William Smith.

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sent out by Pisistratus from Athens to take
possession of the vacant inheritance. He
joined Darius Hystaspis on his expedition
against the Scythians, and was left with the
other Greeks in charge of the bridge over the
Danube. When the appointed time had
expired, and Darius had not returned, Mil-
tiades recommended the Greeks to destroy
the bridge, and leave Darius to his fate.
After tile suppression of the Ionian revolt,

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and the approach of the Phoenician fleet,
Miltiades fled to Athena. Here he waa
arraigned, as heing amenable to the penal-
ties enacted against tyranny, but was ac
quitted. When Attica was threatened with
invasion by the Persians under Datis anid
Artaphemes, Miltiades was chdsen one of
the ten generals. Miltiades by his arguments
induced the pol^narch CaUimachus to give
the casting rote in favour of risking a battle
with the enemy, the opinions of the ten
generals being equally divided. Miltiades
waited tUl his turn came, and then drew his
army up in battle array on the memorable
field of Marathon. [Marathon.] After the
defeat of the Persians, Miltiades induced the
Athenians to entrust to him an armament of
70 ships, without knowing the purpose for
which they were designed. He proceeded to
attack the island of Paros, for the purpose
of gratifying a private enmity. His attacks,
however, were unsuccessful; and after re.
ceiving a dangerous hurt in the leg, he was
compelled to raise the siege and return to
Athens, where he was impeached by Xan-
thippus for having deceived the people. His
wound had turned into a gangrene, and
being unable to plead his cause in person,
he was brought into court on a couch, his
brother Tisagoras conducting his defence for
him. He was condemned ; but on the ground
of his services to the state the penalty was
commuted to a fine of 50 talents, the cost of
the equipment of the armament. Being unable
to pay this, he was thrown into prison where
he not long after died of his woxmd. The
fine was subsequently paid by his son Cimon.


MILtAS. [Ltcia.]

(-urn), the Macedonian name of the Bac-

MIMAS (-antis). (1) One of ^e giants
who warred against the gods, slain by a flash
of lightning. — (2) A promontory in Ionia,
opposite the island of Chios.

MIMNERMUS (4), a celebrated elegiac
poet, generally called a Colophonian, was pro.
perly a native of Smyrna, and was descended
from those Colophonians who reconquered
Smyrna firom the Aeolians. He flourished
from about b.o. 634 to 600, and was a con.
temporary of Solon. Mimnermus was the
first who systematically made the elegy the
vehicle for plaintive, mournful, and erotic
strains. Only a few fragments of his poems
are extant.

MINCIUS (-1 : IRneio), a river in GaUia
Transpadana, flowing through the lake Be.
nacus {Loffo di Garda), and falling into the
To, a little below Mantua.

mIneRVA (.ae), called ATHfiNA by the
Greeks. The Greek goddess is spoken of in
a separate article [Athkva], and we here
confine ourselves to the Roman goddess.
Minerva was one of the great Roman dirini-
ties. Her name probably contains the same
root as mens; and she is accordingly the
thinking power pen>onified. In the Capitol
Minerva had a chapel in common with
Jupiter and Juno. She was worshipped as
the goddess of wisdom and the patroness of
all the arts and trades. Hence the proverbs
" to do a thing pingui Mnerva^" Le. to do a
thing in an awkward or clumsy manner ; and
9u$ MtnervoMy of a stupid person who pre.
sumed to set right an intelligent one. Minerva
also guided men in the dangers of war, where
victory is gained by prudence, courage, and
perseverance. Hence she was represented
with a helmet, shield, and a coat of mail ;
and the booty made in war was firequently
dedicated to her. She was further believed
to be the inventor of musical instruments,
especially wind instruments, the use of which
was very important in religious worship, and
which were accordingly subjected to a sort of
purification every year on the last day of the
festival of Bfinerva. This festival lasted 5
days, from the 19th to the 23rd of March,
and was called QimnqtuUnM* The most
ancient temple of Minerva at Rome was pro-
bably that on the Capitol ; another existed on
the Aventine ; and she had a chapel at the
foot of the Caelian hill, where she bore the
surname of Oapta,

rocky promontory in Campania, running out
a long way into the sea, 6 miles S.E. of Sur-
rcntum, on whose summit was a temple of
Minerva, said to have been built by Ulysses.
Here the Sirens are reported to have dwelt.

MINIO (.onis : Mignone)^ a small river in
Etruria, falling into the Tyrrhene sea, be-
tween Graviscae and Centum Cellae.

MInOA. [Mkoaba.]

MINOS (.5is). (1) Son of Zeus (Jupiter)
and Europa, brother of Rhadamanthus, king
and legislator of Crete, and after death one
of the Judges of the shades in Hades.—- <2) Son
of. Lyoastus, and grandson of the former,
was lUcewise a king and lawgiver of Crete.
He was the husband of Pasiphae, a daughter
of Helios (the sun), and the father of Deuca-
lion, Androgeos, Ariadne, and Phaedra. In
order to avenge the wrong done to his son
Androgeos [Androobus] at Athens, he made
war against the Athenians, and compelled
them to send to Crete every year, as a tribute,
7 youths and 7 maidens, to be devoured
in the labyrinth by the Minotaurus. The
Minotaur was a monster, half man and half

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bull, and the oflfspring of the intercourse of
Pasiphae with a bull. The labyrinth in
which it was kept was constructed by Dae-
dalus. This monster was slain by Theseus,
with the assistance of Ariadne, the daughter
of Minos. [Theseus.] Daedalus having fled

Theseus and Minotaur. (From a painted Yase.)

from Crete to escape the wrath of Minos,
Minos followed him to Sicily, and was there
slain by Cocalus and his daughters. From
Minos we have Mlnois^ a daughter or a
female descendant of Minos, as Ariadne, and
the adjectives MttUPttts and Mtnoua, used by
the poets as equivalent to Cretan.

MlNOTAURUS. [Minos.]

MINTHA (-ae) or MINTHE (-es), a
daughter of Cocytus, beloved by Hades,
metamorphosed by Demeter (Ceres), or Per-
sephone (Proserpina), into a plant called
after her minthaj or miut.

MINTURNAE (-arum), an important town
in Latium, on the frontiers of Campania,
situated on the Appia Via, and on both banks
of the Liris, and near the mouth of this river.
It was an ancient town of the Ausones or
Aurunci, but surrendered to the Romans of
its own accord, and received a Roman colony
P.O. 296. In its neighbourhood was a grove
sacred to the nymph Marica, and also exten-
sive marshes {Paludes Mintumenses)^ formed
by the overflowing of the river Liris, in
which Marina Vas taken prisoner. [See p.
258, a.]^ ^

MINt^CIUS (-1), the name of a Roman gens,
of whom the most celebrated was M. Minu-
cius Rufus, magister equitum to the dictator
Q, Fabius Maximus, B.C. 21 7, in the war

against HannibaL He fell at the battle of

MIN^AE (-arum), an ancient Greek race,
originally dwelling inThessaly. Their an-
cestral hero, Minyas, is said to have migrated
from Thessaly into the N. of Boeotia, and
there to hAve established the empire of the
Minyae, with the capital of Orchomenos.
[Obchomknos.] As the greater part of the
Argonauts were descended from the Minyae,
they are themselves called Minyae. The
Minyae founded a colony in Lemnos, called
Minyae, whence they proceeded to Elis
Triphylia, and to the island of Thera. A
daughter of Minyas was called Minpeidt'
{-Mis) or MlnpSis (-Wm). His daughters
were changed into bats, because they had
slighted the festival of Dionysus (Bacchus).

MISENUM (-i), a promontory in Cam-
pania, S. of Cumae, said to have derived its
name firom Misenus, the companion and
trumpeter of Aeneas, who was drowned and
buried here. The bay formed by this pro-
montory was converted by Augustus into an
excellent harbour, and was made the prin-
cipal station of the Roman fleet on the Tyr-
rhene sea. A town sprang up aroimd the
harbour. Here was the villa of C. Marius,
which afterwards passed into the hands of
the emperor Tiberius, who died at this place.

MITHRAS (-ae), the god of the sun among
the Persians^ Under the Roman emperors
his worship was introduced at Rome. The
god is commonly represented as a handsome
youth, wearing the Phrygian cap and attire,
and kneeling on a bull, whose throat he is

MITHRIDATES (-is), the name of several
kings of Pontus, of whom the best known is
Mithridates YI., sumamed the Great, and
celebrated on account of his wars with the
Romans. He reigned b.o. 120 — 68. He
was a man of great energy and ability ; and
so powerful was his memory, that he is said
to have learnt not less than 25 languages.
Having greatly extended his empire in the
early part of his reign by the conquest of the
neighbouring nations, he at length ventured
to measure his strength with Rome. The
first Mithridatic war lasted from b.c. 88 to
84. At first he met with great success. He
drove Ariobarzanes out of Cappadocia, and
Nicomedes out of Bithynia, both of whom
had been previously expelled by him, but
restored by the Romans ; and he at last
made himself master of the Roman province
of Asia. During the winter he ordered all
the Roman and Italian citizens in Asia to be
massacred; and on one day no fewer than
80,000 Romans and Italians are said to have
perished. Meantime Sulla had received the

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command of the war against Mithridates, and
crossed over into Greece in 87. Arche-
laos, the general of Mithridates, was twice
defeated by Sulla in Boeotia (86) ; and about
the same time the king himsiBlf was defeated
in Asia by Fimbria. [Fimbria.] Mithridates
now saed for peace, which was granted him
by Sulla tn 84. The second Mithridatio war
(B.C. 83 — 83), was caused by the unprovoked
attacks of Murena, who had been left in
command of Asia by Sulla. Murena invaded
the dominions of Mithridates, but was
defeated by the latter, and was ordered by
Sulla to desist trom hostilities. The third
Mithridatio war was the most important of
the three. It lasted from b.c. 74 to the
king's death in 68. It broke out in conse-
quenoe of the king seizing Bithynia, which
had been left by Nicomedes lU. to the Roman
people. The consul Lucnllus was appointed
to the command, and conducted it with great
imccess. In b.c. 7S he relieved Cysicus,
which was besieged by Mithridates, and in
the course of the next two years drove the
king out of Pontus, and compelled him to
flee to his son-in-law, Tigranes, the king of
Armenia. The latter espoused the cause
of his father-in-law ; whereupon Lucullns
marched into Armenia, and defeated Tigra-
nes and Mithridates, in two battles in b.c. 69
and 68. But in consequence of the mutiny
of his soldiers, who demanded to be led home,
Lucnllus could not follow up his conquests ;
and Mithridates recovered Pontus. In b.c.
66 Lucnllus was succeeded in the command
by Pompey. Mithridates was defeated by
Pompey ; and as Tigranes now refused to
admit him into his dominions, he inarched
into Colchis, and thence made his way to
Panticapaeum, the capital of the Cimmerian
Bosporus. Here he conceived the daring
project of marching round the N. and W.
coasts of the Euzine, through the wild tribes
of the Sarmatians and Getae, and of invading
Italy at the head of these nations. But
meanwhile disaffection bad made rapid
progress among his followers. His son,
Phamaoes, at length openly rebelled against
him, and was joined by the whole army, and
the citizens of Panticapaeum, who proclaimed
him king. Mithridates, resolved not to fall
into the hands of the Romans, put an end to
his own life, b.o. 68, at the age of 68 or 69,
after a reign of 57 years.

MITHRlDATfiS, Kings ofParthia. [An.
SACKS, 6, 9, 18.]

MITTLBNfi. [Mytilkni.]

MNfiMdStNfi (-es), f.«., Memory, daugh-
ter of Uranus (Heaven), and mother of the
Muses by Zeus (Jupiter).

MNESTHEUS (-^ or -el), a Trojan, who

accompanied Aeneas to Italy, and is said tc
have been the ancestral hero of the MemmiL

MOabITIS, called MOAB in the Old
Testament, a district of Arabia Petraea, £.
of the Dead Sea. The Moabites were fre>
quently at war with the Israelites. The>
were conquered by David, but they after-
wards recovered their independence.

MOERIS (4dis), a king of Egypt, who
is said to have dug the great lake known by
his name ; but it is really natural, and not
an artificial lake. It is on the W. side of
the Nile, in Middle Egypt, and used for the
reception and subsequent distribution of a
part of the overflow of the Nile.

MOESIA (-ae), a country of Europe, was
bounded on the S. by Thrace and Macedonia ;
on the W. by Illyricum and Pannonia ; on the
N. by the Danube, and on the E. by the
Pontus Euxinus, thus corresponding to the
present 8ervia and Bulgaria. This country
was subdued in the reign of Augustus, and
was made a Roman province at the com.
mencement of the reigni of Tiberius. It was
afterwards formed into 2 provinces, called
Moesia Superior and Mbena It^erior, the
former being the western, and the latter the
eastern half of the countiy. When Aurelian
surrendered Dacia to the barbarians, and
removed the inhabitants of that province to
the S. of the Danube, the middle part of
Moesia was called Daoia Aureliani.

MAGONTIACUM (-i : Mainz or Mayenee), a
town on the left bank of the Rhine, opposite
the mouth of the river Moenus (JIfain).

MOIRAE, called PARCAE (-arum) by the
Romans, the Fates, were 8 in number, viz.,
Clotho, or the spinning fate ; LachSsis, or
the one who assigns to man his fate ; and
AtbOpos, or the fate that cannot be avoided.
Sometimes they appear as divinities of fate in
the strict sense of the term, and sometimes
only as allegorical divinities of the duration of
human life. In the former character they take
care that the fate assigned to every behig by
eternal laws may take its course without
obstruction; and both gods and men must
submit to them. These grave and mighty
goddesses were represented by the earliest
artists with stafb or sceptres, the symbol of
dominion. The Moirae, as the divinities of
the duration of human life, which is deter-
mined by the two points of birth and of death,
are conceived either as goddesses of birth m
as goddesses of death. The distribution of
the functions among the 8 was not strictly
observed, for we sometimes find all 8 de-
scribed as spinning the thread of life,
although this was properly the function of
Clotho alone. Hence Clotho, an^ sometimes

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the other fates, are represented with a
spindle ; and they are said to break or cut
off the thread when life is to end. The poets
sometimes describe them as aged and hideous
women, and even as lame, to indicate the
slow march of fate ; but in works of art they

are represented as grave maidens, with
different attributes, viz., Clotho, with a
spindle or a roll (the book of fate) ; Lachesis
pointing with a staff to ike globe ; and
Atropos, with a pair of scales, or a sun-dial,
or a cutting instrument.

The Moirae or Parcae (Fates) and Prometheus. (Yisconti, Mus. Pio Clna. toL 4, tav. 34.)

M0II0N£. [Molionss.]

(4lrum), that is, Eurytns and Cteatus, so
caUed after their mother MoUone. They are
also called AeUMdae or AetMSne {'A»r»fiant)
after their reputed father Actor, the husband
of Molione. They are mentioned as con-
querors of Nestor in the chariot race, and as
having taken part in the Calydonian hunt.
Having come to the assistance of Angeas
againjst Hercules, tiiey were slain by the latter.

MOLOSSI (-drum), a people in Epirus, in-
habiting a narrow slip of country, called after
them MoLOssiA or Molossis, which extended
along the W. bank of the Arachthus, as far as
the Ambracian gulf. They were the most
powerful people in Epirus, and their kings
gradually extended their dominion over the
whole of the cpuntry. The first of their
kings, who took the title of king of Epirus,
was Alexander, who perished in Italy b.g. 326.
[Epibus.] Their capital was Ahbracia. The
Molossian hounds were celebrated in antiquity.

MOLtCRIUM (-i), a town in the S. of
Aetolia, at the entrance of the Corinthian gulf.

MOMUS (-1), the god of mockery and cen-
sure, called by Hesiod the son of Night. Thus
he is said to have censured in the man formed
by Hephaestus (Yulcan), that a little door had
not been left in his breast, so as to enable
one to look into his secret thoughts.

MONA (-ae : Anglesey)^ an island off the

coast of the Ordovices, in Britain, one of the
chief seats of the Druids. Caesar erroneously
describes this island as half way between
Britannia and Hibemia. Hence it has been
supposed by some critics that the Mona of
Caesar is the Isls of Man ; . but it is more pro-
bable, on account of the celebrity of Mona
in connection with the Druids, that he had
heard of Angleseyf and that he received a
false r^>ort respecting its real position.

MONAESES (.is), a Parthian general men.
tioned by Horace, probably the same as Su.
renas, the general of Orodes, who defeated

MONET A (.ae), a surname of Jtmo among
the Romans, as the protectress of money.
Under this name she had a temple on the
Capitoline, which was at the same time the
public mint.

MONOECI PORTUS {Ifanaco), a port-town
on the coast of Liguria, founded by the Mas-
silians, was situated on a promontory (hence
the arx Monoeci of Virgil), and possessed a
temple of Hercules Monoecus, from whom
the place derived its name.

MOPSLA. or MOPSOPIA, an ancient name
of Attica, whence MopsSpXus is frequently used
by the poets as equivalent to Athenian.

MOPSIUM (-i), a town of Thessaly, In
Pelasgiotis, situated on a hill of the same
name between Tempe and Larissa.

Digitized by





MOPStESTIA (-ae), an important city of
CUicio, on both buiks of the river Pyramns.

MOPSUS (.1). (1) Son of Ampyx and the
nymph Chloris, the prophet and soothsayer
of the Argonants, died in Lybia of the bite of
a snake. — (2) Son of Apollo and Manto, the
danghter of Tiresiaa, and also a celebrated
seer. He contended in prophecy with Calchas
at Colophon, and showed himself superior to
the latter in prophetic power. [Calchas.]
He was believed to have founded Hallos, in
Cilioia, in conjunction with the seer Amphi-
lochus. A dispute arose between the two seers
respecting the possession of the town, and
both fell in combat by each other's hand.

in Sicily, S.E. of Agyrium, and near the
Symaethus, founded by the Morggtes, after
they had been driren out of Italy by the


HORINI (-drum), the most N.4y people in
all Gaul, whence Virgil calls them extremi
hominum. They dwelt on the coast, at the
narrowest part of the channel between Gaul
and Britain.

MORPHEUS (.^, Jil, or -el), the son of
Sleep, aiicL the god of dreams. The name
signifies the fashioner or moulder, because
he shaped or formed the dreams which ap.
peared to the sleeper.

MORS (-tis), called THANAT08 by the
Greeks, the god of death, is represented as a
son of Night, and a brother of Sleep.

m5sA (-ae : Moot or Metue), a river in
Gallia Belgica, rising in Mt. Yogesus, and
falling into the Yahalis or W. branch of the

MOSCHI (-drum), a people of Asia, dwell-
ing in the S. part of Colchis.

MOSCHUS (4), of Syracuse, a bucolic poet,
lived about b.c. 250. There are 4 of his idyls
eztai^t, usually printed with those of Bion.

MOSELLA (-ae : Mosel^ Moselle)^ a river in
Gallia Belgica, rising in Mt. Yogesus, and
falling into the Rhine at Confluentes ( Coblenz) .

MOSTENI (-6rum), a city of Lydia, S.E. of

MOSYNOECI (-6nim), a barbarous people
on the N. coast of Asia Minor, in Pontus, so
called from the conical wooden houses in
which they dwelt.

MOTCCA (-ae), a town in the S. of Sicily,
W. of the promontory Pachynus. The inha-
bitants were called Mutycenses.

MOTtA (-ae), an ancient town in the N.W.
of Sicily, situated on a small island near the
coast, with which it was connected by a mole,
it was founded by the Phoenicians, and next
belonged to the Carthaginians, who trans-

planted its inhabitants to the town of Uly.
baeum, b.c. 397.

MCciUS SCAEYOLA. [Scaivola.]

MULCIBER (-bri), a surname of Yulcan,
which seems to have been given him as an
euphemism, that he might not consume the
habitations of men, but might kindly aid
them in their pursuits.

MULtCHA (-ae), a river in the N. of
Africa, rising in the Atlas, and forming the
boundary between Mauretania and Nnmidia.

MUMMIUS (-i), L., consul b.c. 146, won
for himself the surname of Achaicus, by the
conquest of Greece, and the establishment of
the Roman province of Achaia. After defeat-
ing the army of the Achaean league at the
Isthmus of Corinth, he entered Corinth with-
out opposition, and rased it to the ground.
[CoRiMTHUs.] He was censor in 142 with
Scipio AfHcanus the younger.


MUNDA (-ae), a town in Hispania Baetica,
celebrated on account of the victory of Julius
Caesar over the sons of Pompey, b.c. 45.

MONtCHIA (-ae), the smaUest and the
most E.-ly of the 3 harbours of Athens. The
poets use Munychian in the sense of Athenian.

surname of Yenus at Rome, where she had a
chapel in the circus, with a statue. Thin
surname, which is said to be the same as
Myrtea (ftrom myrUu, a myrtle), was believed
to indicate the fondness of the goddess for the
myrtle tree.

MCr£NA (-ae), which signifies a lampl^,
was the name of a family in the Licinia gens,
of whom the most important were :— (1) L.
LiciMnrs Mubbna, who was left by Sulla as
propraetor in Asia, b.c 84, and was the cause
of the 2nd Mithridatic war. — (2) L. Licuf ivr
MuBiufA, son of the former, consul b.c. 63,
was accused of bribery, and defended by
Cicero in an extant oration.


MUS, DECIUS. [Dkcius.]

MUSA (-ae), ANTONIUS, a celebrated phy-
sician at Rome, was brother to Euphorbus, the
physician to king Juba, and was himself the
physician to the emperor Augustus. He had
been originally a slave.

MCSAE (-arum,) the Muses, were, ac
cording to the earliest writers, the inspiring
goddesses of soug, and, according to later
notions, divinities presiding over the different
kinds of poetry, and over the arts and sciences.
They are usually represented as the daughters
of Zeus (Jupiter) and Mnfemosyng, and bom
in Pieria, at the foot of Mt. Olympus. Their
original number appears to have been 3 ; but
afterwards they are always spoken of as 9 in
number. Their names and attributes were i-^

Digitized by





1. Clldf the Muse of history, represented
in a sitting or standing attitude, with an
open roll of paper, or chest of hooks.

merry or idyllic poetry, appears with a comio
mask, a shepherd's staff, or a wreath of ivy.

Clio, the Miue o^ History (From a Statue
now in Sweden.)

2. HuterpSf the Muse of lyric poetry, with a flute.

Thalia, the Muse of Comedy. (From a Statue
in the Vatican.)

4. MelpSm&ne^ the Muse of tragedy, with
a tragic mask, the club of Hercules, or a

Euterpe, the Mu>e of Lyric Poetry. (From a Statue Melpomene, the Mu.e of Tragedy (From a Statue
in the Vatican.) ''

V sword : her head is surrounded with vine

8. TMKa, the Muse of comedy, and of leaves, and she wears the cothuruup.

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5. TerpsieJUfrS^ the Muse of choral dance and
■ong, appears with the lyre and the plectrum.

6. Er&td, the Muse of erotic poetry and
mimic imitation, sometimes also has the lyre.

fcratOk tbe Muse of Erotic Poetry. (From a Statue
Id the Vatican.)

Folyrania, the Muse of the Sublime Hjrmn.
cFroin a Sutue Id the Louvre.j

7. Piflynmia or Pdlphymnla, the Muse of
the sublime hymn, usually appears without any
attribute, in a pensive or meditating attitude.

8. Crania tiie Muse of astronomy, with a
staff pointing to a globe.

Urania, the Muse of Astronomy. (From a Statue
now in Sweden.)

9. CainSp^ or CalttSpSat the Muse of epic
poetry, represented in works of art with a tablet

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