William Smith.

A smaller classical dictionary of biography, mythology, and geography ... online

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to the Volscian league. As early as b.c. 492
the Romans founded a colony at Norba. —
(2) Sumamed Caesarea (>l/can/ara), a Roman
colony in Lusitania on the left bank of the
Tagus. The bridge built by order of Trajan
over the Tagus at this place is still extant.

NORBANUS (-i), C, one of the leaders of
the Marian party in the war with Sulla, was
consul B.C. 83.


NOr£IA {Neumarkt, in Styria), the ancient
capital of the Taurisci or Norici in Noricum,
from which the .whole country derived its
name. It is celebrated as the place where
Carbo was defear^d by the Cimbri, b.c. 113.

NORiCUM (-i), a Roman province S. of
the Danube, bounded on the N. by the Danube,

on the W. by Rhaetia and Vindelicia, oa the
E. by Pannonia, and on the S. by Pannonia
and Italy. It thus corresponds to the greater
part of Styria and Carinthia^ and to a part
of Austria^ Bavaria, and Salzburg. One of
the main branches of the Alps, the Alpes
No&iCAK (in the neighbourhood of Salzburg),
ran right through the province. In those
mountains a large quantity of excellent iron
was found \ and the Noric swords were cele-
brated in antiquity. The inhabitants of the
country were Celts, divided into several
tribes, of which the Taurisci, also called
Norici, after their capital Noreia, were the
most important. They were conquered by
the Romans towards the end of the reign Ox
Augustus, after the subjugation of Rhaetia by
Tiberius and Drusus, and their country was
formed into a Roman province.

NORTIA or NUKTIA (-ae), an Etruscan
divinity, worshipped at Volsinii.

NOTUS (-i), called AUSTER (-tri), by the
Romans, the S. wind, or strictly the S.W.
wind, brought with it fogs and rain.

Notos. (From the Temple of the Winds at Athens.)

NOVArIa (-ae : yovara), a town in Gallia
Transpadana, situated on a river of the same
name {Gogna), and on the road from Medio-
lanum to Vercellae.

NOVESiUM (-i : Netias), a fortified tow?i
of the Ubii on the Rhine, and on the road
leading from Colonia Agrippina {Cblogne), to
Castra Vetera {Xanten).

NOVIODONUM (-i), a name given to many
Celtic places from their being situated on a
hill (dun). (1) (iVoMan), a town of the
Bituriges Cubi in Gallia Aquitanica. —
(2) {Nevers)f a town of the Aedui in Gallia
Lugdunensis, at the confluence of the Niveris
and the Liger, afterwards called Nevimum.
— (3) A town of the Suessones in Gallia
Belgica, probably the same as Augusta
Suessonum. {Soistons.) — (4) (Mon), a town
of the Helvetii in Gallia Belgica, on the N.
bank of the Lacus Lemanus {Lake of Geneta),

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nSvIUS (-i), Q., ft celebrated writer of
Atellane plays, a contemporary of the dic-
tator Sulla.

NOX (-ctis), called NYX by the Greeks, a
peTBonification of Night. She is described as
the daughter of Chaos, and the sister of
Erebus, by whom she became the mother of
Aether (Air) and Hemera (Day). Her resi-
denoe was in the darkness of Hades.

NUBAE (-arum), NOBAEI (-drum), an
African j)eople, 8. of Egypt, in modern Nubia.

NOCERLA. (-ae). (1) Sumamed Alfateena
{Noeera)f a town in Campania on the Sarnus
{Samo)t and 9 (Roman) miles from the coast.
— (2) Sumamed Camellaria {Nooera)^ a
town in the interior of Umbria on the Via
Flaminia. — (3) {Luzzara)^ a small town in
Gallia Cispadana on the Po, N.E. of Biixel-
lum. — (4) A town in Apulia, more correctly
called LucERiA.

NUITHONES (-um), a people of Germany,
dwelling on the right bank of the Albis {£lbe),
in the modem Mecklenburg.

NUMA (-ae), POMPILIUS (-1), the 2nd
king of Rome, who belongs to legend and not
to history. He was a native of Cures in the
Sabine country, and was elected king one
year after the death of Romulus, when the
people became tired of the interregnum of
the senate. He was renowned for his wisdom
and his piety ; and it was generally believed
that he had derived his knowledge from
Pythagoras. His reign was long and peace-
ful, and he devoted his chief care to the
establishment of religion among his rude
subjects. He was instmcted by the Camena
Egeria, who visited him in a grove near
Rome, and who honoured him with her love.
He was revered by the Romans as the author
of their whole religious worship. It was he
who first appointed the pontiffs, the augurs,
the flamens, the virgins of Vesta, and the
Salii. He founded the temple of Janus,
which remained always shut during his reign.
He died after a reign of 39 or 43 years.

NtlklANTIA (-ae: Guarray Ru.), the
capital of the Arevacae or Arevaci in His-
pania Tarraconensis, and the most important
town in all Celtiberia, was situated near the
sources of the Durius, on a precipitous hill.
It was taken by Scipio Africauus the younger
after a long siege (b.c. 133).

younger son of the emperor Cams, whom he
accompanied in his expedition against the
Persians, a.d. 283. After the death of his
father, which happened in the same year,
Numerianus was acknowledged as joint em-
peror with his brother Carinus. Eight months
afterwards he was murdered, and suspicion
having fallen vpon Arrius Aper« praefect of

the praetorians, and father-in-law of the de-
ceased, the latter was stabbed to the heart
by Diocletian. [Dioclbtiamvs.]

NUMIClUS or NUMICUS (-i : Numico), a
small river in Latium flowing into the Tyr-
rhene sea, near Ardea, on the banks of which
was the ^mb of Aeneas

NOmIDIa (-ae), a country of N. Africa,
divided from Mauretania on the W. by the
river Malva or Mulucha, and on the E. from
the territory of Carthage (aft. the Roman
province of Africa) by the river Tusca. The
inhabitants were originally wandering tribes,
hence called by the Greeks Nomads (No/<<it3i$),
and this name was perpetuated in that of the
country. Their 2 great tribes were the
Massylians and the Massaesylians, forming 2
monarchies, which were united into one
under Masinissa, b.c. 201. [Masinissa.] On
the defeat of Jugurtha, in b.c 106, the
country became virtually subject to the
Romans, but they permitted the fa.niily of
Masinissa to govern it, with the royal title,
until B.C. 46, when Juba, who had espoused
the cause of Pompey in the civil wars, was
defeated and dethroned by Julius Caesar, and
Numidia was made a Roman province. Part
of the country was afterwards added to the
province of Mauretania. [Mauektania.] The
chief city of Numidia was Cirta,

NUM1T5R. [Romulus.]

NURSIA (-ae), a town of the Sabines,
situated near the sources of the Nar and
amidst the Apennines, whence it is called
by Virgil frigida Nuraia. It was the birth-
place of Sertorius and of the mother of

NYCTfilS. [Ntctbus.]

NYCTEUS (-€86, -«I or el), son of Hyrieus
and Clonia and father of AntiopS, who is
hence called NyetixB (-Idis). Antiope was
carried oflf by Epopeus, king of Sicyon ;
whereupon Nycteus, who govemed Thebes,
as the guardian of Labdacus, invaded Sicyon
with a Theban army. Nycteus was defeated,
and died of his wounds, leaving his brother
Lycus guardian of Labdacus. [Ltcus.]

NYCTtMENfi (-6s), daughter of Epopeus,
king of Lesbos. Having been dishonoured by
her father she concealed herself in the shade
of forests, where she was metamorphosed
by Athene (Minerva) into an owl.

NYMPHAE (-arum), female divinities of a
lower rank, with whom the Greeks peopled
all parts of nature, the sea, springs, rivers,
grottoes, trees, and mountains. These
nymphs were divided into various classes,
according to the different parts of nature of
which they are the representatives. (1) The
Sea-NymphSf consisting of the OcSdnides^ or
Nymphs of the Ocean, who were regarded aa

Digitized by VjOOQIC '




the daughters of Oceanus ; and the NirHdes
or NerBdeSf the nymphs of the Mediterranean,
who were regarded as the daughters of
Nereus. — (2) The Ndl&dea or ^'Oides, the
nymphs of fresh water, whether of rivers,
lakes, brooks, or springs. Many of these nymphs
presided over springs which were believed to
inspire those who drank of them. The
nymphs themselves were, therefore, thought
to be endowed with prophetic power, and to
be able to inspire men. Hence all persons
in a state of rapture, such as seers, poets,
madmen, &c., were said to be caught by the
nymphs {lymphatic lymphatici). — (3) 6rSd{les,
the nymphs of mountains and grottoes, also
called by names derived from the particular
mountains they inhabited. — (4) N&peteae^ the
Nymphs of glens. — (5) Drp&des and H&m&~
drpMes (from ifws), nymphs of trees, who
were believed to die together with the trees
which ha4 oeen their abode, and with which
they had come into existence. There was
also another class of nymphs, connected with
certain races or localities, and usually named
from the places with which they are asso.
elated, as Nysiades, Dodonides, Lemniae. —
The sacrifices offered to nymphs consisted of
goats, lambs, milk, and oil, but never of
wine. They are represented in works of art
as beautiful maidens, either quite naked or
only half-covered.

NYMPHAEUM (4), a mountain, with
perhaps a village, by the river Aous, near
Apollonia, in Ulyricum.

NYMPHAEUS (4). (1) A smaU river of
Latium, falling into the sea above Astura,
and contributing to the formation of the
Pomptine marshes. — (2) A small river of
Armenia, a tributary of the upper Tigris.

NtSAor NYSSA (-ae), the legendary scene
of the nurture of Dionysus (Bacchus), who
was therefore called Ngsaeua^ NpsluSt NgaS^
ft«, NgaeuSy Ngsigina^ &c. Hence the name
was applied to several places sacred to that
god. (1) In India, at the N.W. corner of the
Pwyahy near the confluence of the rivers
Cophen and Choaspes. — (2) A city of Caria,
on the S. slope of M. Messogis. — (3) A city
of Cappadocia, near the Halys, the bishopric
of St. Gregory of Nyssa.

NtSElDES or NYSlADES (-um), the
nymphs of Nysa, who are said to have reared
Dionysus, and whose names are Cisseis, Nysa,
Erato, Eriphia, Bromia, and Polyhymno.

QA-RUS (-i), a river of Sarmatia rising in
^^ the country of the Thyssagetae, and
falling into the Palus Maeotis.
OASIS (-is), the Greek form of an Egyptian

word, which was used to denote an island in th^,
xea of sand of the great Libyan Desert. These
Oasis are preserved ft-om the shifting sands
by steep hills of limestone round them, and
watered by springs, which make them fertile
and habitable. The name is applied especially
to 2 of these islands on the W. of Egypt, which
were taken possession of by the E^ptians at
an early period. (1) Oasis Major, the
Greater Oasis, was situated 7 days* journey
W. of Abydos, and belonged to Upper Egypt.
This Oasis contains considerable ruins of
the ancient Egyptian and Roman periods.
— (2) Oasis Minor, the Lesser or Second
Oasis, was a good day's journey from
the S.W. end of the lake Moeris, and be-
longed to the Heptanomis, or Middle Egypt.
— (3) A still more celebrated Oasis than
either of these was that called Ammon,
Hammon, Ammonium, Hammonis Oraculum,
from its being a chief seat of the worship and
oracle of the god Ammon. It is now called
Siwah. Its distance from Cairo is 12 days,
and from the N. coast about 160 statute
miles. The Ammonians do not appear to
have been subject to the old Egyptian mon-
archy. Cambyses, after conquering Egypt
in B.C. 525, sent an army against them,
which was overwhelmed by the sands of the
Desert. In b.c. 331, Alexander the Great
visited the oracle, which hailed him as the
son of Zeus Ammon.

OAXES. [Oaxus.]

OAXUS (-i), caUed Axus (4), by Hero-
dotus, a town in the interior of Crete on the
river Oaxes.

OBSEQUENS (-entis), JCLIUS (-i), the
author of a work, entitled Be Frodigiis or
Prodigiorum Libellus^ of which a portion is
extant. ^Of the writer nothing is known.

OCALEA (-ae), an ancient town in Boeotia,
situated on a river of the same name falling
into the lake Copais.

OCEANIDES. [Nymphae.]

Oceanus (-i), the god of the water which
was believed to surround the whole earth,
is called the son of Heaven and Earth,
the husband of Tethys, and the father of all
the river-gods and water-nymphs of the
whole earth. The early Greeks regarded the
earth as a flat circle, which was encompassed
by a river perpetually flowing round it, and
this river was Oceanus. Out of, and into this
river the sun and the stars were supposed to
rise and set ; and on its banks were the
abodes of the dead. When geographical
knowledge advanced, the name was applied
to the great outer waters of the earth, in
contradistinction to the inner seas, and espe-
cially to the Atlantic, or the sea without the
Pillars of Hercules, as distinguished from

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the Mediterratiean^ or the Sea within that
limit, and thus the Atlantic is often called
simply Oceanus. The epithet Atlantic (At-
lantlcimi Mare), was applied to it from the
mythical position of Atlas being on its shores.

OCELUM (-i), a town in the C!ottian Alps,
was the last place in Cisalpine Gaul, before
entering the territories of king Cottius.

OCHUS (-i). (1) A surname of Artaxerxes
III., king of Persia. [Ahtaxkexes III.] — (2)
A great river of Central Asia, supposed by
Home to be the same as the Oxus.

OCRICtJLUM \~\ : OtricoU)^ a town in
Umbria, situated on the Tiber near its con-
fluence with the Nar.

OCTAVIA (-ae). (1) Sister of the emperor
Augustus, married first to C. Marcellus,
consul, B.C. 50, and after his death to Antony,
the triumvir, in 40, but the latter soon
abandoned her for Cleopatra. She died
B.C. 11. She had 5 children, 3 by Marcellus,
a son and 2 daughters, and 2 by Antony,
both daughters. Her son, M. Marcellus, was
adopted by Augustus, and was destined to be
his successor, but died in 23. [Marcellxts,
No. 5.] The descendants of her 2 daugh-
ters successively ruled the Roman world.
[Antonia.] — (2) Daughter of the emperor
Claudius and Messalina, and wife of Nero.
She was divorced by the latter, that he
might marry his mistress Poppaea, and was
shortly afterwards put to death by Nero's
orders, a.d. 62.

OCTAYIUS, the name of a Roman gens,
to which the emperor Augrustus belonged,
whose original name was C. Octavius. Hence,
when he was adopted by his great uncle C.
Julius Caesar, he bore the surname of
Oelavianus. [Augustus.]

OCTODtRUS (4 : Martigny), a town of
the Veragri in the coimtry of the Helvetii.

OCTOgESA (-ae), a town of the llergetes
in Hispania Tarraconensis near the Iberus,
probably S. of the Sicoris.

OCtPETE. [Harptiae.]

OCtRHOE (.gs), daughter of the centaur

ODENlTHUS, the ruler of Pahnyra, who
checked the victorious career of the Persians
after the defeat and capture of Valerian, a.d.
260. in return for these services, Gallie-
nus bestowed upon Odenathus the title of
Augustus. He was soon afterwards murdered,
and was succeeded by his wife Zemobia, a.d.
266. *

ODESSUS (-i : Vama)^ a Greek town in
Thracia (in the later Moesia Inferior) on the
Pontus Euxinus, was founded by the Milesians,
and carried on an extensive commerce.

ODOACER (-cri), king of the Heruli, and
the leader of the barbarians who overthrew

the Western empire, a.d. 476. He took the
title of king of Italy, and reigned till his
power was overthrown by Theodoric, king of
the Goths, a.d. 493.

ODRtSAE (-arum,) the most powerful
people in Thrace, dwelling in the plain of the
Hebrus, whose king Sitalces in the time of the
Peloponnesian war exercised dominion over
almost the whole of Thrace. The poets often
use the adjective Odrpsius in the general
senje of Thracian.

ODYSSEUS. [Ulysses.]

OEAGRUS, or OEAGER (-gri), king of
Thrace, and father of Orpheus and Linus.
Hence Oe&griua is used by the poets as equiva.
lent to Thracian.

OEBALUS (-i). (1) King of Sparta, and
father of Tyndareus. The patronymics
OebMdgSf Oeb&lis and the ac^ective Oe~
b&lltts are not only applied to his de-
scendants, but to the Spartans generally.
Hence Tarentum is termed Oebalia arz, be-
cause it was founded by the Lacedaemo-
nians ; and since the Sabines were, according
to one tradition, a Lacedaemonian colony,
we find the Sabine king Titus Tatius named
Oeb&lltts TituSf and the Sabine women
OebSMdet matres. — (2) Son of Telon by a
nymph of the stream Sebethus, near Naples,
ruled in Campania.

OECHALIA (-ae). (1) A town in Thes-
saly on the Peneus near Tricca. — (2) A town
in Messenia on the frontier of Arcadia. — (3)
A town of Euboea in the district Eretria. — ^The
ancients were divided in opinion as to which
of these places was the residence of Eurytus,
whom Hercules defeated and slew. The
original legend probably belonged to the
Thessalian Oechalia, and was thence trans,
ferred to the other towns.

OEDIPUS (-i or -Sdis), son of Laius, king of
Thebes, and of Jocasta, sister of Creon. His
father having learnt from an oracle that he
was doomed to perish by the hands of his own
son, exposed Oedipus on Mt. Cithaeron, im-
mediately after his birth, with his feet pierced
and tied together. The child was found by
a shepherd of king Polybus of Corinth, and
was called from his swollen feet Oedipus.
Having been carried to the palace, the king
reared him as his own child; but when
Oedipus had grown up, he was told by the
oracle at Delphi, which he had gone to con-
sult, that he was destined to slay his father
and commit incest with his mother. Think-
ing that Polybus was his father, he resolved
not to return to Corinth ; but on the road
between Delphi and Daulis he met Laius,
whom he slew in a scuffle without knowing
that he was his father. In the mean time
the celebrated Sphinx had appeared in the

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neighbourhood of Thebes. Seated on a rock,
she put a riddle to every Theban that passed
by, and who ever was unable to solve it was
killed by the monster. This calamity induced
the Thebans to proclaim that whoever should
deliver the country of the Sphinx, should
obtain the kingdom and Jocasta as his wife.
The riddle ran as follows : " A being with 4
feet has 2 feet and 3 feet, and only one voice ;
but its feet vary, and when it has most it is
weakest." Oedipus solved the riddle by
saying that it was man, who in infancy
crawls upon all fours, in manhood stands
erect upon 2 feet, and in old age supports his
tottering legs with a staff. The Sphinx
thereupon threw herself down fh>m the rock.
Oedipus now obtained the kingdom of Thebes,
and married his mother, by whom he became
the father of Eteocles, PolynTces, AntigSnS,
and IsmSnS. In consequence of this in-
oestuous alliance, the country of Thebes was
visited by a plague. The oracle, on being
consulted, ordered that the murderer of Laius
should be expelled; and the seer Tiresias
told Oedipus that he was the guilty man.
Thereupon Jocasta hung herself, and Oedipus
put out his own eyes, and wandered from
Thebes, accompanied by his daughter An-
tigdne. In Attica he at length found a place
of refuge ; and at C!olonus near Athens, the
Eumenides removed him from the earth.
The tragic fate of Oedipus and of his children
formed the subject of many of the noblest of
the Greek tragedies.

OENEUS (-Ws, «, or el), king of Pleuron
and Calydon in Aetolia, and husband of Al-
thaea, father of Tydeus, Meleager, Gorge,
Deianlra, &o. He was deprived of his kingdom
by the sons of his brother Agrius. He was sub-
sequently avenged by his grandson Diomedes,
who slew Agrius and his sons, and placed upon
the throne Andraemon, the son-in-law of
Oeneus, as the latter was too old. Diomedes
took his grandfather with him to Pelopon-
nesus, but here he was slain by two of the
sons of Agrius who had escaped the slaughter
of their brothers. Respecting the boar,
which laid waste the lands of Calydon in his
reign, see Melbageb.

OENIADAE (4lrum\ a town of Acamania,
near the moutti of the Achelous, and sur-
rounded by marshes. The fortress NSsus or
NSsus belonging to the territory of Oeniadae
was situated in a small lake near Oeniadae.

0ENID£S (-ae), a patronymic from
Oeneus, and hence given to Meleager, son of
Oeneus, and Diomedes, grandson of Oeneus.

OENOMAuS (-i), king of Pisa in EUs, son
of Ares (Mars) and father of Hippodsonla.


OEX0n£ (-eg}, danghter of the river-god

Cebren, and wife of Paris, before he carried
off Helen. [Paris.]

OENOPIa (-ae), the ancient name of


0EN5ph1?TA (-drum), a town in Boeotia,
on the left bank of the Asopus, memorable for
the victory gained here by the Athenians
over the Boeotians, b.c. 456.

OENOPION (-flnis), son of Dionysus
(Bacchus) and husband of the nymph Helice,
and father of Meropfi, with whom the giant
Orion fell in love. [Orioj*.]


OENOTRIDES, 2 small islands in the
Tyrrhene sea, off the coast of Lucania, and
opposite the town of Elea or Yelia and the
mouth of the Helos.

OETA (-ae) or OETfi (-es), a rugged pile
of mountains in the S. of Thessaly, an eastern
branch of Mt. Pindus, extending along the 8L
bank of the Sperehius to the Maliao gulf at
Thermopylae, thus forming the N. barrier of
Greece proper. Respecting the pass of Mt.
Oeta, see Thxrmopylas. Oeta was celebrated
in mythology as the mountain on which
Hercules burnt himself to death.

OFELLA (-ae), a man of sound sense and
of a straightforward character, whom Horace
contrasts with the Stoic quacks of his time.
Ofella was also the name of a family in the
Luoretia gens.

OGtGES (-Is), or OGtGUS (-i) son of
Boeotus, and the first ruler of Thebes, which
was called after him Ootoia. In his reign
a great deluge is said to have occurred. The
name of Ogyges is also connected with Attio
story, for in Attica an Ogygian flood is like-
wise mentioned. From Ogyges the Thebans
are called by the poets dgpgldae, and Dgpgitu
is used in the sense of Theban.

6iLEUS (-«5s, 61, or el), king of the Lo-
crians, and father of Ajax, who is hence
called dlUdSs^ diRHdit, and 4f'ax dileS. He
was one of the Argonauts.

OLBIA (-ae). (1) Narbonensis, on a hill
called Olbianus, E. of Telo Martius. - <2) A city
near the N. end of the E. side of the island
of Sardinia, with the only g^ood harbour on
this coast ; and therefore the usual landing-
place for persons coming from Rome. — (3)


OLCXdES (-um), a people in Hispania Tar-
raconensis, near the sources of the Anas, in a
part of the country afterwards ii^abited by
the Oretani.

OLCInIUM (-1 : Ihdeigno)^ a town on the
coast of Illyria.

OLEARUS. [Oliarus.]

OLEN, a mythical personage, who is
represented as the earliest Greek lyric poet.
He is called both an Hyperborean, and a

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Lydan, and is said to have settled at Delos.
His name seems to signify simply the flute-

OLENUS (-i). (1) The husband of Lethaea,
changed with her into a stone. — (2) A town
in Aetolia, near New Pleuron, destroyed by
the Aetolians at an early period.— <3) A town
in Achaia, between Patrae and Dyme. The
goat Amalthaea, which suckled the infant
ZeuB (Jupiter), is called Olenia capella by
the poets, either because the goat was sup-
posed to have been bom near the town of
Olenus, and to have been subsequently trans-
ferred to Crete, or because the nymph Amal-
thaea, to idiom the goat belonged, was a
daughter of Olenus.

OLIARUS ot OLEARUS (-i), a small
island in the Aegean sea, one of the Cyclades,
W. of^Paros.

OLISIPO (lMhon)f a town in Lusitania,
near the mouth of the Tagus.

OLYMPIA (-ae), a small plain in Elis,
bounded on the S. by the river Alph€us,
and on the W. by the river CladSus, in
which the Olympic games were celebrated.
In this plain was the sacred grove of Zeus
(Jupiter) called Altis. The Altis and its
immediate neighbourhood were adorned with
numerous temples, statues, and public build,
ings, to which the general appellation of
Olympia was given ; but there was no town
of this name. Among the numerous temples
in the Altis the most celebrated was the
OlympiSumy or temple of Zeus Olympius,
which contained the master-piece of Greek
art, the colossal statue of Zeus by Phidias.
The statue was made of ivory and gold, and
the god was represented as seated on a
throne of cedar wood, adorned with gold,
ivory, ebony, and precious stones. The
Olympic games were celebrated from the
earliest times in Greece. There was an
interval of 4 years between each celebration
of the festival, which interval was called an
Olympiad ; but the Olympiads were not em-
ployed as a chronological era till the victory
of Coroebus in the foot-race, b.c. 776. An

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