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wealth of ancient Lydia.

PACTI^E (-€8), a town in the Thracian
Chersonesus, on the Propontis, to which
Alcibiades retired when he was banished by
the Athenians, B.C. 407.

PACtviUS (-i) M., the greatest of the
Roman tragic poets, was bom about b.c. 220,
at Bnmdisium, and was the son of the sister
of Ennius. After living many years at
Rome, where he acquired great reputation as
a painter, as well as a poet, he returned to
Bnmdisium, where he died in the 90th year
of his age, b.c. 130. His tragedies were
taken from the great Greek writers ; but he
did not conflne himself, like his predecessors,
to mere translation, but worked up his mate>
rials with more freedom and independent

PADUS (-i: Po), the chief river of Italy,
identified by the Roman poets with the
fabulous Eridanus, ftrom which amber was
obtained. This notion appears to have arisen
from, the Phoenician vessels receiving at the
mouths of the Padus the amber which had
been transported by land from the coasts of
the Baltic to those of the Adriatic. The
Padus rises on Mt. Vesula {Monte Viso)^ in
the Alps, and flows in an E.-ly direction
through the great plain of Cisalpine Gaul,
which it divides into 2 parts, Gallia Cispa.
dana and Gallia Transpadana. It receives
numerous affluents, which drain the whole
of this vast plain, descending ti-om the Alps
on the N., and the Apennines on the S.
These affluents, increased in the summer by
the melting of the snow on the mountains,
frequently bring down such a large body of
water as to cause the Padus to overflow its
banks. The whole course of the river, in-
cluding its windings, is about 450 miles.
About 20 miles from the sea the river divides
itself into 2 main branches, and falls into

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the Adriatic sea by several mouths, between
Ravenna and Altinum.

PAEAN (-anis), that is, "the healing,"
was originally the name of the physician of
the Olympian gods. Subsequently the name
was used in the more general sense of
deliverer from any evil or calamity, and was
thus applied to Apollo. From Apollo himself
the name was transferred to the song dedi-
cated to him, and to the warlike • song sung
before or during a battle.

FAEONES (-um), a powerftil Thracian
people, who in historical times inhabited the
whole of the N. of Macedonia, from the
frontiers of Illyria to some little distance E.
of the river Strymon. Their coimtry was
called Paeonia,

PAESTANUS sinus. [Paestum.]

PAESTUM (-i), called POSIDONIA (-ae)
by the Greeks, was a city in Lucania, rituated
4 or 5 miles S. of the Silarus, and near the
bay which derived its name from the town
(Paestanus Sinus : Q. of Salerno), It was
colonised by the Sybarites about b.c. 524, and
soon became a powerful and flourishing city.
Under the Romans it gradually sank in im-
nortance ; and in the time of Augustus it is
only mentioned on account of the beautiful
roses grown in its neighbourhood. The ruins
of two Doric temples at Paestum are some
of the most remarkable remains of antiquity.

PAETUS (-i), a cognomen in many Roman
gentes, signified a person who had a slight
cast in the eye.

PAETUS, AELIUS, the name.of 2 brothers,
Publius, consul b.c. 201, and Sextus, consul
u.c. 198, both of them, and especially the
latter, jurists of eminence.


PAGASAE (-arum) or PAGASA (-ac), a
town of Thessaly, on the coast of Magnesia,
and on the bay c^ed after it Snors PAOASAEts
or Paoasicus. It was the port of lolcos, and
afterwards of Pherae, and is celebrated in
mythology as the place where Jason built the
ship Argo. Hence the adjective Pagasaeua is
applied to Jason, and is also used in the
general sense of Thessalian. Apollo is called
Pagasaeus from having a temple at the place.

PALAEMON (.dnis), son of Athamaa and
Ino, originally called Melicertes, became
a marine god, when his mother leapt with
him into the sea. [Athamas.] The Romans
identified Palaemon with their own god
Portunus, or Portumnus. [Portunus.]

PALAEOPOLIS. [Neapolis.]

PALAESTfi (-68), a town on the coast of
Epirus, and a little S. of the Aoroceraunian
mountains, where Caesar landed when he
crossed over to Greece to carry on the war
against Pompey.

PALAESTINA (-ae), the Greek and Roman
form of the Hebrew word which was used to
denote the country of the Philistines, and
which was extended to the whole country.
The Romans called it Judaea, extending to
the whole country the name of its S. part.
It was regarded by the Greeks and Romans
as a part of Syria. It was bounded by the
Mediterranean on the "W, ; by the mountains
of Lebanon on the N. ; by the Jordan and its
lakes on the E. ; and by the deserts which
separated it from Egypt on the S. The
Romans did not come into contact with the
country till b.c. 63, when Pompey took Jeru-
salem. From this time the country was
really subject to the Romans. At the death
of Herod, his kingdom was divided between
his sons as tetrarchs ; but the different
parts of Palestine were eventually annexed
to the Roman province of Syria, and were
governed by a procurator.

PALAMEDSS (-is), son of Nauplius and
Clymeng, and one of the Greek heroes, who
sailed against Troy. When" Ulysses feigned
madness that he might not be compelled to sail
with the other chiefs, Palamedes detected his
stratagem by placing his infant son before him
while he was ploughing. [Ulysses.] In order
to revenge himself, Ulysses bribed a servant of
Palamedes to conceal under his master's bed
a letter written in the name of Priam. He
then accused Palamedes of treachery ; upon
searching his tent they found the fatal letter,
and thereupon Palamedes was stoned to death
by the Greeks. Later writers describe Pala-
medes as a sage, and attribute to him the
invention of lighthouses, measures, scales,
the discus, dice, &c. He is further said to
have added the letters 0, |, Xf P* to the
original alphabet of Cadmus.



PAL£s (-is), a Roman divinity of flocks
and shepherds, whose festival, the Palilia,
was celebrated on the 2l8t of April, the day
on which Rome was founded.

PAUCI (-drum) were Sicilian gods, twin
sons of Zeus (Jupiter) and the nymph Thalia.
Their mother, from fear of Hera (Juno), prayed
to be swallowed up by the earth ; her prayer
was granted ; but in due time twin boys
issued ftrom the earth, who were worshipped
in the neighbourhood of Mt. Aetna, near

PALiNf^RUM (-i : C, Palinuro), apromon-
tory on the W. coast of Lucania, said to have
derived its name from Palinurus, pilot of the
ship of Aeneas, who fell into the sea, and was
murdered on the coast by the natives.

PALLADIUM (-i), properly any image of
Pallas Athena (Minerva), but specially applied

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to an ancient image of this goddess at Troy,
•jn tlie preservation of which the safety of the
town depended. It was stolen by Ulysses and
Diomedes, and was carried by the latter to
Greece. According to some accounts, Troy
contained two Palladia, one of which was
carried off by Ulysses and Diomedes, while
the other was conveyed by Aeneas to Italy.
Others relate that the Palladium taken by
the Greeks was a mere imitation, while that
which Aeneas brought to Italy was the genuine
image. But this twofold Palladium was pro-
bably a mere invention to account for its
existence at Rome.

PALLANTIA (-ae), the chief town of the
Vaccaei, in the N. of Hispania Tarraconensis,
and on a tributary of the Durius.

(-Idig), patronymics given to Aurora, the
daughter of the giant Pallas.

PALLANTIUM (4), an ancient town of Ar-
cadia, near Tegea, said to have been founded
by Pallas, son of Lycaon. Evander is said to
have come from this place, and to have called
the town which he founded on the banks of
the Tiber, Pallanteum (afterwards P&lantium
and Paldt\um)f after the Arcadian town.
Hence Evander is called Fallcmtiua heros,

PALLAS (.&dis), a surname of Athena.

PALLAS (-antis) . (1) One of the giants.—
(2) The father of AthCna, according to some
traditions. — (3) Son of Lycaon, and grand-
father of Evander. [PALLANTIUM.] (4) SoU

of Evander, and an ally of Aeneas. — (5) Son
of the Athenian king Pandion, from whom
the celebrated family of the Pallantidae at
Athens traced their origin. — (6) A favourite
ft'eedman of the emperor Claudius, who ac
quired enormous wealth. Hence the line in
Juvenal, ego possideo pltu Palkmte et Licinio.

PALLEnE (-68), the most W.-ly of the 3
peninsulas running out from C^alcidice in

PALMTRA (-ae: Tadmor\ a celebrated
city of Syria, standing in an oasis of the great
Syrian Desert, which from its position was a
halting place for the caravans between Syria
and Mesopotamia. Here Solomon built a city,
which was called in Hebrew Tadmor, that is,
the city of palm trees ; and of this name the
Greek Palmyra is a translation. Under
Hadrian and the Antonines it was highly fa-
voured and reached its greatest splendour.
The history of its temporary elevation to the
rank of a capital, in ttie 3rd century of the
Christian era, is related under Goknathus
and Zemobia. Its splendid ruins, which form
a most striking object in the midst of the
Desert, are of the Roman period.

FAMFHtLIA (-ae), a narrow strip of the

S. coast of Asia Minor, extending in a sort
of arch along the Sinus Pamphyllus {G. of
Adalia)^ between Lycia on the W., and Cilicia
on the £., and on the N. bordering on Pisidia.
The inhabitants were a mixture of races,
whence their name Pamphyli (ri«ft^Xo»), of
all races. There were Greek settlements in
the land, the foundation of which was ascribed
to Mopsus, fh>m whom the country was in
early times called Mopsopia. It was succes-
sively a part of the Persian, Macedonian,
Greco-Syrian, and Pergamene kingdoms, and
passed by the will of Attains III. to the Ro-
mans (B.C. ISO), under whom it was made a
province ; but this province of Pamphylia in-
cluded also Pisidia and Isauria, and after-
wards a part of Lycia. Under Constantino
Pisidia was again separated from Pamphylia,
PAN (Pftnds), the great god of flocks and
shepherds among the Greeks, usually called a
son of Hermes (Mercury), was originally an
Arcadian god ; and Arcadia was always the
principal seat of his worship. From this
country his name and worship afterwards
spread over other parts of Greece ; but at
Athens his worship was not introduced till
the time of the battle of Marathon. He is
described as wandering among the mountains
and valleys of Arcadia, either amusing him-
self with the chase, or leading the dances of
the nymphs. He loved music, and invented
the syrinx or 8hepherd*s flute. Pan, like
other gods who dwelt in forests, was dreaded
by travellers, to whom he sometimes appeared,
and whom he startled with sudden awe or

Pan. (From a Braue Belief found at PompeiL)

terror. Hence sudden fHght, without any
visible cause, was ascribed to Pan, and was
called a Panic fear. The Romans identified

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their god Faunas with Pan. [Faunus.] In
works of art Pan is represented as a sensual
being, with horns, puck-nose, and goat's feet,
sometimes in the act of dancing, and some-
times playing on the syrinx.

PANAETlUS (-i), a native of Khodes, and
a celebrated Stoic philosopher, lived some
years at Rome, where he became an intimate
friend of Laelius and of Scipio Africanus the
younger. He succeeded Antipater as head
of the Stoic school, and died at Athens, at ail
events before b.c. 111. The principal work
of Panaetius was his treatise on the theory of
moral obligation, from which Cicero took the
greater part of his work De Officiis,

PANDARfiOS, son of Merops of Miletus,
whose daughters are said to have been carried
off by the Harpies.

PANPArUS (-i). (1) A Lyclan, dis-
tinguished in the Trojan army as an archer.
— (2) Son of Alcanor, and twin-brother of
Bitias, one of the companions of Aeneas, slain
by Tumus.

PANDATARIA (-ae : Vendutene) a small
island off the coast of Campania, to which Julia,
the daughter of Augustus, was baniehed.

PANDlON (-Snis). (1) King of Athens,
son of Erichthonius, and father of Procne
and Philomela. The tragic history of his
daughters is given under Terbxts. — (2) King
of Athens, son of Cecrops, was expelled from
Athens by the Metionidae, and fled to Megara,
of which he became king.

PANDORA (-ae), the name of the first
woman on earth. When Prometheus had
stolen the fire from heaven, Zeus (Jupiter)
in revenge caused Hephaestus to make a
woman out of earth, who by her charms and
beauty should bring misery upon the human
race. Aphrodite (Venus) adorned her with
beauty; Hermes (Mercury) bestowed upon
her boldness and cunning; and the gods
called her Pandora, or All^fted^ as each of
the gods had given her some power by which
she was to work the ruin of man. Hermes
took her to Epimetheus, who made her his
wife, forgetting the advice of his brother
Prometheus not to receive any gifts from the
gods. Pandora brought with her from heaven
a box containing every human ill, upon
opening which they all escaped and spread
over the earth, Hope alone remaining. At a
still later period the box is said to have con-
tained all the blessings of the gods, which
would have been preserved for the human
race, had not Pandora opened the vessel, so
that the winged blessings escaped.

PANDOSIA (-ae). (1) A town of Epirus
fn the district Thesprotia, on the river
Acheron. — (2) A town in Bruttium near the
frontiers of Laoania, situated on the riter

Acheron. It was here that Alexander of
Epirus fell, B.C. 326, in accordance with an

PANDROSOS (-i), ».«. " the all-bedewing,"
or •• refreshing," was a daughter of Cecrops
and a sister of Herse and Aglauros.

PANGAEU8 (-i) or PANGAEA (-orum), a
range of mountains in Macedonia, between
the Strymon and the Nestus, and in tho
neighbourhood of Philippi, with gold and
silver mines, and with splendid roses.

PANIONIUM (-i), a spot on the N. of tho
promontory of Myc&lg, with a temple to
Poseidon (Neptune), which was the place of
meeting for the cities of Ionia.

PANNONIA (-ae), a Roman province be-
tween the Danube and the Alps, separated on
the W. from Noricum by the Mons Cetius, and
frt)m Upper Italy by the Alpes Juliae, on the
S. from Illyria by the Savus, on the E. from
Dacia by tiie Danube, and on the N. from
Germany by the same river. — The Panno-
nians (Fannonii) were probably of Illyrian
origin. They were a brave and warlike
people, and were conquered by the Romans
in the time of Augustus (about b.c. 33). In
A.D. 7 the Pannonians joined the Dalmatians
and the other Illyrian tribes in their revolt
from Rome, but were conquered by Tiberius,
after a struggle, which lasted 3 years (a.d.
7 — 9). Pannonia was originally only one
province, but was afterwards divided into 2
provinces, called Pannonia Superior and
Pannonia Inferior,

PANOMPHAEUS (-i), i.e. the author of
all signs and omens, a surname of Zeus

PANOPE (-es) or pInOPAEA (-ae), a
nymph of the sea, daughter of Nereus and

PAN6PEUS(-e«8or-«I). (1) SonofPhocun,
accompanied Amphitryon on his expedinou
against the Taphians or Teleboans, and was
one of the Calydonian hunters. — (2) Or
F&n6pS (-es), an ancient town in Phocis on the
Cephissus and near the frontiers of Boeotia.

PANOPTES. [Abgus.]

PAN0RMU8 (-i : Palermo) ^ an important
town on the N. coast of Sicily, founded by
the Phoenicians, and which at a later time re-
ceived its Greek name from its excellent har-
bour. From the Phoenicians it passed into the
hands of the Carthaginians, and was taken
by the Romans in the 1st Punic war, b.c.

PANSA (-ae), C. VIBIUS, consul withHir-
tius, B.C. 43. [HiRTius.]

PANTAGliS or PANTAGlES (-ae), a small
river on the E. coast of Sicily, flowing into
the sea between Megara and Syracuse.

PAHTHEUM (-i), a celebrated temple at

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Aome in the Campus Martias, which it still
extant and used as a Christian church, re-
sembles in its general form the Colosseum in
the Regent's Park, London. It was built by
M. Agrippa, b.o. 27, and was dedicated to
Mars and Venus.

PANTHOUS, contr. PANTHtJS (Voc. Pan.
thH)f a priest of Apollo at Troy, and father
3f Enphorbus, who is therefore called Pan.
thSidit, Pythagoras is also called PanthSidis
because he maintained that his soul had in a
previous state animated the body of Euphorbus.
He is called by Virgil Othrp&dSSf or son of

PANTICAPAEUM, a town in the Tauric
Chersonesus, situated on a hill on the
Cimmerian Bosporus, was founded by the
Milesians, about b.c. 541, and became the
residence of the Greek kings of the Bosporus.

PANI^AsIS, a native of Halicamassus, and
a relation, probably an uncle, of the historian
Herodotus, flourished about b.c. 480, and
was celebrated as^an epic poet.

PAPHLAGONIA (-ae), a country of Asia
Minor, bounded by Bithynia on the W., by
Pontus on the E., by Phrygia and afterwards
by Galatia on the S., and by the Euxine on
the N. In the Trojan war the Paphlagonians
are said to have come to the assistance of the
Trojans, from the land of the Heneti, under
the command of Pylaemenes. The Paphla-
gonians were subdued by Croesus, and
afterwards formed part of the Persian empire.
Under the Romans Paphlagonia formed part
of the province of Galatia ; but it was made
a separate province by Constantine.

PAPHUS (4). (1) Son of Pygmalion, and
founder of the city of the same name. — (2) The
name of 2 towns on the W. coast of Cyprus,
called " Old Paphos" {Uctkaiwa^) and " New
Paphos," the former near the promontory
Zephyrium, 10 stadia from the coast, the
latter more inland, 60 stadia from the former.
Old Paphos was the chief seat of the worship
of Aphrodite (Vends), who is said to have
landed at this place after her birth among
the waves, and who is hence frequently called
the Paphian goddess (Paphia). Here she
had a celebrated temple, the high priest of
which exercised a kind of religious superin-
tendence over the whole island.

PAPINIANUS (-i), AEMILIUS, a celebrated
Roman jurist, was praefectus praetorio, under
the emperor Septimius Swerus, and was put
to death by Caracalla, a.d. 212.




PARAETACEnE (-Ss), a mountainous
region on the borders of Media and Persis.


an important city on the N. coast of Africa,
belonged politically to Egypt : hence this
city on the W. and Pelusium on the E. are
called " cornua Aegypti." The adjective
Paraetoniut is used by tiie poets in the general
sense of Egyptian.


PARIS (-Ydis). (1) Also called ALEX-
ANDER (-dri), was the second son of Priam
and Hecuba. Before his birth Hecuba
dreamed that she had brought forth a fire-
brand, the flames of which spread over the
whole city. Accordingly as soon as the child
was bom, he was exposed on Mt. Ida, but
was brought up by a shepherd, who gave him
the name of Paris. When he had grown up,
he distinguished himself as a valiant defender
of the flocks and shepherds, and was hence
called Alexander, or the defender of men. He
succeeded in discovering his real origin,
and was received by Priam as his son. He
married OenonC, the daughter of the river
god Cebren, but he soon deserted her for
Helen. The tale runs that when Peleus and
Thetis solemnised their nuptials, all the gods
were invited to the marriage with the excep-
tion of Eris (Discordia), or Strife. Enraged
at her exclusion, the goddess threw a golden
apple among the guests, with the inscription,
" to the fairest." Thereupon Hera (Juno),
Aphrodite (Venus), and Ath€na (Minerva),
each claimed the apple for herself. Zeus
(Jupiter) ordered Hermes (Mercury) to take
the goddesses to Mt. Ida, and to intrust the
decision of the dispute to the shepherd Paris.

Parii. (Aegins Marbles.)

The goddesses accordingly appeared before
him. Hera promised him the sovereiguty oi

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Asia, Athena renown in war, and Aphro-
oite the fairest of women for his wife. Paris
decided in favour of Aphrodite, and gave her
the golden apple. This judgment called forth
in Hera and Athena fierce hatred against
Troy. Under the protection of Aphrodite,
Paris now sailed to Greece, and was hospitably
received in the palace of Menelaus at Sparta.
Here he succeeded in carrying off Helen, the
Mrife of Menelaus, who was the most beautiful
woman in the world. Hence arose the Trojan
war. Before her marriage with Menelaus,
she had been wooed by th9 noblest chiefs of
all parts of Greece. Her former suitors now
resolved to revenge her abduction, and sailed
ftgainst Troy. [Aoamemmom.] Paris fought

with Menelaus before the walls of Troy, and
was defeated, but was carried off by Aphro-
dite. He is said to have killed Achilles,
either by one of his arrows, or by treachery.
[Achilles.] On the capture of Troy, Paris
was wounded by Philoctetes with one of the
arrows of Hercules, and then returned to his
long abandoned wife Oenone. But as she
refused to heal the wound, Paris died. Oenone
quickly repented, and put an end to her own
life. Paris is represented in works of art as
a beautiful youth, without a beard, and with
a Phrygian cap. — (2) The name of two cele-
brated pantomimes, of whom the elder lived
in the reign of the emperor Nero, and the
younger in that of Domitian.

Judgment of Pani. (Prom • painted Vaae.)

PARISH. [LxJTKTiA Pabisiorum.]

PARIUM (-i), a city of Mysia, on the
Propontis, founded by a colony from Miletus
and Paros.

PARMA (-ae : Parma), a town in Gallia
Cispadana, situated on a river of the same
name, between Placentia and Mutina, origi-
nally a town of the Boii, but made a Roman
colony B.C. 183. It was celebrated for its

PARMENIDES (-is), a distinguished Greek
philosopher, was a native of Elea in Italy,
and the founder of the Eleatic school of phi-
losophy, in which he was succeeded by Zeno.
He was bom about b.c. 513, and visited
Athens in 448, when he was 65 years of age.

PARMENION (-onis), a distinguished Ma-
cedonian general in the service of Philip and
Alexander the Great. In Alexander's inva-
sion of Asia, Parmenion was regarded as
second in command, and is continually spoken
of as the most attached of the king's friends.

But when Philotas, the son of Parmenion,
was accused in Drangiana (b.c. 330) of being
privy to a plot against the king's life, he not
only confessed his own guilt, when put to the
torture, but involved his father also in the
plot. Whether the king really believed in
the guilt of Parmenion or deemed his life a
necessary sacrifice to policy after the execution
of his son, he caused his aged friend to be as-
sassinated in Media before he could receive
the tidings of his son's death.

PARNASSUS (-i), a range of mountains
extending S.E. through Doris and Phocis, and
terminating at the Corinthian gulf between
Cirrha and Anticyra. But the name was more
usually restricted to the highest part of the
range a few miles N. of Delphi. Its 2 highest
summits were called [email protected] and Lycorea ;
hence Parnassus is frequently described by
the poets as double-headed. The sides of
Parnassus were well- wooded ; at its foot grew
myrtle, laurel and olive-trees, and higher up

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firs ; and its summit was covered with snow
during the greater part of the year. It con-
tained numerous caves, glens, and romantic
ravines. It is celebrated as one of the chief
rteats of Apollo and the Muses, and an in-
spiring source of poetry and song. On Mt.
Lycorea was the C!orycian cave, from which
the Muses are sometimes called the Corycian
nymphs. Just above Delphi was the far-
famed Castalian spring, which issued from
between 2 cliffs, called Nauplia and Hyamplia.
These cliffs are frequently called by the poets
the summits of Parnassus, though they are
in reality only small peaks at the base of the
mountain. The mountain also was sacred to
Dionysus (Bacchus), and on one of its summits
the Thyades held their Bacchic revels. Be-
tween Parnassus Proper and Mt. Cirphis was
the valley of the Plistus, through which the
sacred road ran from Delphi to Daulis and
Stiris; and at the point where the road
branched off to these 2 places (called rx'rr^),
Oedipus slew his father Lalus.

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