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Chatti. Their chief towns were Aquae Mat-
tieuci&e {Wiesbaden) and Mattiacum {Marburg),

MATTirrikt {Maden), the chief town of the
Chatti, situated on the Adrana {Sder).

MlTtJTA (-ae), commonly called MATER
MAXtyrA, the goddess of the dawn, identified
by the Romans with Leucothea. Her festival,
the Matralia, was celebrated on the 11th of
June {Diet, of Ant. art. Matralia).

MAURfiTlNiA or MAURITANIA (-ae), a
coxmtry in the N. of Africa, lying between
the Atlantic on the W., the Mediterranean on
the N., Numidia on the E., and Gaetulia on
the S. ; but the districts embraced xmder the
names of Mauretania and Xumidia respec-
tively were of very different extent at dif-
ferent periods. The northern coast of Africa
from the Atlantic to the Syrtes was inhabited
at a very ancient period by 8 tribes : the
Mauri or Maurusii, W. of the river Malva
or Malucha; thence the Massaesylii to the
river Ampsaga; and the MassylU between
the Ampsaga and the Tusca, the W. boundary
of the Carthaginian territory. Of these
people, the Mauri applied themselves more
to the settled pursuits of agriculture than
their kindred neighbours od the E. Hence

arose a difference, which the Greeks marked
by applying the general name of N«ju^)i< to
the tribes between the Malva and the Tusca ;
whence came the Roman names of Numidia
for the district, and Numidae for its people.
[Numidia.] Thus Mauretania was at first
only the country W. of the Malva, but it
afterwards embraced a considerable portion of
the western part of Numidia. The Romans
first became acquainted with the country
during the war with Jugurtha, b.c. 106.
[BOCCHT78.] It was -made a Roman province
by Claudius, who added to it all the country
as far as the Ampsaga, and divided it into 2
parts, of which the W. was called Tingitana,
from its capital Tingis {Tangier), and the £.
Caesariensis from its capital Julia Caesarea,
the boundary between them being the fiver
Malva, the old limit of the kingdom of
Bocchus I.

MAURI. [Mauertania.]

MAURlTiNiA. [Mauektania.]

MAURtSil. [Mauretania.]

MAUSOLUS (-i), king of Caria, eldest son of
Heoatomnus, reigned b.c. 377 — 353. He
was succeeded by his wife and sister Arte-
misia, who erected to his memory the costly
monument called firom him the Mausoleum.

MlVORS.^ [Maes.]

MAXENTIUS (.i), Roman emperor a.d.
306 — 812. He was passed over in the
division of the empire which followed the abdi-
cation of his father Maximianus and Diocletian
in A.D. 805 ; but he seized Rome, where he
was proclaimed emperor, in 306. He reigned
till 312, when he was defeated by Constan-
tine at Saxa Rubra near Rome. He tried to
escape over the Milvian bridge into Rome,
but he perished in the river. Maxentius i.^
represented by all historians as a monster of
rapacity, cruelty, and lust.

MAXBilANUS (-i). (1) Roman emperor,'
A.D. 286 — 805, originally a Pannoniansoldiei-,
was made by Diocletian his colleague in the
empire, but was compelled to abdicate along
with the latter. [Dioclktianus.] When his
son Maxentius assumed the imperial title in
the following year (306), he resided some
time at Rome ; but being expelled from the
city by Maxentius, he took refuge in Gaul
with Constantine, who had married his
daughter Fausta. Here he was compelled by
Constantine to put an end to his own life, in

310. — (2) GAI.XEIUS Mazimiaxus, usually
called Galeeius, Roman emperor, a.d. 305 —

311. He was first made Caesar by Dio-
cletian, whose daughter he had married ; and
upon the abdication of Diocletian and Maxi-
mianus (305) he became Augustus or em-
peror. He died in 811, of the disgusting

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disease known in modem times by the name
of morbus pediculosus. He was a cruel per-
secutor of the Christians.

HAXImINUS (4). (1) Roman emperor, a.d.
285 — 238, was bom in Thrace, of barbarian
parentage. He succeeded Alexander Severus ;
but his government was characterised by the
utmost craelty. He was slain by his own
soldiers before Aquileia. The most extra-
ordinary tales are related of his physical
powers. His height exceeded 8 feet. It is
said that he was able single-handed to drag
a loaded waggon, and could with a kick break
the leg of a horse ; while his appetite was
such, that in one day he could eat 40 pounds
of meat, and drink an amphora of wine. —
(2) Roman emperor, 308 — 314, nephew of
Galerius, by a sister, was raised to the em-
plre by the latter. On the death of Galerius,
in 311, Maximinus and Licinius divided the
East between them; but having attacked
Licinius, he was defeated by the latter, and
died shortly afterwards. He was a cruel
persecutor of the Christians.

Roman emperor, a.d. 383 — 888, in Gaul,
Britain, and Spain, obtained the throne by

putting Gratian to death, but was afterwards
slain by Theodosius.

MAXIMUS TtRIUS (-1), a native of Tyre,
a Greek rhetorician and Platonic philosopher,
lived during the reigns of the Antonines and
of Commodus, and is the author of 41 ex.
tant dissertations on philosophical subjects,
written in an easy and pleasing style.

MAzIcA. [Cabsaksa, No. 1.]

MfiCYBERNA (-ae), a town of Macedonia in
Chalcidice, at the head of the Toronaic gulf,
£. of Olynthus, of which it was the seaport.

MEDAURA (-ae), a flourishing city of N.
Africa, on the borders of Numidia and Byza*
cena ; the birth-place of Appuleius.

M£D£A (-ae), daughter of Aeetes, king of
Colchis, celebrated for her skill in magic.
When Jason came to Colchis to fetch the
golden fleece, she fell in love with tiie hero,
assisted him in accomplishing the object for
which he had visited Colchis, afterwards fled
with him as his wife to Greece, and prevented
her father, who was in pursuit, firom over-
taking them, by killing her brother Absyrtus,
and strewing the sea with his limbs, which her
father stopped to gather. Having been de-
serted by Jason for the youthful daughter of

lledea and her Children. (Museo Borbouico, vol. 5. tav. 33.)

Creon, king of Corinth, she took fearftil ven- I and by destroying his young wife with a
geance upon her faithless spouse by murdering poisoned garment; and she then fled to
the two children which she had had by him, I Athens in a chariot drawn by winged dragons.

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At Athens she is said to have married king
Aegeus. Her story fe given in greater detail
under Abstrtus, Aboonautab, and Jason.

MEDEON (-6nis). (1) A town in the in-
terior of Acamania, near the road which
led from Limnaea to Stratos. — (2) A town on
the coast of Phocis near Anticyra, — (3) A
town in Boeotia, near Onchestus and the lake
Copais. — (4) A town of the Laheates in Dal-
matia, near Scodra.

MEDIA (-ae), an important country of Asia,
above Persis, and hounded on the N. by the
Araxes, on the W. and S.W. by the range of
mountains called Zagros and Parachoatras
{Mts. of Kurdistan and Louristan)^ which
divided it firom the Tigris and Euphrates
valley, on the £. by the Desert, and on the
N.E. by the Caspii Montes (.Sl^ra Jf.)* ^^
was a fertile country, well peopled, and one
of the most important provinces of the ancient
Persian empire. After the Macedonian con-
quest, it was divided into 2 parts. Great
Media and Atropatene. [Atropatenb.] The
earliest history of Media is involved in much
obscurity. Herodotus reckons only 4 kings
of Media, namely: 1. Deiocss, b.c. 710 — 657;
2. Phbaoetes, 657 — 635 ; 3. Ctaxares, 685 —
595 ; 4. AsTTAOBS, 595^560. The last king
was dethroned by a revolution, which trans,
ferred the supremacy to the Persians, who
had formerly been the subordinate people in
the united Mcdo-Persian empire. [Cykus.]
The Medes made more than one attempt to
regain their supremacy; the usurpation of
the Mag^an Pseudo-Smerdis was no doubt
such an attempt [Smerdis] ; and another
occurred in the reign of Darius II., when the
Medes revolted, but were soon subdued (b.c.
408). With the rest of the Persian empire.
Media fell under the power of Alexander ; it
next formed a part of the kingdom of the
Seleucidae, from whom it was conquered by
the Parthians, in the 2nd century b.c, ftrom
which time it belonged to the Parthian, and
then to the later Persian empire. — It is im-
portant to notice the use of the names Mbdiis
and Mbdi by the Roman poets, for the nations
of Asia £. of the Tigris in general, and for
the Parthians in particular.

MEDIAE MtJRUS, an artificial wall,
which ran from the Euphrates to the Tigris,
at the point where they approach nearest,
and divided Mesopotamia from Babylonia. It
is described by Xenophon {Anab. ii. 4), as
being 20 parasangs long, 100 feet high, and
20 thick, and as bmlt of baked bricks, ce-
mented with asphalt.

MEDIOLANUM (-i). (1) {Mian), the
capital of the Insubres in Gallia Transpadana,
was taken by the Romans b.c. 222, and
afterwards became both a municipium and a

colony. From the time of Diocletian till its
capture by Attila, it was the usual residence
of the emperors of the West. It is celebrated
in ecclesiastical history as the see of St. Am-
brose. — (2) {Saintes)f a town of the Santones,
in Aquitania, N.E. of the mouth of the Ga.
rumna; subsequently called Santones after
the people, whence its modem name.

MEDI0MATRiCI.(-6rum), a people in the
S.E. of Gallia Belgica, on the Moselle, S. of
the Treviri. Their chief town was Divo-

MEDITERRANEUM mare. [Intbbnttm

MEDOACUS or MEDttlcUS (-i), a river
in Venetia, in the N. of Italy, falling mto the
Adriatic sea near Edron, the harbour of

MEDOBIUGA (-ae), a town in Lusitania,
on the road from Emerita to Scalabis.

MEDOX (-ontis), son of Codrus, the first
archon. ^ [Codrus.]

MEDULI (-orum). a people in Aquitania,
on the coast of the Ocean, S. of the mouth of
the Garunma, in the modem Medoe. There
were^excellent oysters found on their shores.

MEDULLI (.5rum), a people on the E.
frontier of Gallia Narbonensis and in the
Maritime Alps, in whose country the Druen-
tia {Durance) and Duria {Doria Minor) took
their rise.

MEDULLI A (-ae), a colony of Alba, in the
land of the Sabines, situated between the
Tiber and the Anio.


MEGAERA. [Edmbnides.]

MEGALIAorMEGARiA, a small island in
the Tyrrhene sea, opposite Neapolis.

MEGALOPOLIS (-is), the most recent but
the most important of the cities of Arcadia.,
was founded on the advice of Epaminondas,
after the battle of Leuctra, b.c. 371, and was
formed out of the inhabitants of 38 villages.
It was situated in the district Maenalia, near
the frontiers of Messenia, on the river Helis-
son, which flowed through the city. It
became afterwards one of the chief cities of
the Achaean league. Philopoemen and the
historian Polybius were natives of Megalo-

MEGARA (-ae, and pi. Megara, -orum).
(1) The town of Megara, the capital of Mb-
oARis, a small district in Greece between the
Corinthian and Saronic gulfs, bounded on the
N. by Boeotia, on the E. and N.E. by Attica,
on the S. by the territory of Corinth, and situ-
ated a mile from the sea, opposite the island of
Sal amis. Its citadel was called AlcHthSe, from
its reputed founder Alcathous, son of Pelops.
Its seaport was Niaaea, which was connected
with Megara by 2 walls, built by the Athe-

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nians when they had possession of Megara,
B.C. 461 — 445. In front of Nisaea lay the
small island Min6a, which added greatly to
the security of the harbour. In ancient
times Megara formed one of the 4 divisions of
Attica. It was' next conquered by the Do-
rians, and was for a time subject to Corinth ;
but it finally asserted its independence, and
rapidly became a wealthy and powerfiJ city.
Its power at an early period is attested by
the flourishing colonies which it foundttd, of
which Selymbria, Chalcedon, and Byzantium,
and the Hyblaean Megara in Sicily, were the
most important. After the Persian Wars,
Megara was for some time at war with Corinth,
and was thus led to form an alliance with
Athens, and to receive an Athenian garrison
into the city, 461 ; but the oligarchical party
having got the upper hand, the Athenians
were expelled, 441. Megara is celebrated in
the history of philosophy, as the seat of a
philosophical school, usually called the Mega-
rian, which was founded by Euclid, a native
of the city. [EucuDiffl, No. 2.] — (2) A town
in Sicily on the £. coast, N. of Syracuse,
founded by Dorians from Megara in Greece,
B.C. 728, on the site of a small town, Hybla,
and hence called Meoara Htblaxa, and its
inhabitants Megarenses Hyblaei. From the
. time of Gelon it belonged to Syracuse.

MEGAREUS (-ei or -eos), son either of
Onchestus or Poseidon (Neptune), and father
of Hippomenes and Evaechme.

MEGARIS. [Megara.]

MEGIDDO, a considerable city of Palestine,
on the river Kishon, in a valley of the same
name, on the confines of Galilee and Samaria.

MELA, river. [Mella.]

MELA or MELLA (-ae), M. ANNAEUS (4),
youngest son of M. Annaeus Seneca, the rhe-
torician, brother of L. Seneca, the philosopher,
and father of the poet Lucan.

MELA (-ae), POMPONIUS (-i), a native
of Spain, under the emperor Claudius, and the
author of an extant Latin work on geography,
entitled De Situ OrUs Ubri III.

MELAMPt^S (-5dis), son of Amythaqn, a
celebrated prophet and physician, and the
first who introduced the worship of Dionysus
(Bacchus) into Greece. He is said to have cured
the women of Argos of the madness with which
they had been seised, and to have received in
consequence, with his brother Bias, two-thirds
of the kingdom of Argos. Melampus and Bias
married the two daughters of Proetus.

MELANCHLAENI (-orum), a people in the
N. of Asia, about the upper course of the river
Tanais {Lon)^ resembling the Scythians in
manners, though of a different race. Their
Greek name was derived from their dark

MELANIPPfi (-es), daughter of Chiron,
also called Evippe. Being with child by
Aeolus, she fled to mount Pelion, and wa^•
there metamorphosed by Artemis (Diana) into
a mare.

MELANIPPIDES, of Melos, a celebrated
lyric poet in the department of tbe dithyramb,
who flourished about b.o. 440.

MELANTHIUS (.i), a goat-herd of

MELAS (-Snis and -ae), the name of several
rivers, whose waters were of a dark colour.
(1) A small river in Boeotia, flowing between
Orchomenus and Aspledon. — (2) A river of
Thessaly, in the district Malis, falling into
the Malic guJf. — (3) A river of Thessaly in
Phthiotis, falling into tiie Apidanus. — (^ A
river of Thrace, falliag into the Melas Sinu&.
—(5) A river in the N.E. of Sicily, flowinir
into the sea between Mylae and Naulochus,
through excellent meadows, in which the
oxen of the sun are said to have fed. — (6) A
river in Asia Minor, the boxmdary between
Pamphylia and Cilicia.

MELAS SINUS. [Melak, No. 4.]

MELDI (-drum) or MELDAE (-Srom), a
people in the N. of Gaul, and upon the river
Sequana {Seine),

MELEAGER or MELEAGRUS (-gri), son of
the Calydonian king Geneus, took part in
the Argonautic expedition, and was afterwards
the leader of the heroes, who slew the monstrous
boar which laid waste the fields of Calydon.

Meleaicer. ( From a Painting at Pompeii.)

According to the later tradition he gave the
hide of the animal to Atalanta, with whom

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he was in love ; but his mother's brothers,
the sons of Thestins, took it from her, where,
upon Meleager in a rage slew them. This,
however, was the cause of his own death.
When he was 7 days old the Moerae or Fates
declared that the boy would die as soon as
the piece of wood which was burning on the
dearth should be consumed. Althaea, upon
hearing this, extinguished the firebrand, and

concealed it in a chest ; but now, to revenge
the death of her brothers, she threw the
piece of wood into the fire, whereupon Me.
leager expired. Althaea, too late repenting
what she had done, put an end to her life.
The sisters of Meleager wept unceasingly
after his death, until Artemis (Diana) changed
them into guinea.hens (fMXutyfiiie)^ which
were transferred to the island of Leros.

Althaea and the Fates. (ZoSga, Bassirilievi, tky. 4$.)

MELETUS or MELITUS (.i), an obscure
tragic poet, but notorious as one of the ac.
cusers of Socrates,

MELIA (.ae) or MELlfi (.es), a nymph,
daughter of Oceanus, became by Inachus
the mother of Phoroneus,

MELIBOEA (.ae), a town on the coast of
Thessaly in Magnesia, between Mt. Ossa and
Mt. Pelion, where Philoctetes reigned, who
is hence called by Virgil dux Meliboeus,

MELIcERTES. [Palaemon.]

MELISSA (-ae), a nymph, said to have dis.
covered the use of honey, and from whom
bees were believed to have received their
name {fiiXurreu). There can be no doubt,
however, that the name really came from
«*«Ai honey, and was hence given to nymphs.

MELITA (.ae) or MSlITE (.es). (1) {Malta),
an island in the Mediterranean sea, colonised
by the Phoenicians, and afterwards belonging
to the Carthaginians, firom whom it was
raken by the Romans in the 2nd Punic war.
It is celebrated as the island on which the
Apostle Paul was shipwrecked ; though some
writers erroneously suppose that the apostle
was shipwrecked on ttie island of the same
name off the Illyrian coast. The inhabitants
manufactured fine cloth {Melitensia so. vesH-
menta). — (2) {Meleda), a small island in the
Adriatic sea off the coast of niyria (Dalmatia),
N.W. of Epidaurus.

a town in Thessaly in Phthiotls, on the N.
slope of Mt, Othrys, and near the river

MELITfi (.es), a nymph, one of the Ne-
reides, a daughter of Nereus and Doris.

MELITCnE (.es), a city and district of
Armenia Minor, between the Anti.Taurus and
the Euphrates.

MELLA or MfiLA (.ae : Mdla), a river
in Gallia Transpadana, flowing by Brixia,
and falling into the Ollius {Oglio).

MELLARIA (.ae). (1) A town of the
Bastuli in Hispania Baetica between Belon
and Calpe. — (2) A town in the same province,
considerably N of the former.

MELODDNUM (-i : Meltm), a town of the
Senones in Gallia Lugdunensis, on an island
of the Sequana {SfJne).

M£L0S (.i), an island in the Aegaean sea,
and the most W..ly of the Cyclades, first
colonised by the Phoenicians, and afterwards
colonised by Lacedaemonians, or at least by
Dorians. Hence in the Peloponnesian war it
embraced the side of Sparta. In b.g. 416 it
was taken by the Athenians, who killed all
the adult males, sold the women and children
as slaves, and peopled the island with an Athe.
nian colony. Melos was the birthplace of
Diagoras, the Atheist.

MELPOMENE (.es), i.e. the singing god-
dess, one of the Muses, presided over
Tragedy. [Mvsax.]

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MEMMIUS (.i), the name of a Roman
gens, which claimed descent from the Trojan
Mnestheus. (1) C. Msiofivs, tribune of the
plebs B.C. Ill, was an ardent opponent of
the oligarchical party at Rome during the
Jugurthine war. He was slain by the
mob of Satuminns and Glaucia, whUe a
candidate for the consulship in 100. — (2)
C. Memmivs Gbmbixus, tribune of the plebs
66, curule aeuile 60, and praetor 58, was
impeached for ambitus, and withdrew firom
Rome to Mytilene. Memmius married
Fausta, a daughter of the dictator Sulla, by
whom he had a son. He was eminent
both in literature and in eloquence. Lu-
cretius dedicated to him his poem, De Serum

MEMNON (-«nis). (1) The beautifW son
of Tithonus and Eos (Aurora), was king of
the Ethiopians, and came to the assistance of
Priam towards the end of the Trojan war.
He wore armour made for him by Hephaestus
(Vulcan) at the request of his mother. He
slew Antilochus, the son of Nestor, but was
himself slain by Achilles, after a long and
fierce combat. While the two heroes were
fighting, Zeus (Jupiter) weighed their fates,
and the scale containing Memnon's sank.
To soothe the grief of his mother, Zeus con.
ferred immortality upon Memnon, and caused
a number of birds to issue out of the funeral
pile, which fought over the ashes of the hero.
These birds were called MemrUSnXdea^ and
were said to have visited every year the tomb
of the hero on the Hellespont. The Greeks
gave the name of Memn5nlum and MenmfinXa
to certain very ancient buildings and monu-
ments in Europe and Asia, which they sup.
posed to have been erected by, or in honour
of, Memnon. Of these the most celebrated
was a great temple of Thebes, behind which
was a colossal statue (called the statue of
Memnon), which, when struck by the first
rays of the rising sun, was said to give
forth a soimd like the snapping asunder
of a chord. It appears, however, that the
8tatue represented in reality the Egyptian
king Amenophis. The citadel of Susa was
also called Memnonia by the Greeks. — (2) A
native of Rhodes, had the command of the
W. coast of Asia Minor, when Alexander
invaded Asia. He was an able officer, and
his death, in b.c. S33, was an irreparable
loss to the Persian cause.

MEMNONIUM. [Mkmnon, No. 1.]

MEMPHIS (-is, and -Idos), a great city of
EgjTJt, seo6nd in importance only to Thebes,
after the fall of which it became the capital
of the whole country, a position which it
had previously shared with Thebes. It is
said to have been founded by Menes. It

stood on the left (W.) bank pf the Nile, about
10 miles above ihe Pyramids.

MENAENUM or MENAE, a town on the
E. coast of Sicily, S. of Hybla, the birthplace
and residence of the Sicel chief Ducetius.

MENALIPPUS. [Mblanippus.]

(-dri), of Athens, the most distinguished poet
of the New Comedy, was bom b.c. 342, and
was drowned in 291, while swimming in
the harbour of Piraeus. He was a pupil of
Thcophrastus, and an intimate friend of
Epicurus. Though his comedies have been
lost, we can form some idea of them from
those of Terence, Who was little more than a
translator of Menander.

MENiPil (-6rum), a powerftil people in
the N. of Gallia Belgica, originally dwelt on
both banks of the Rhine, but were afterwards
driven out of their possessions on the right
bank by the Usipetes and Tenchteri, and
inhabited only the left bank near its mouth,
and W. of the Mosa.

MENDfi (-es), or MENDAE (-arum), a
town on the W. coast of the Macedonian pen-
insula Pellene and on the Thermaio gulf, a
colony of the Eretrians, and celebrated for its

MENDCS, a considerably city of the Delta
of Egypt, on the bank of one of the lesser
arms of the Nile, named after it the Mende-
sian mouth.

M£N£D£MU8 (-i), a Greek philosopher,
of Eretria, where he established a school of
philosophy, called the Eretrian. He after,
wards went to Antigonus in Asia, where he
starved himself to death in the 74th year of
his age,j)robably about b.c. 277.

MENELAI PORTUS, an ancient city on
the coast of Marmarica, in N. Africa, founded
according to tradition, by Menelaus, where
Agesilaus died.

MENELAIUM (-i), a mountain in Laconia,
SJB. of Sparta near Therapne, on which the
heroum of Menelaus was situated.

MENELiUS (-i), son of PUsthenes or
Atreus, and younger brother of Agamemnon,
was king of Lacedaemon, and married to
the beautiful Helen, by whom he became the
father of Hermione. His early life, the rape
of his wife by Paris, and the expedition of
the Greeks to Asia to punish the Trojans are
related under Agamemnon. In the Trojan
war Menelaus killed many Trojans, and would
have slain Paris also in single combat, had
not the latter been carried oflf by Aphrodite
(Venus), in a cloud. As soon as Troy was
taken Menelaus and Ulysses hastened to the
house of Deiphobus, who had married Helen
after the death of Paris, and put him to death
in a barbarous manner. Menelaus is said to

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hare been secretly introduced into the cham-
ber of Deiphobns by Helen, who thus became
reconciled to her former husband. He was
among the first that sailed away firom Troy,
accompanied by his wife Helen and Nestor ;
but he was 8 years wandering about the
shores of the Mediterranean, before he reached
home. Henceforward he lired with Hel^i
at Sparta in peace and wealth. When Tele-
machus visited Sparta to inquire after his
father, Menelaus was solemnising the mar.
riage of his daughter Hermione with
Neoptolemus, and of his son Megapenthes
with a daughter of Alector. In the Homeric
poems Menelaus is described as a man of
athletic figure ; he spoke little, but what he

Online LibraryWilliam SmithA smaller classical dictionary of biography, mythology, and geography ... → online text (page 50 of 90)