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PARNCS (-ethis), a mountain in the N.E.
of Attica, was a continuation of Mt. Cithaeron,
and formed part of the boundary between
Boeotia and Attica. It was well wooded,
abounded in game, and on its lower slopes
produced excellent wine.

PAROPAMISUS (-1), the part of the great
chain of mountains in Central Asia, lying
between the Sariphi M. (Jf. of Kohistan) on
the W., and M. Imaus {Himalaya) on the £.,
or ftrom about the sources of the river Margus
on the W. to the point where the Indus breaks
through the chain on the E. The Greeks
sometimes called them the Indian Caucasus,
A name which has come down to our times
in the native form of Hindoo-Koosh, Its
inhabitants were called Paromisadae or Pa-

PArOS (-i), an island in the Aegean sea,
one of the larger of the Cyclades, was situated
S. of Delos, and W. of Naxos, being separated
from the latter by a channel 5 or 6 miles
\>'ide. It is about 36 miles in circumference.
It was inhabited by lonians, and became so
prosperous, even at an early period, as to
send out colonies to Thasos and to Parium on
the Propontis. In the first invasion of
Greece by the generals of Darius, Paros sub-
mitted to the Persians ; and after the battle of
Marathon, Miltiades attempted to reduce the
island, but failed in his attempt, and received
a wound of which he died. [Miltiades.]
After the defeat of Xerxes, Paros came under
the supremacy of Athens, and shared the fate
of the other Cyclades The most celebrated
production of Paros was its marble, which
was extensively used by the ancient sculptors.
It was chieflv obtained from a mountain

called Marpeua. Paros was the birthplace
of the poet Archilochus.— ^In Paros was dis-
covered the celebrated inscription called the
Parian ChronieU, which is. now preserved at
Oxford. In its perfect state it contained a
chronological account of the principal events
in Greek history fh)m Cecrops, b.c. 1582 to
the archonship of Diognetus, b.c. 264.

PARRHIsTa (-ae), a district in the 8. of
Arcadia. The adjective Parrhasiua is tn-
quently used by the poets as equivalent to

PARRHXsiUS (-i), one of the most cele-
brated Greek painters, was a native of
Ephesus, but practised his art chiefly at
Athens. He flourished about b.c. 400. Re-
specting the story of his contest with Zeuxis,
see Zbuxis.

PARTHfiNI. [Parthiki.]

PARTHENiUM (-i). (1) A town in Mysia,
8. of Pergamum. — (2) A promontory in the
Chersonesus Taurica, on which stood a temple
of the Tauric Artemis (Diana) from whom
it derived its name. It was in this temple
that human sacrifices were offered to the

PARTHIniU8 (-i). (1) Of Nicaea, a
celebrated grammarian, who taught Virgil
Greek. — (2) A mountain on the frontiers of
Argolis and Arcadia. It was on this moun-
tain that Telephus, the son of Hercules and
Auge, was suckled by a hind ; and here aisc
the god Pan appeared to Phidippides, the
Athenian courier, shortly before the battle of
Marathon.— (3) The chief river of Paphlagonia,
flowing into the Euxine, and forming in the
lower part of its course the boundary between
Bithynia and Paphlagonia.

PARTHENON (-6ni8 : i. e. the rirgin't
ehatnber)^ the usual name of the temple of
Athena (Minerva) Parthenos on the A<Sro-
polis of Athens. It was erected under the
administration of Pericles, and was dedicated
B.C. 438. Its architects were Ictinus and
Callicrates, but all the works were under the
superintendence of Phidias. It was built
entirely of Pentelic marble : its dimensions
were, 227 English feet long, 101 broad, and
65 high : it was 50 feet longer than the
edifice which preceded it. Its architecture
was of the Doric order, and of the purest
kind. It consisted of an oblong central
building (the cella)^ surrounded on all sides
by a peristyle of pillarSi . The cella was
divided into 2 chambers of unequal size, the
prodotntu or pronaos and the opiathodotma or
postieutn ; the former, which was the lai^rcr,
contained the statue of the goddess, and was
the true sanctuary, the latter being probably
used as a treasury and vestry. It was
adorned, within and without, with colours

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and gilding, and with sculptures which are
regarded as the master-pieces of ancient art.
( 1 .) The tympana of the pediments were filled
with groups of detached colossal statues,
those of the £. or principal front representing
the hirth of Athena, and those of the W.
front the contest between Athena and Posei-
don (Neptune) for the land of Attica. (2.) In
the fricM of the entablature^ the metopes
were filled with sculptures in high relief,
representing subjects from the Attic my-
thology, among which the battle of the
Athenians with the Centaurs forms the
subject of the 15 metopes from the S. side,
which are now in the British Museum.
(8.) Along the top of the external wall of the
cettot under the ceiling of the peristyle, ran
a frieze sculptured with a representation of
the Panathenaic procession, in very low
relief. A large number of the slabs of this
frieze were brought to England by Lord
Elgin, with the 15 metopes just mentioned,
and a considerable number of other firagments,
including some of the most important, though
mutilated, statues from the pediments ; and
the whole collection was purchased by the
nation in 1816, and deposited in the British
Museum. The worst of the injuries which
the Parthenon has suffered from war and
pillage was inflicted in the siege of Athens
by the Yenetians in 1687, when a bomb
exploded in the very centre of the Parthenon,
and threw down much of both the side walls.
Its ruins are BtUl, however, in sufficient pre-
servation to give a good idea of the construc-
tion of all its principal parts.

PARTHENOPAEUS (-i), son of Meleager
and Atalanta, and one of the 7 heroes who
marched against Thebes. [Adrastus.]

PARTHENOPE. [Neapolis.]

THIENE (-5s : KJMrassan)t a country of Asia,
to the S.E. of the Caspian, originally bounded
on the N. by Hyrcania, on the E. by Aria,
on the 8. by Cumania, and on the W. by
Media. The Parthians were a very warlike
people, and were especially celebrated . as
horse-archers. Their tactics became so
celebrated as to pass into a proverb. Their
mail-clad horsemen spread like a cloud round
the hostile army, and poured in a shower of
darts, and then evaded any closer conflict
by a rapid flight, during which they still
phot their arrows backwards upon the enemy,
The Parthians were subject successively to
the Persians and to the Greek kings of Syria ;
but about B.C. 250 they revolted from the
Seleucidae, under a; chieftain named Arsaces,
who founded an independent monarchy. Their
empire extended over Asia from the Euphrates
to the Indus, and from the Indian Ocean to

the Paropamisus, or even to the Oxus. The
history of their empire till its overthrow by
the Persians in a.d. 226 is given under
Arsacxs. The Latin poets of the Augustan
age use the names Parthi, Persae, and Medi

PARTHlNI or PARTHENI (-orum), an
niyrian people in the neighbourhood of

PARYADRES, a mountain chain of Asia,
connecting the Taurus and the mountains of
Armenia, was considered as the boundary
between Cappadocia and Armenia,

PARY8ATI8 (-tdis), daughter of Artaxerxes
I. Long^anus, king of Persia, and wife of
her own brother Darius Ochus, and mother of
Artaxerxes Mnemon, and Cyrus. She sup-
ported the latter in his rebellion against his
brother Artaxerxes, b.c. 401. [Ctrus.] She
afterwards poisoned Statira, the wife of
Artaxerxes, and induced the king to put
Tissaphemes to death, whom she hated as
having been the flrst to discover the designs
of Cyrus to his brother.

PASARGADA (-ae), or -AE (-ftrum), the
older of the 2 capitals of Persis (the other
and later being Persepolis), is said to have
been founded by Cyrus the Great, on the
spot where he gained his great victory over
Astyages. The tomb of Cyrus stood here in
the midst of a beautiful park. The exact
site is doubtful. Most modem geographers
identify it with Murghdb, N.E. of Persepolis,
where there are the remains of a great sepul-
chral monument of the ancient Persians.

PiSIPHAE (-es), daughter of Helios (the
Sun) and Perseis, wife of Minos, and mother
of Ajidrogeos, Ariadn6, and Phaedra. Hence
Phaedra is called PasfphHila by Ovid. Pasi-
phae was also the mother of the Minotaurus,
respecting whom see p. 273.^

PASITHEA (-ae), or PiSITHEE (-es), one
of the Charites, or Graces, also called Aglaia.

PASITIGRIS (-Idis), a river rising on the
conflnes of Media and Persis, and flowing
through Susiana into the head df the Persian
Gulf, after receiving the Eulaeus on its W.
side. Some geographers make the Pasitigria
a tributary of the Tigris.

PASSARON (-onis), a town of Epirus in
Molossia, and the ancient capital of the
Molossian kings.

PATALA, PATALENE. [Pattala, Pat-

PATARA (-ae), one of the chief cities of
Lycia, situated on the coast a few miles E.
of the mouth of the Xanthus. It was early
colonised by Dorians from Crete, and became
a chief seat of the worship of Apollo, who
had here a very celebrated oracle, which
uttered responses in the winter only. Hence

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Apollo is called by Horace " Delius et Patiu
reus Apollo."

PATAVIUM (-1 : Padua)t an ancient town
of the Veneti in the N. of Italy, on the
Medoacos Minor, and on the road from
Mutina to Altinum, said to have been
founded by the Trojan Antenor. Under
the Romans it was the most important city
in the N. of Italy, and, by its commerce and
manufactures (of which its woollen stuffs were
the most celebrated), it attained great opu.
lence. It is celebrated as the birth-place of
the historian Livy.

historian, served under Tiberius in his cam.
paigns in Germany in the reign of Augustus,
and lived at least as late as a.d. 30, as he
dedicated his history to M. Vinicius, who
was consul in that year. This work is a
brief compendium of Roman history, com-
mencing with the destruction of Troy, and
ending with A.n. 30.

PATMOS (-i), one of the islands called
Sporades, in thelcarian Sea, celebrated as
the place to which the Apostle John was

banished, and in which he wrote the Ape

PATRAE (-arum : Patras)^ one of the 13
cities of Achaik, situated W. of Rhium, near
the opening of the Corinthian giilf. Augustus
made it the chief city of Achaia.

(-is), son of Menoetius of Opus and Sthengle,
and grandson of Actor and Aegina, whence
he is called Actoride*. Having involuntarily,
committed murder while a boy, his father
took him to Peleus at Phthia, where he be-
came the intimate friend of Achilles. He
accompanied the latter to the Trojan ware,
but when his friend withdrew from the scene
of action, Patroclus followed his example.
But he afterwards obtained permission to
lead the Myrmidons to the fight, when the
Greeks were hard pressed by the Trojans.
Achilles equipped him with his own armour
and arms ; and Patroclus succeeded in
driving the Trojans back to their walls,
where he was slain by Hector. The desire
of avenging the death of Patroclus led Achilles
again into the field. [Achilles.]

Patrodua. (Aefina Marblei.)

PATTALA. [Pattalene.]

name of the great delta formed by the 2 prin-
cipal arms by which the Indus falls into the
sea. At the apex of the delta stood the city
Pattala or P&tila, the Sanscrit pa^a/a, which
means the W. country ^ and is applied to the
W. part of N. India about the Indup, in con-
tradistinction to the £. part about the Ganges.

PATULCiUS. [Janxts.]

PAULINUS (-i), C. SUETONIUS, governor
of Britain a.d. 59 — 62, during which time the
Britons rose in rebellion under Boadicea.
[BoAuicEA.] In 66 he was consul ; and after
the death of Nero in 68 he was one of Otho's
generals in the war against Vitellius.

PAULU8 (-i), the name of a celebrated pa-
trician family in the Aemilia gens. (1) L.

AxMiLiiTS Paxtlus, cousul B.C. 219, when he
conquered Demetrius of the island of Pharos,
in the Adriatic, and compelled him to fly for
refuge to Philip, king of Macedonia. He was
consul a 2nd time in b.c. 216, with C. Teren-
tius Varro. This was the year of the memo-
rable defeat at Cannae. [Hannibal.] The
battle was fought against the advice of Pauius,
and he was one of the many distingruished
Romans who perished in the engagement,
refusing to fly from the field when a tribime
of the soldiers offered him his horse. Hence
we find in Horace, " animaeque magnae pro-
digum Paulum superante Poeno." Paulus
was a staunch adherent of the aristocracy,
and was raised to the consulship by the latter
party to counterbalance the influence of the
plebeian Terentius Yarro. — (2) L. Asmilius

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Paulvs, somamed Macbdomicus, son of the
preceding, consul for the first time b.c. 181,
and a 2nd time in 168, when he brought the
war against Perseus to a conclusion by the
defeat of the Macedonian monarch near
Pydna, on the 22d of June. [Pebseus.] Be-
fore leaving Greece, Paulus marched into
Epirus, where, in accordance with a cruel
command of the senate, he gave to his soldiers
70 towns to be pillaged, because they had been
in alliance with Perseus. He was censor with
Q. Marcius Philippui, in 164, and died in 160,
after a long and tedious illness. The Adelphi
of Terence was brought out at the funeral
games exhibited in his honour. Two of his
sons were adopted into other families, and
are known in history by the names of Q. Fa-
bius Maximus and P. Scipio Africanus the

PAULUS (-1), JCLIUS, one of the most
distinguished of the Roman jurists, was
praefectus praetorio under the emperor
Alexander Sevemt.

PAUSANlAa (-ae)* (1) Son of CTeombro-
tus and nephew of Leonidas. Several writers
incorrectly caU him king ; but he was only
agent for his cousin Plistarchus, the infant
son of Leonidas. He conmianded the allied
forces of the Greeks at the battle of Plataea,
B.C. 479, and subsequently captured Byzan-
tium, which had been in the hands of the
Persians. Dazzled by his success and repu-
tation, he now aimed at becoming tyrant over
the whole of Greece, with the assistance of the
Persian king, who promised him his daughter
in marriage. His conduct became so arro-
gant, that all the allies, except the Pelopon-
nesians and Aeginetans, voluntarily offered
to transfer to the Athenians that pre-eminence
of rank which Sparta had hitherto enjoyed.
In this way the Athenian confederacy first
took its rise. Eeports of the conduct and
designs of Pausanias having reached Sparta,
he was recalled ; and the ephors accidentally
obtained proofs of his treason. A man, who
was charged with a letter to Persia, having
his suspicions awakened by noticing that
none of those sent on similar errands had re-
turned, counterfeited the seal of Pausanias,
and opened the letter, in which he found
directions for his own death. He carried the
letter to the ephors, who prepared to arrest
Pausanias ; but he took refuge in the temple
of Athena (Minerva). The ephors stripped
off the roof of the temple and built up the
door ; the aged mother of Pausanias is sa;d
to have been among the first who laid a stone
for this purpose. When he was on the point
of expiring, the ephors took him out, lest his
death should pollute the sanctuary. He died
as soon as he got outside, b.c. 470. — (2) Son

of Plistoanax, and grandson of the preceding,
was king of Sparta from b.o. 408 to 394. —
(3) A Macedonian youth of distinguished
family. Having been shameMly treated by
Attains, he complained of the outrage to
Philip ; but as Philip took no notice of his
complaints, he directed his vengeance against
the king himself, whom he murdered at the
festival held at Aegae, b.c. 886. — (4) The tra-
veller and geographer, perhaps a native of
Lydia, lived under Antoninus Pius and M.
Aurelius. His work entitled a Periegesis or
Itinerary of Greece, is in 10 books, and con-
tains a description of Attica and Megaris (i.),
Corinthia, Sicyonia, Phliasia, and Argolis (ii,),
Laconica (iii.), Messenia (iv.), Elis (v. vi.),
Achaea (vii.), Arcadia (viii.), Boeotia (ix.),
Phocis (x. ) . The work shows that Pausanias
visited most of the places in these divisions
of Greece, a fact which is clearly demonstrated
by the minuteness and particularity of his

PAUSIA8 (-ae), a native of Sicyon, one of
the most distinguished Greek painters, was
contemporary with Apelles, and flourished
about B.C. 360 — 330.

PAUSILtPUM. [Nkapous.]

PAYOR (-6ris), i.e.. Fear, the attendant of

PAX (P&cis), the goddess of peace, called
IRENE by the Greeks. (Ireite.)

PEDASA (-orum) or PEDASUM (-i), a very
ancient city of Caria, originally a chief abode
of the Leieges.

PfiDASUS (-i), a town of Mysia, on the
Satniois, mentioned several times by Homer.


PEDIuS (-i), Q., the great-nephew of the
dictator C. Julius Caesar, being the grandson
of Julia, Caesar's eldest sister. He served
under Caesar in the civil war, and in Caesar's
will was named one of his heirs. After the
fall of the consuls, Hirtius and Pansa, at the
battle of Mutina, in April, B.C. 48, Octavius
marched upon Riome at the head of an army,
and in the month of August he was elected
consul along with Pedius, who died towards
the end of the year, shortly after the news of
the proscription had reached Rome.

PEDNELI8SU8 (-i), a city in the interior
of Pisidia.

PEDO ALbInOVANUS. [Albinovaktjs.]

pedum (-i), an ancient town of Latium,
on the Via Lavicana, which fell into decay at
an early period.
PEGAE. [Paoae,]

PCGASIS (*Ydis), t. e. sprung firom Pegasus,
was applied to the fountain HippociSn§, which
was called forth by the hoof of Pegasus. The
Muses are also called PlgMdes, because the
fountain Hippocrene was sacred to them.

Digitized by





OenonS is also called PepHiitf simply as a
fountain nymph (from imy^).

PEGASUS (-1), the winged horse, which
sprang from the blood of Medusa, when her
head was struck off by Perseus. He was called
Pegasus, because he made Ms appearance near
the sources («^«<) of Oceanus. While drink-
Ing at the fountain of PirSnS, on the Acrocorin-
thus, he was caught by Bellerophon with a
golden bridle, which Athena (Minerva) had
given the hero. With the assistance of Pe-
gasus, Bellerophon conquered the Chimaera,
but endeavourkig to ascend to heaven upon
his winged horse, he fell down upon the earth.
[BBLLxaoPHON.] Pegasus, however, con-
tinued Ms flight to heaven, where he dwelt
among the stars. — Pefi^asus was also regrarded
as the horse of the Muses, and in this con-
nexion is more celebrated in modem times
than in antiquity ; for with the ancients he
had no connexion with the Muses, except
producing with his hoof the inspiring foun-
tain Hippocrene. Pegasus is often repre-
sented in ancient works of art along with
Athena and Bellerophon. [See drawings on
pp. 76, 110.]

PcRASu*. (Coin of Corinth, iu British Museum.)

PELXGONIA (-ae). (1) A district and
city in Macedonia, inhabited by the Pelagones,
and situated S. of Paeonia upon the Erigon.
- (2) A district in Thessaly, situated W. of
Olympus, and belonging to Perrhaebia.

PELASGI (-drum), the earliest inhabitants
of Greece who established the worship of
the Dodonaean Zeus (Jupiter), Hephaestus
(Vulcan), the Cabiri, and other divinities
belonging to the earliest inhabitants of the
country. They claimed descent from a
mythical hero Pelasgus, of whom we have
different accounts in the different parts of
Greece inhabited by Pelasgians. The nation
>\'a8 widely spread over Greece and the
islands of the Grecian archipelago ; and the
name of Pelcugxa was g^i^en at one time to
Greece. One of the most ancient traditions
represented Pelasgus as a descendant of Pho-
roneus, king of Argus ; and it was generally
believed by the Greeks that the Pelasgi spread
from Argos to the other countries of Greece.
Arcadia, Attica, Epirus, and Thessaly, were.
In addition to Argos, some of the principal

seats of the PelasgL They were also found
on the coasts of Asia Minor, and according
to some writers in Italy as weU. Of the
language, habits, and civilisation of this
people we possess no certain knowledge.
Herodotus says they spoke a barbarous
language, that is, a language not Greek ; but
from the Docility with which the Greek and
Pelasgio languages coalesced in all parts of
Greece, and from the fact that the Athenians
and Arcadians are said to have been of pure
Pelasgio origin, it is probable that the 2
languages had a dose affinity. The Pelasgi
are further said to have been an agricultural
people, and to have possessed a considerable
knowledge of the useful arts. The most
ancient architectural remains of Greece, such
as the treasury or tomb of Athens at Mycenae,
are ascribed to the Pelasgians, and are
cited as specimens of Pelasgian architecture,
though there is no positive authority for
these statements.

PELASGI Otis, a district in Thessaly,
between Hestiaeotis and Magnesia. [Thks-


PELASGUS. [Pblasoi.]

PELETHRONIUM (-i), a mountainous
district in Thessaly, part of Mt. Pelion,
where the Lapithae dwelt.

PELEUS {gen. -Ws or -«I, ace. Pel^a, voc.
P§leu, abl, Pel(k)), son of Aeacus and Endeis,
and king of the Myrmidons at Phthia in
Thessaly. Having, in conjunction with his
brother Telamon, murdered his half-brother
Phocus, he was expelled by Aeacus from
Aegina, and went to Phthia in Thessaly.
Here he was purified from the murder by
Eurytion, the son of Actor, who gave Peleus
his daughter Antig5n6 in marriage, and a
third part of his kingdom. Peleus accom-
panied Eurytion to the Calydonian hunt ; but
having involuntarily killed his father-in-law
with his spear, he became a wanderer a
second time. He now took refuge at IoIcuk,
where he was again purified by Acastus, the
king of the place. Here he was falsely ac-
cused by Astydamia, the wife of Acastus, and
in consequence nearly perished on Mt. Pelion.
[Acastus.] While on Mt. Pelion, Peleus
married the Nereid Thetis. She was destined
to marry a mortal ; but having the power,
like Proteus, of assuming any form she pleased,
she endeavoured in this way to escape from
Peleus. The latter, however, previously
taught by Chiron, held the goddess fast till
she promised to marry him. The gods took
part in the marriage solemnity ; and Eris or
Strife was the only goddess who was not
invited to the nuptials. By Thetis Peleus
became the father of Achilles. Peleus was too
old to accompany Achilles against Troy ; he

Digitized by





remained at home and survived the death of
bis son.


Peleus and Thetis. (From a paiuted Vase.)

PELIADES. [Pelias.]

PELIAS (-ae), son of Poseidon (Neptune)
and Tyro, a daughter of Salmoneus, and
twin-brother of Ncleus. The twins were
exposed by their mother, but they were pre-
Herved and reared by some countrymen.
They subsequently leamt their parentage ;
and after the death of Cretheus, king of
[olcus, who had married their mother, they
seized the throne of lolcus, to the exclusion
of Aeson, the son of Cretheus and Tyro.
Pelias soon afterwards expelled his own
brother Neleus, and thus became sole rulei
of lolcus. After Pelias had long reigned
there, Jason, the son of Aeson, came to
lolcus and claimed the kingdom as his right.
In order to get rid of him, Pelias sent him
to Ck>lchi8 to fetch the golden fleece. Hence
arose the celebrated expedition of the Argo-
nauts. After the return of Jason, Pelias was
cut to pieces and boiled by his own daughters
(the F6ViMei\ who had been told by Medea
that in this manner they might restore their
father to vigour and youth. His son Acastus
held ftineral games in his honour at lolous,
and expelled Jason and Medea from the
country. [Jasom ; Medea ; Argon axjtae.]
Among the daughters of Pelias, was Alcestis,
the wife of Admetus.

P£LID£S (-ae), the son of Peleus, i.e,

PELIGNI (-Crum), a brave and warlike
people of Sabine origin in central Italy,
bounded by the Marsi, the Marrucini, the
Sanmites, and the Frentani. They took an
active part in the Social war (90 — 89), and
their chief town Corfinium was destined by

the allies to be the new capital of Italy in
place of Rome.

PELION, more rarely PfiLlOS (-ii), a
lofty range of mountains in Thessaly in the

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