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Calliope, ihe Muse of Epic Poetry. (From a Statue
in the Vatican.)

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And stylus, and sometimes With a roll of paper
or a book.

The worship of the Muses was introduced
from Thrace and Pieria into Boeotia; and
their favourite haunt in Boeotia was Mt.
Ilelioon, where were the sacred fountains of
Aganippe and Hippocrene. Mt. Parnassus
was likewise sacred to them, with the Casta-
lian spring. The sacrifices offered to the
Muses consisted of libations of water or milk,
and of honey. The Muses were invoked by
the poets as the inspiring goddesses of song ;
and all who ventured to compete with them
in song were severely pimished by them.
Thus the Sirens, who had done so, were de-
prived of the feathers of their wings, which
the Muses put on their own persons as
ornaments ; and the 9 daughters of P^erus,
who had likewise presumed to rival the
Muses, were metamorphosed into birds.
Being goddesses of song, they were naturally
connected with Apollo, the god of the lyre,
who is even described as the leader of the
choir of the Muses by the surname Mus&gStes,

MCSAEUS (-i), a semi-mythological per-
sonage, to be classed with Olen end Orpheus,
is represented as one of the earliest Grecian
poets. The extant poem on the loves of
Ilero and Leander, bearing the name of
Mnsaeus, is a late production.


MUTINA (-ae : Modeiia)^ an important town
in Gallia Cispadana, originally a town of the
Boii, and afterwards a Roman colony. It is
celebrated in the history of the civil war after
Caesar's death. Decimals Brutus was her
sieged here by M. Antonius from December,
44, to April 43 ; and under its walls the
battles wei*e fought, in which the consuls
Uirtius and Pansa perished.

MI^CALE (-es), a mountain in the S. of
Ionia in Asia Minor, N. of the mouth of the
Maeander, and opposite the island of Samos.
Here a grreat victory was gained by the
Greeks over the Persiwi fleet on the same
day as the battle of Plataea, b.c. 479.

MtCALESSUS (-i), an ancient city in
Boeotia, on the road from Aulis to Thebes.
In B.C. 413 it was sacked by some Thracian
mercenaries in the pay of Athens.

MtCfiNAE (-arum), sometimes Mt CEnE
(-es), an ancient town in Argolis, about 6
miles N.E. of Argos, situated on a hill at the
head of a narrow valley. Mycenae is said to
have been founded by Perseus, and was sub-
sequently the favourite residence of the
Telopidae. During the reign of Agamemnon
it was regarded as the first city in all Greece ;
but after the conquest of Peloponnesus by
the Dorians, it ceased to be a place of import-
Rnce. It continued an independent town till

B.C. 468, when it was attacked by the Argives,
and the inhabitants were compelled by famine
to abandon it. Mycenae was now destroyed
by the Argives ; but there are still numerous
remains of the ancient city, which on account
of their antiquity and grandeur are some of
the most interesting in all Greece.

MYCERINU8 (-i), son of Cheops, king of
Egypt, succeeded his uncle Chephren on the
throne, and reigned with justice. He began
to build a pyramid, but died before it was

MtCONUS (.1), a smaU island in the
Aegaean sea, one of the Cyclades, £. of Delos,
is celebrated in mythology as one of the
places where the giants were defeated by

MYGDON (-onis), son of Aomon, who
fought against the Amazons, and from whom
some of the Phrygians are said to have been
called Mygdonians. He had a son, Coroebus,
who is hence called Mygdihitdes.

MYGDONIA (.ae). (1) Adistrict in the E.
of Macedonia, bordering on the Thermaic gulf
and the Chalcidic peninsula. — (2) A district
in the E. of Mysia and the W. of Bithynia,
named after the Thracian people, Mygdones,
who formed a settlement here, but were after-
wards subdued by the Bithyni.— (3) The N.E.
district of Mesopotamia, between Mt. Masius
and the Chaboras, which divided it from
OsroSne. The name of Mygdonia was first
introduced after the Macedonian conquest.

MYLAE (-arum), a town on the E. part of
the N. coast of Sicily, founded by Zancle
(Messana), and situated on a promontory run-
ning out into the sea. It was off Mylae that
Agrippa defeated the fleet of Sex. Pompeius,
B.C. 86.

MYLASAor MTLASSA (-drum), a flourish-
ing inland city of Caria, in a fertile plain.

MYNDUS (-i), a Dorian colony on the
coast of Cana, situated at the W. extremity
of the same peninsula on which Halicamassus

MYONNESUS (-i), a promontory of Ionia,
with a town and a little island of the same
name, forming the N. headland of the gulf
of Ephesus.

MtOS HORMOS (• UiMt c^/*^, i. e. Muscle.
port)f an important port-town of Upper
Egypt, built by Ptolemy II. Philadelphus, on
the Red Sea, 6 or 7 clMys* journey from

MYRA (-ae and -drum), one of the chief
cities of Lycia, built on a rock 2 miles from
the sea.

MYRIaNDRUS (-i), a Phoenician colony
in Syria, on the E. side of the Gulf of Issus,
a little 8. of Alexandria.

MYRINA (-ae). (1) An ancient and Iir-


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portAnt city of the Aeolians on the W. coast
of Mysia. — (2) A town in Lemnos.

MYRL£A (.ae), a city of Bithynia, not far
from Prusa, founded by the Colophonian^,
and almost rebuilt by Prusias I., who called
it Apamba, after his wife.

MYRMIDONES (-um), an Achaean race
Ui Phthiotia in Thessaly, whom Achilles ruled
over and who accompanied this hero to Troy.
They are said to have inhabited originally
the island of Aegina, and to have emigrated
with Peleus Into Thessaly ; but modem critics
on the contrary suppose that a colony of them
emigrated from Thessaly into Aegina. The
Myrmidones disappear from history at a later
period. The ancients derived their name
either fit)m a mythical ancestor Myrmidon,
son of Zeus (Jupiter) and Eurymedusa, and
father of Actor ; or from the ants (yt«5fAM)j»w)
in Aegina, which were supposed to have been
metamorphosed into men in the time of
Aeacus. [Aeacvs.]

MtRON (-onis), a celebrated Greek
statuary, and also a sculptor and engraver,
was bom at Eleutherae, ic Boeotia, about b.c.
480. He was the disciple of Ageladas, the
fellow-disciple of Polycletus, and a younger
contemporary of Phidias. lie practised his
art at Athens, about the beginning of the
Peloponnesian war (b.c. 431).

MYRRHA, or SMYRNA. [Adonis.]

MYRTILUS (-i), son of Hermes (Mercury)
and charioteer of Oenomaus king of I*isa,
thrown into the sea by Pelops. [Pblops.]
After his death, Myrtilus was placed among
the stars as auriga.

MYRTOUM MARE, the part of the
Aegaean sea, S. of Euboea, Attica and Argulis,
which derived its name from the small island
Myrtus, thpugh others suppose it to come
from Myrtilus, whom Pelops threw into this

MYRTUNTIUM (-i), called Mtbsinus in
Homer, a town of the Epeans in Elis, on the
road fh)m Elis to Dyme.

MYRTUS. [Myrtoum Maek.]

MYS (-yds), one of the most distinguished
Greek engravers, who engraved the battle of
the Lapithae and the Centaurs and other
figures on the shield of Phidias's statue of
Athena Promachos, in the Acropolis of Athens.

MYSCELUS (-i), a native of Achaia, who
founded Croton in Italy, b.c. 7 10.

MTsIa (-ae), a district occup3ring the
N.W. comer of Asia Minor, between the
Hellespont on the N.W. ; the Propontis on
the N. ; Bithynia and Phrygia on the £. ;
Lydia on the S. ; and the Aegaean Sea on the
W. It was subdivided into 5 parts: (1.)
MrsiA Minor, along the N. coast. (2.) Mtsia
Ma/ob, the S.E. inland region, with a small

portion of the coast between the Troad and
the Aeolic settlements about the Elaitic Gulf.
(3.) Troas, the N.W. angle, between the
Aegaean and Hellespont and the S. coast along
the foot of Ida. (4.) Axous or Aeoua, the
S. part of the W. coast, around the Elaitic
Gulf, where the ehief cities of the Aeolian
confederacy were planted; and (5.) Teu-
THRAMiA, the S.W. angle, between Temnus
and the borders of Lydia, where, in very
early times, Teuthras was said to have esta-
blished a Mysian kingdom, which was early
subdued by the kings of Lydia. This account
applies to the time of the early Roman
empire ; the extent of Mysia, and its sub-
divisions, varied greatly at other times. The
Mysi were a Thracian people, who crossed
over from Europe into Asia at a very early
period. In the heroic ages we find the great
Teucrian monarchy of Troy in the N.W. of
the country, tmd the Phrygians along the
Hellespont : as to the Mysians, who appear
as allies of the Trojans, it is not clear whether
they are Europeans or Asiatics. The Mysia
of the legends respecting Telephus is the
Teuthranian kingdom in the S., only with a
wider extant than the later Teuthrania.
Under the Persian empire, the N.W. portion,
which was still occupied in part by Phrygians,
but chiefly by Aeolian settlements, was called
Phrygia Minor, and by the Greeks Hblles-
poKTUs. Mysia was the region S. of the chain
of Ida; imd both formed, with Lydia, the
second satrapy. Mysia afterwards formed a
part of the kingdom of Psrgamus (b.c. 280.)
With the rest of the kingdom of Pergamus,
Mysia fell to the Romans in 133, by the
bequest of Attains III., and formed part of the
province of Asia.

MtTILfiNfi or MiTtLENfi (-es), the
chief city of Lesbos, situated on the E. side
of the island, opposite the coast of Asia, was
early colonised by the Aeolians. [Lesbos.]
It attained great importance as a naval
power, and founded colonies on the coasts of
Mysia and Thrace. At the beginning of the
7 th century b.c, the possession of one of
these colonies, Sigeum, at the mouth of the
Hellespont, was disputed in war between the
Mytilenaeans and Athenians. After the
Persian war, Mytilene formed an alliance
with Athens; but in the 4th year of the
Peloponnesian War, b.c 428, it headed a
revolt of the greater part of Lesbos, the pro.
gress and suppression of which forms one of
the most interesting episodes in the history
of the Peloponnesian War. (See the His-
tories of Greece.) This event destroyed the
p< wer of Mytilene. Re8i)ecting its important
position in Gi9ek literary history, see

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M YtS (-untis), the least city of the Ionian
confederacy, stood in Caria, on the S. side of
the Maeander.

'M'ABATAEI (^rum),NXBATHAE (4lrum),
-'■ ^ an Arabian people, who occupied nearly
the whole of Arabia Petraca, on both sides of
the Aelanitic Gulf of the Red Sea, and the
Idumaean mountains, where they had their
rock-hewn capital, Petra. The Roman poets
frequently use the adjective Nabathaeus in
the sense of Eastern.

NABIS (-is), tyrant of Lacedaemon, noted
for his acts of cruelty, succeeded Machanidas
in the sovereignty, b.c. 207. He was defeated
by Philopoemen in b.c. 192, and was soon
afterwards assassinated by some Aetolians.

NABONASSAR, king of Babylon, whose
accession to the throne was the era from
Avhich the Babylonian astronomers began
tdeir calculations. This era is called the £ra
of Nabona^ar^ and commenced B.C. 747,

NAEVius (-i), CN., an ancient Roman
poet, probably a native of Campania, produced
his first play, b.c. 235. He was attached to
the plebeian party ; attacked Scipio and the
Metelli in his plays ; but he was indicted by
Q. Metellus and thrown into prison, and
obtained his release only by recanting his
previous imputations. Ilis repentance did
not last long, and he was soon compelled to
expiate a new offence by exile. He retired
to Utica, where he died about b.c. 302.
Naevius wrote a poem on the first Punic war
as well as comedies and tragedies.

NAHARVALI (-drum), a tribe of the LygU
in Germany, probably dwelling on the bank»
of the Vistula.

NAIADES. [Nymphae.]

N%8M)t a town of Upper Moesia, situated on
an E. tributary of the Margus, and celebrated
as the birthplace of Ck)nstantine the Great.

(-um), a people on the W. coast of Gallia
Lugdunensis, on the N. bank of the Liger.
Their chief town was Condi vincimi, afterwards
Namnetes {Nantes).

NANTUlTAE (-ftrum), or NANTUiTES
(-um), a people in the 8.E. of Gallia Belgica,
at the E. extremity of the Lacus Lemanus
{Lake of Geneva) .

NAPAEAE. [Ntmphak.]

NXR (-Sris: I/'era)^ a river in central
Italy, rising in Mt. Fisccllus, forming the
boundary between Umbria and the land of
the Sabini, and falling into the Tiber, not far
from Ocriculum. It was celebrated for its
gulphureous waters and white colour.

NARBO (-onis) MARTIUS (-i), a town
in the S. of Gaul, and the capital of the
Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis, situ-
ated on the river Atax (Aude), It was made
a Roman colony by the consul Q. Marcius or
Martins, b.c. 118, and hence received the
surname Martins. It was the first colony
founded by the Romans in Gaul.


NARCISSUS (-i). (1) A beautiful youth,
son of Cephissus and Liriope, was inac-
cessible to the feeling of love ; and the
nymph Echo, who was enamoured of him,
died of grief. [Echo.] But Nemesis, to
punish him, caused him to see his own
image reflected in a fountain, whereupon he
became so enamoured of it, that he gradually
pined away, until he was metamorphosed
into the flower which bears his name. — (2)
A favourite freedman and secretary of the
emperor Claudius, who amassed an enormous
fortune. He was put to death by order of
Agrippina, a.d. 54.

NARISCI (6rum), a people in the S. of
Germany, in the Upper Palatinate and the
country of the Fiehtelgehirge.

NARNIA (-ae : Nami), a town in Umbria,
situated on a lofty hill, on the S. bank of the
river Nar, originally called Neuuinum, and
made a Roman colony b.c. 299, when its
name was changed into Namia, after the

NARONA (.ae), a Roman colony in Dal- ^
matia, situated on the river Naro.

NARYX (-ycis), also NARtCUS or NA-
RtciUM (-i), a town of the Locri Opuntii,
on the Euboean sea, the birthplace of Ajax,
son of'Oileus, who is hence called Ndrpotus
hirSs. Since Locri Epizephyrii, in the 8. of
Italy, claimed to be a colony from Naryx, in
Greece, we find the town of Locri called
Narpi^a by the poets, and the pitch of Brut-
tium, also named Ndrpcia,

nIsamONES (-um), a powerful but
savage Libyan people, who dwelt originally
on the shores of the Great Syrtis, but were
driven inland by the Greek settlers of Cyre-
naica, and afterwards by the Romans.


NASIDIENUS (-i). a wealthy Roman, who
gave a supper to Maecenas, which Horace
ridicules in one of his satires.


NATTA or NACCA, "a ftiller," the name
of an ancient family of the Pinaria gens. The
Natta, satirised by Horace for his dirty
meanness, was probably a member of the
noble Pinarian family, and therefore attacked
by the poet for such conduct.

NAUCRATIS (-is), a city in the Delta of
Egypt, on the E. bank of . the Canopic

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branch of the Nile, wu a colony of the
Mile.^ians, founded in the reign of Amasis,
about B.C. 550, and remained a pure Greek
city. It was the only place in Egypt where
Greeks were permitted to settle and trade.
It was the birthplace of Athenaeus, Julius
Pollux, and others. j

NAULOCHUS (4), a naval station on the '
E. part of the N. coast of Sicily, between
Mylae and the promontory Pelorus. |

NAUPACTUS (-i: i«/>anto), an ancient town :
of the Locri Ozolae, near the promontory ;
Antirrhium, possessing the best harbour on
the N. coast of the Corinthian gulf. It is
said to have derived its name from the Hera.
clidae having here built the fleet, with which j
they crossed over to the Peloponnesus (fh)m
»«5? and irityvv/u). After the Persian wars
it fell into the power of the Athenians, who
settled here the Messenians who had been
compelled to leave their country at the end
of the 3rd Messenian war, bjc. 455.

NAUPLIA (-ae), the port of Argoe, situ-
ated on the Saronic gulf, was never a place
of importance in antiquity ; but is at the
present day one of the chief cities in Greece.
NAUPLIuS (-i), king of Euboea, and father
of Palamedes, who is hence called NAUPLI-
AD£s. To avenge the death of his son,
whom the Greeks had put to death during
the siege of Troy, he watched for the return
of the Greeks, and as they approached the
coast of Euboea he lighted torches on the
dangerous promontory of Caphareus. The
sailors, thus misguided, suffered shipwreck.

NAUPORTUS (4 : Ober or Upper Laibach),
an important town of the Taurisci, situated
on the river Nauportus (Loibach)^ a tributary
of the Savus, in Pannonia Superior.

NAUSICAA (.ae), daughter of Alclnous,
king of the Phaeacians, and Arete, who con-
ducted Ulysses to the court of her father,
when he was shipwrecked on the coast.

NAUTES. [Nautia Gens.)

NAUTIA GENS, a patrician gens at Rome,
claiming descent from Nautes, one of the
companions of Aeneas, who was said to have
brought with him the Palladium from Troy,
which was placed under the care of the
Nautii at Rome.

NAVA (-ae: JVaA<), a tributary of the Rhine,
falling into the Rhine at the modem

renowned augur in the time of Tarquhiius
Priscus, who opposed the project of the king
to double the number of the equestrian
centuries. Tarquin then commanded hitn to
divine whether what he was thinlung of in
his mind could be done ; and when Navius
declared that it could, the king held out a

whetstone and a razor to cut it with. Navius
immediately cut it.

NAXOS, or NAXUS (4). (1) An island
in the Aegaean sea, and the largest of
the Cyclades, especially celebrated for its
wine. Here Dionysus (Bacchus) is said to
have found Ariadne after she had been
deserted by Theseus. It was colonised by
lonians, who had emigrated from Athens.
After the Persian wars, the Naxians were the
first of the allied states whom the Athenians
reduced to subjection (b.c. 471). — (2) A
Greek city on the E. coast of Sicily, founded
B.C. 735 by the Chalcidians of Euboea, and the
first Greek colony established in the island.
In B.C. 403 the town was destroyed by Dio-
nysius of Syracuse, but nearly 50 years
afterwards (358) the remains of the Naxians
scattered over Sicily were collected by Andro-
machus, and • new city was founded on Mt.*
Taurus, to which the name of Tauromenium
was given. [Tauromkxivm.]

NAZARETH, NAZARA (-ae), a city of
Palestine, in Galilee, S. of Cana.

NAZIANZUS, a city of Cappadocia, cele-
brated as the diocese of the Father of the
Church, Gregory Nazianzen.

NEAERA (-ae), the name of several
nymphs and maidens mentioned by the poets.

NEAETHU8 (4 : Nieto), a river in Brut-
tium, falling into the Tarentine gulf a little
N. of Croton. Here the captive Trojan
women are said to have burnt the ships of
the Greeks.

NEAPOLIS (-is). (1) {yapleg), a city in
Campania, at the head of a beautiful bay,
and on the W. slope of Mt. Vesuvius, was
founded by the Chalcidians of Ctimae, on the
site of an ancient place called Parthkmope,
after the Siren of that name. Hence we
find the town called Parthcnope by Virgil
and Ovid. MTien the town is first mentioned
in Roman history, it consisted of 2 parts,
divided fi-om each other by a wall, and called
respectively Palaeopolis, or the " Old City,"
and Neapolis, or the " New City." This
division probably arose after the capture of
Cumae by the Samnites, when a large
number of the Cumaeans took refuge in the
city they had founded ; whereupon the old
quarter was called Palaeopolis, and the new
quarter, built to accommodate the new
inhabitants, was named Neapolis. In b.c.
327 the town was taken by the Samnites,
and In 290 it passed into the hands of the
Romans, but it continued to the latest times
a Greek City. Under the Romans the 2
quarters of the city were united, and the
name of Palaeopolis disappeared. Its beau-
tiful scenery, and the luxurious life of
its Greek populatioii, made it a favourlU;

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residence with many of the Romans. In the
neighbourhood of Neapolis there were warm
baths, the celebrated villa of Lucullus, and
the villa Pausnjfpi or Pausliypum, bequeathed
by Vedius Pollio to Augustus, and which
has given its name to the celebrated grotto
of PosilippOf between Naples and Puzzoli,
at the entrance of which the tomb of Virgil
is still shown. — (2) A part of Syracuse.

NEARCHUS (-i), an officer of Alexander,
who conducted the Macedonian fleet from the
mouth of the Indus to the Persian gulf, b.c.
326 — 325. He left a history of the voyage,
the substance of which has been preserved
to us by Arrian.

NEBO, a mountain of Palestine, on the E.
side of the Jordan, and in the S. part of the
range called Abarim. It was on a sunmiit of
this mountain, called Pisgah, that Moses

NEBRODES (-ae), the principal chain of
mountains in Sicily, running through the
whole of the island, and a continuation of
the Apennines.

NECESSITAS (-fttis), called ANANKfi by
the Greeks, the personification of Necessity,
is represented as a powerful goddess, whom


(Cautei, Musenm Romanoni,
vol. 1, UT. '26,)

neither gods nor men can resist. She carries
in her hand brazen nails, with which she
fixes the decrees of fate.

NECO or NECHO, King of Egypt B.C.
617 — 601, son and successor of Fsammet.
ichus. In his reign the Phoenicians, in liis
service, are said to have circumnavigated
Africa. In his march against to? Baby-
lonians he defeated at Magdolus (Megiddo)
Josiah, king of Judah, who was a vassal of
Babylon; and he afterwards defeated the
Babylonians themselves at the Euphrates,
and took Carchemish or Circesium ; but in
606 he was in his turn defeated by Nebu.

NECTANABIS (-i?). (1) King of Egypt,
B.C. 374 — 364, who successfully resisted the
invasion of the Persian force under Phama.
bazus and Iphicrates. He was succeeded by
Tachos. — (2) The nephew of Tachos, de-
prived the latter of the sovereignty in 361,
with the assistance of Agesilaus. He was
defeated by the Persians in 350, and fled
into Aethiopia.

NELEUS (-6«s, 6t, or el), son of Poseidon
(Neptune), and of Tyro, the daughter of
Salmoneus. Together with his twin-brother
Pelias, he was exposed by his mother, but
the children were found and reared by some
countrymen. They subsequently learnt their
parentage ; and after the death of Cretheus,
king of lolcos, who had married their
mother, they seized the throne of lolcos,
excluding Aeson, the son of Cretheus and
Tyro. But Pelias soon afterwards expelled
his brother, and thus became sole king.
Thereupon Neleus went with Melampns and
Bias to Pylos, in Peloponnesus, of which he
became king. [Pylos.] Neleus had 12
sons, but they were all slain by Hercules,
when he attadced Pylos, with the exception
of Nestor.

NElIdES or NfiLfilADES (-ae), patro-
nymics of Neleus, by which either Nestor, the
son of Neleus, or Antilochus, his grandson, is

NEMAU8US (-1: JVwm^j), an important
town of Gallia Narbonensis, the capital of the
Arecomici and a Roman colony, was situated
W. of the Rhone on the high road from Italy
to Spain. The Roman remains at Hiatnes are
some of the most perfect on this side of the

NEMEA (-ae) or NEMER ( U,, a valley in
Argolis between Cleonae and Phlius, cele.
brated In mythical story as the place where
Hercules slew the Nemaean lion. [See p. 196.]
In this valley there was a splendid temple of
Zeus NemSus (the Nemaean Jupiter) sur-
rounded by a sacred grove, in which the Ne-
maean games were celebrated every other

PIUS, a Roman poet at the court of the

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emperor Carus (i.d. 283), the author of an
extant poem on hunting, entitled Oynegetica.
NEMESIS (.is), a Greek goddess, whomea.
snred out to mortals happiness and misery,
and visited with losses and sufferings all who
were blessed with too many gifts of fortune.
This is the character in which she appears in
the earlier Greek writers ; but subsequently
she was regarded, like the Erinnyes or Furies,
as the goddess who punished crimes. She is
ft'equently mentioned under the surnames of
Adrastia, and Khaninusia or Rhamnusis, the
latter ft"om the town of Rhamnus, in Attica,
where she had a celebrated sanctu;iry.

Kemesia and ii^lpia. (From the ChiKi Vase.)


NEMETES (-urn) or NEMETAE (.arum),
a people in Gallia Belgica on the Rhine, whose
chief town was Noviomagus, subsequently
Nemetae {Speyer or Spires),

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