa was
situated. It was the sacred mountain of the
Latins, on which the religious festivals of the
Latin League were celebrated {FeriaeLaUnae),
and on its highest summit was the temple of
Jupiter Latiaris, to which the Roman generals
ascended in triumph, when this honour was
denied them in Rome. The Mons Albanus
in its wider signification included the Mons
Albidus and the mountains about Tusculum.

ALBICI (-orum), a warlike Gallic people
inhabiting the mountains north of Massilia.

ALBINOVANUS (-i), C. PEDO (^nis),
a friend of Ovid, who addresses to him one of
his Epistles ftrom Pontus.

ALBINUS or ALBUS (4), POSTtMuS
(4), the name of a patrician family at Rome,
many of the members of which held the highest
offices of the state from the commencement of
the republic to its downfal. The founder of



the family was dictator b.c. 498, when be
conquered the Latins in the great battle neat
lake Regillus.

ALBINUS (4), CLODITTS (4), was governor
of Britain at the death of Commodus in
A. n. 192. In order to secure his neutrality,
Septimius Severus made him Caesar; but
after Severus had defeated his rivals, be
turned his arms against Albinus. A great
battle was fought between them at Lugdunum
(Lyons), in Gaul, 197, in which Albinus was
defeated and killed.

ALBIoN (-onis), another name of Bri-
TANioA, the white land, from its white cliffs
opposite the coast of Gaul.

ALBIS (.is : Elhe)t one of the great rivers in
Germany, the most easterly which the Romans
became acquainted with. The Romans
reached the Elbe for the first time in b. c. 9
under Drusus. The last Roman general wbo
saw the Elbe was Tiberius in a. d. 6.

ALBIUM INGAUNUM or ALBINGAUNUM
(4), a town of the Ingauni on the coast
of Liguria, and a municipiunu

AI^IUM INTEMEUUM or ALBINTE-
IfELIUM (4), a town of the Intemelii on
the coast of Liguria, and a municipiimi.

ALBClA (-ae), an ^cient name of the
river Tibeb.

ALBtJLAE AQUAE. [Albtjnba.)

ALBtNEA or ALBUNA (-ae), a prophetic
nymph or Sybil, to whom a grove was con-
secrated in the neighbourhood of Tibur, with a
fountain and a temple. This fountain was
the largest of the Albulae aquae, sulphureous
springs at Tibur, fiowing into the Anio. The
temple is still extant at Tivoli.

ALBURNUS (-i) MONS, a mountain in
Lucania, covered with wood, behind Paestum.

ALCAEUS (4), of Mytilene in Lesbos, the
earliest of the Aeolian lyric poets, began to
fiourish about b. c. 611. In the war between
the Athenians and Mytilenaeansfor the posses-
sion of SigSum (b. c. 606) he incurred the
disgrace of leaving his arms on the field of
battle. Alcaeus belonged by birth to the
nobles, and was driven into exile with his
brother Antimenidas, when the popular party
got the upper hand. He attempted by force
of arms to regain his coxmtry; but all his
attempts were frustrated by Pittacus, who
had been chosen by the people Aesynmetes or
dictator for the purpose of resisting him and
the other exiles. Alcaeus and his brother
afterwards travelled into various countries :
the time of his death is uncertain. The
extant fragments of his poems, and the ex-
cellent imitations of Horace, enable us to
understand something of their character.
Those which have received the highest praise
are his warlike odes, in which he tried to



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ALCATHOUS.



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ALCMAEON.



Yoase the spirits of tke nobles, the Aleaei
minaces Cammae of Horace. Alcaeus is said
to have invented the well-known Alcaic metre.

ALCATHOUS (4), son of Pelops and Hippo-
damla, obtained as his wife Evaechme, the
daughter of Meg9,reu8, by slaying the Cithae-
ronian lion, and succeeded his father-in-law
as king of Megara. He restored the walls of
Megara, which is therefore sometimes called
Alc&thd6 by the poets. In this work he was
assisted by Apollo. The stone upon which
the god used to place his lyre while he was
at work, was believed, even in late times, to
give forth a sound, when struck, similar to
that of a lyre.

ALCESTIS (-is) or ALCESTE (-68), wife of
Admetus. [Aj>mbtvs.]

ALCIBIADES (-is), son of Olnias and Dino-
machS, was bom at Athens about b. o. 450,
and on the death of his father in 447, was
brought up by Ms relation Pericles. He
possessed a beautiful person, transcendant
abilities, and great wealth. His youth was
disgraced by his amours and debaucheries,
and Socrates, who saw his vast capabilities,
attempted to win him to the paths of virtue,
but in vain. Their intimacy was strength-
ened by mutual services. At the battle of
Potidaea (432) his life was saved by Socrates,
and at that of Delium (424) he saved the life of
Socrates. After the death of Cleon (422) he
became one of the leading politicians, and the
head of the war party in opposition to Nicias.
In 4 1 5 he was appointed, along with Nicias and
Lamachus, as conmiander of the expedition
to Sicily. "While the preparations for the
expedition were going on, there occurred the
mysterious mutilation of the busts of the
Hermae, which the popular fears connected
with an attempt to overthrow the Athenian
constitution. Alcibiades was charged with
being the ringleader in this attempt. He
demanded an investigation before he set sail,
but this his enemies would not grant ; but he
had not been long in Sicily, before he was
recalled to stand his trial. On his return
homewards, he managed to escape at Thurii,
and thence proceeded to Sparta, where he
acted as the avowed enemy of his country.
The machinations of his enemy Agis II. induced
him to abandon the Spartans and take reftige
with Tissaphemes (412), whose favour he soon
gained. Through his influence Tissaphemes
deserted the Spartans and professed his
willingness to assist the Athenians, who
accordingly recalled Alcibiades from banish,
ment in 41 1. He did not immediately return
to Athens, but remained abroad for the next
4 years, during which the Athenians under
his conmiand gained the victories of Cynos-
«ema, Abydos, and Cyzicus, and got possses-



sion of Chalcedon and Byzantium. In 407
he returned to Athens, where he was received
with great enthusiasm, and was appointed
commander-in-chief of all the land and sea
forces. But the defeat at Notium, occasioned
during his absence by the imprudence of his
lieutenant, Antiochus, furnished his en^nies
with a handle against him, and he was super-
seded in his command (406). He now went
into voluntary exile to his fortified domain at
Bisanthe in the Thracian Ohersonesus. After
the fall of Athens (404), he took refuge with
Phamabazus. He was about to proceed to
the court of Artaxerxes, when one night his
house was surrounded by a band of armed
men, and set on fire. He rushed out sword
in hand, but fell pierced with arrows (404).
The assassins were probably either employed
by the Spartans, or by the brothers of a lady
whom Alcibiades had seduced. He left a son
by his wife Hipparete named Alcibiades, who
never disting^shed himself.

ALCIDES (-ae), a name of Hercules, as
the grandson of Alceus or Alcaeus.

ALCIM£D£ (es), daughter of Phylacus
and Clymen§, wife of Aeson, and mother of
Jason. ^

ALCINOUS (-i), son of Nausithous, and
grandson of Poseidon (Neptune), is celebrated
in the Odyssey, as the happy ruler of the
Phaeacians in the island of Scheria.

ALCIPHRON (-5nis), the most distin-
guished of the Greek epistolary writers, was
perhaps a contemporary of Lucian, about a.d.
180. The letters ( 1 1 8 in number) are written
by fictitious personages, and the language is
distinguished by its purity and elegance.

ALCITHOfi (-6s) or ALCATHOfi (-58),
daughter of Minyas, changed, together with
her sisters, into bats, for refusing to join the
other women of Boeotia in the worship of
Dionysus (Bacchus).

ALCMAEON (-dnis), son of Amphiarftus
and Eriphyl6, and brother of Amphilochus.
Alcmaeon took part in the expedition of the
Epigoni against Thebes, and on his return home
he slew his mother according to the injunction
of his father. [Amphiaratjs.] For this
deed he became mad, and was haunted by
the Erinnyes. He went to Phegeus in
Psophis, and being purified by the latter, he
married his daughter Arsino or Aiphesiboea,
to whom he gave the necklace and peplus of
Harmonia. But as the land of this country
ceased to bear on accoimt of its harbouring a
matricide, he left Psophis and repaired to the
country at the mouth of the river Achelou^.
The god Achelous gave him his daughter
Callirrhoe in marriage. Callirrhoe wish-
ing to possess the necklace and peplus of
Harmonia, Alcmaeon went to Psophis and



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ALCMAEONIDAE.



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ALEXANDER.



obtained them from Phegetu, nnder the
pretext of dedicating them at Delphi ; but
when Phegens heard that the treasures were
fetched for CalIirrho«, he caused his sons to
murder Alcmaeon.

ALCMAEONIDAE (-arum), a noble family
at Athens, were a branch of the family of
the Nellda«, who were driven out of Pylus in
Messenia by the Dorians, and settled at
Athens. In consequence of the way in which
Megacles, one of the family, treated the
insurgents imder Ctlon (b.c. 612), they
brought upon themselves the guilt of sacri-
leges &nd were in consequence banished fix>m
Athens, about 595. About 560 they returned
from exile, but were again expelled by Pisis-
tratus. In 548 they contracted with the
Amphictyooic council to rebuild the iemple
of Delphi, and obtained great popularity
throughout Greece by executing the work in
a style of magnificence which much exceeded
their engagement. On the expulsion of
Hippias in 510, they were again restored to
Athens. They now joined the popular party,
and Clisthenes, who was at that time the
head of the family, gave a new constitution
to Athens. [Clisthenes.]

ALCMAN (-ftnis), the chief lyric poet of
Sparta, by birth a Lydian of Sardis, was
brought to Laconia as a slave, when very
young, and was emancipated by his master,
who discovered his genius. He probably
flourished about ^.c. 631. He is said to have
died, like Sulla, of the morbus pedicularis.
Alcman is said by some to have been the
inventor of erotic poetry.

ALCMJENE (-58) or ALCMfiNA (-ae), daugh-
ter of Electryon, king of Mycenae, promised
to marry Amphitryon, provided he avenged
the death of her brothers, who had been slain
by the sons of pterelaus. Amphitryon under-
took the task ; but during his absence, Zeus
(Jupiter), in the disguise of Amphitryon,
visited Alcmeie, and pretending to be her
husband, related in what way he had avenged
the death of her brothers. Amphitryon
himself returned the next day : Alcmene
became the mother of Hercules by Zeus, and
of Iphicles by Amphitryon. [Hbrcules.]

ALCtONE or HALCtONfi (-gs). (1) A
Pleiad, daughter of Atlas and Pleione, and
beloved by Poseidon (Neptune). — (2) Daughter
of Aeolus and Enarete, and wife of Ceyx.
Her husband having perished in a shipwreck,
Alcyone for grief threw herself into the sea,
but the gods, out of compassion, changed the
two into birds. While the bird alcyon was
breeding, there always prevailed calms at sea.

ALCtdNIUM MXrE, the E. part of the



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