William Smith.

A smaller classical dictionary of biography, mythology, and geography ... online

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district of Magnesia, situated between the
lake Boebeis and the Pagasaean gulf. Its sides
were covered with wood, and on its summit
was a temple of Zeus (Jupiter) Actaeus. Mt.
Pelion was celebrated in mythology. Near
its summit was the cave of the Centaur
Chiron. The giants in their war with the
gods are said to have attempted to heap Ossa
and Olympus on Pelion, or Pelion and Ossa on
Olympus, in order to scale heaven. On Pelion
the timber was felled with which the ship
Argo was built.

PELLA (-ae). (l) An ancient town of Mace-
donia in the district Bottiaea, situated upon
a lake formed by the river Lydias. Philip
made it his residence and the capital of the
Macedonian monarchy. It was the birth-
place of Alexander the Great. Hence the
poets give the surname of Pellaea to Alex-
andria in Egypt, because it was founded by
Alexander the Great, and also use the word
in a general sense as equivalent to Egyptian.
— (2) A city of Palestine^ E. of the Jordan, in
Peraea. It was the place of refuge of the
Christians who fled from Jerusalem before its
capture by the Romans.

PELLEnE (-6s), the most E.-ly of the 12
cities of Achaia, near the frontiers of Sicyonia,
and situated on a hill 60 stadia from the
city. The inhabitants of the peninsula of
Pallene in Macedonia professed to be de-
scended from the Pellenaeans in Achaia, "who
were shipwrecked on the Macedonian coast
on their return from Troy.

PELOPEA or PELOPIA (-ae), daughter of
Thyestes, and mother of Aegisthus. [Aaois-
THxrs.]

PELOPIDAS (-ae), a celebrated Theban
general, and an intimate friend of Epami-
nondas. He took a leading part in expelling
the Spartans from Thebes, b.c. S79 ; and
from this time until his death there was not
a year in which he was not entrusted with
some important coxomand. He was slain in
battle at Cynoscephalae in Thessaly, fighting
against Alexander of Pherae, b.c. 364.

PELOPONNESUS (4 : Morea), the S. part
of Greece or the peninsula, wbich was con.
nected with Hellas proper by the isthmus
of Corinth. It is said to have derived its
name Peloponnesus or the " island of Pelopa,"
from the mythical Pelops. [Pblops.] Tlds
name does not occur in Homer. In his time
the peninsula was sometimes called Apia,
from Apis, son of Phoroneus, king of Argos,
and sometimes Argoa; which names were
given to it on account of Argos being the
X 2



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PEL0P8.



803



PEL0P8.



chief power in Peloponnesus at that period.
On the £. and 8. there are 8 great gulfs,
the Argolic, Laoonian, and Messenian. The
ancients compared the shape of the coontry
to the leaf of a plane tree ; and its modem
name, the Morea, which first occurs in .the
12th century of the Christian era, was given
it on account of its resemblance to a mul-
berry-leaf. Peloponnesus was divided into
various provinces, all of which were bounded
on one idde by the sea, with the exception of
AncADiA, which was in the centre of the
country. These provinces were Achaia in
the N., Eus in the W., Mbssemxa in the W.
and 8., Lacohia in the 8. and £., and Ck).
EiNTHiA in the E. and N. An account of the
geography of the peninsula is given under
these names. The area of Peloponnesus is
computed to be 7779 Enfdiah miles; and
it probably contained a population of upwards
of a million in the flourishing period of Greek
history. — ^Peloponnesus was originally in-
habited by Pelasgians. 8ubsequently the
Achaeans, who belonged to the Aeolio race,
settled in the £. and 8. parts of the penin.
sula, in ArgoUs, Laconia, and Messenia ; and
the lonians in the N. part, in Achaia; while
the remains of the original inhabitants of the
country, the Pelasgians, collected chiefly in
the central part, in Arcadia. Eighty years
after the Trojan war, according to mytiiical
chronology, the Dorians, under the conduct
of the Heraclidae, invaded and conquered
Peloponnesus, and established Doric states in
Argolis, Laconia, and Messenia, firom whence
they extended their power over Corinth,
Slcyon, and Megara. Part of the Achaean
population remained in these provinces as
tributary subjects to the Dorians under the
name of Perioeci; while others of the
Achaeans passed over to the N. of Pelopon.
nesus, expelled the lonians, and settled in
this part of the country, which was called
after them Achaia. The Aetolians, who had
invaded Peloponnesus along with the Dorians,
ttettled in EILb and became intermingled with
the original inhabitants. The peninsula re-
mained under Doric influence during the
most important period of Greek history, and
opposed to the great Ionic city of Athens.
After the conquest of Messenia by the Spar-
tans, it was under the supremacy of Sparta,
till the overthrow of the power of the latter
by the Thebans at the battle of Leuctra, b.c
»71.^

PEL0P8 (JSpis), grandson of Zeus (Ju-
piter), and son of Tantalus, king of Phrygia.
Being expelled from Phrygia, he came to
EUs, where he married HippdcULmla, daughter
of Oenomaus, whom he succeeded on the
throne. By means of the wealth he brought



with him, his influence became so great in
the peninsula that it was called after him
" the island of Pelops.*' The legends about
Pelops consist mainly of the story of his
being cut to pieces and boiled, of his con-
test with Oenomaus and Hippddkmla, and of
his relation to Ms sons. I. Pelops cut to
pieces and boiled. Tantalus, the favourite of
the gods, once invited them to a repast, and
on that occasion killed his own son, and
having boiled him set the flesh before them
that they might eat it. But the immortal
gods, knowing what it was, did not touch it ;
Demeter (Ceres) alone, being absorbed by
grief for her lost daughter, consumed the
shoulder. Hereupon the gods ordered Hermes
(Mercury) to put the limbs of Pelops into a
cauldron, and thereby restore him to life.
When the process was over, Clotho took him
out of the cauldron, and as the shoulder con-
sumed by Demeter was wanting, the goddess
supplied its place by one made of ivory ; his
descendants (the Pelopidae), as a mark of their
origin, were believed to hav« one shoulder as
white as ivory. 3. Contest toith Oenomaus
and JSRppdd&mia, An oracle having declared
to Oenomaus, king of Pisa in Elis, that he
should be killed by Us son-in-law, he de-
clared that he would bestow the hand of
his daughter Hippdd&mXa upon the man
who should conquer him in the chariot-race,
but that whoever was conquered should suflSer
death. This he did, because Ms horses were
swifter than those of any other mortaL He
had overtaken and slain many a suitor, when
Pelops came to Pisa. Pelops bribed Myrtilus,
the charioteer of Oenomaus, by the promise
of half the kingdom if he would assist him in
conquering Ms master. Myrtilus agreed, and
took out the linch-pins of the chariot of
Oenomaus. In the race the chariot of Oeno-
maus broke down, and he was thrown out
and killed. Thus Hipp5d&mla became the
wife of Pelops. But as Pelops had now gained
Ms object, he was unwilling to keep faith
with Myrtilus ; and accordingly as they were
driving along a cliff he threw Myrtilus into
the sea. As Myrtilus sank, he cursed Pelops
and Ms whole race. Pelops returned with Hip-
pM&mla to Pisa in Elis, and soon made hin.'
self master of Olympia, where he restored the
Olympian games with greater splendour than
ever. 8. TTie sons of Pelops, Chrysippuswasthe
favourite of his father, and was in consequence
envied by his brothers. The two eldest among
them, Atreus and Thyestes, with the con-
nivance of Hipp5dSmla, accordingly murdered
Chrysippus, and threw his body into a well.
Pelops, whe suspected Ms sons of the murder,
expelled them from the country. Pelops,
after his death, was honoured at Olympia



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PELORIS.



309



PENELOPE.



ftboye all other heroes. The name of Pelopa
was so celebrated that it was constantly used
by the poets in connexion with his descend,
ants and the cities they inhabited. Hence we
Ond Atreus» the son of Pelops, called Pelopeius
Atrew, and Agamemnon, the grandson, or
great-grandson of Atreus, called Pelopetus
Agamemnon, In the same way IphigenTa,
Che daughter of Agamemnon, and Hermione,
Che wife of Menelaus, are each called by
Ovid PelopeXa virgo, Virgil uses the phrase
Pelopea moenia to signify the cities in Pelo-
ponnesus, which Pelops and his de.8cendants
ruled over ; and in like manner Mycenae is
called by Ovid Pelopeiadet Mycenae,

PELORIS (.Xdis), PELOMAS (4ldis), or
PELOEUS C-i : C: Paro), the N.E. point of
Sicily, and one of the 3 promontories which
formed the triangular figure of the island.
According to the usual story it derived its
name from Pelorus, the pilot of Hannibal's
ship ; but the name was more ancient than
Hannibal's time, being mentioned by Thucy-
dides.

FELTAE (4brum), an ancient and flourish-
ing city in the N. of Phrygia.

PfiLtJsiUM (4; O.T. Sin. : both names are
derived from nouns meaning mud) , a celebrated
city of Lower Egypt, standing on the E. side
of the E.-most mouth of the Nile, which was
called after it the Pelusiac mouth, 20 stadia
(2 geog. miles) from the sea, in the midst of
morasses, from which it obtained its name.
As the key of Egypt on the N.E., and the
frontier city towards Syria and Arabia, it
was strongly fortified, and was the scene of
many battles and sieges. It was the birth,
place of the geographer Ptolemaeus.

PENATES (-um), the household gods of
the Bomans, both ^ose of a private family
and of the state, as the great family of citi-
zens. Hence we have to distinguish between
private and public Penates. The name is
connected with penus; and the images of
these gods were kept in the penetralia^ or the
central part of the house. The Lares were
Included among the Penates, and both names
are often used synonymously. The Lares,
however, though included in the Penates,
were not the only Penates ; for each family
had usually no more than one Lar, whereas
the Penates are always spoken of in the
plural. Most ancient writers believed that
the Penates of the state were brought by
Aeneas from Troy into Italy, and were pre-
served first at Lavinium, afterwards at Alba
Longa, and finally at Rome. The private
Penates had their place at the hearth of every
house, and the table also was sacred to them.
On the hearth a perpetual fire was kept up
in their honour, and the table always con.



tained the salt-cellar and the firstlings of
fruit for these divinities.



Penatet. (From the Vatican YirgiL)

P£n£IS (-Ydis), that Ib, DaphnS, daughter
of the river-god Feneus.

P£n£l6pE (-6s), daughter of Icarius and
Periboea of Sparta, married Ulysses, king of
Ithaca. [Bespecthig her marriage, see lex-
Enrs, No. 2.] By Ulysses she had an only
child, Telemachus, who was an infant when
her husband sailed against Troy. During
the long absence of Ulysses she was be-
leaguered by numerous and importunate
suitors, whom she deceived by declaring that
she must finish a larg^ robe which she was
making for Laertes, her aged father-in-law,
before she could make up her mind. During
the daytime she accordingly worked at the
robe, and in the night she undid the work of
the day. By this means she succeeded in
putting off the suitors. But at length her
stratagem was betrayed by her servants;
and when, in consequence, the faithful Pene-
lope was pressed more and more by the
impatient suitors, Ulysses at length arrived
in Ithaca, after an absence of 20 years
Having recognised her husband by several
signs, she heartily welcomed him, and the
days of her grief and sorrow were at an end.
[Ulyssbs.] While Homer describes Pene-
lope as a chaste and faithful wife, some
writers charge her with being the reverse,
and relate that she became the mother of
Pan by Hermes or by all the suitors. They
add that Ulysses repudiated her when he re-
turned ; whereupon she went to Sparta, and
thence to Mantinea. According to another



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PENIU8,



810



PERAEA.



tradition, she married Telegonus, after he PfiNfiUS (-i). (1) The chief riTer of
bad killed his fother Ulysses. | Thessaly, rising in Mt. Pindus, and after




Penelope. (British Muteam.)



receiving many affluents, forcing its way
through the yale of Tempe between Mts.
Ossa and Olympus into the sea. [Temps.]
As a god Peneus was a son of Oceanus and
Tethys, and father of Daphne and Gyrene. —
(2) A riyer of EUs, rising on the frontiers of
Arcadia, and flowing into the Ionian sea.

PENIU8 (-i), a UtUe river of Pontus,
falling into the Euxine.

PENNlNAE ALPES. [Alpis.]

PENTAPOLIS (-is), the name for any
association of 5 cities, was applied specifically
to the 5 chief cities of Cyrenai'ca, in N.
Afi-ica, Gyrene, Berenice, ArsinoiJ, Ptolemai's,
and Apollonia.

PENTELICUS (4), a mountain in Attica,
celebrated for its marble, is a branch of Mt.
Pames, firom which it runs in a S.E.-ly
direction between Athens and Marathon to
the coast

PENTHESILfiA (-ae), daughter of Ares
(Mars) and Otrera, and queen of the Ama-
zons. After the death of Hector, she came
to the assistance of the Trojans, but was
slain by Achilles, who mourned over the
dying queen on account of her beauty, youth,
and valour. Thersites ridiculed the grief of
Achilles, and was in consequence killed by
the hero. Thereupon Diomedes, a relative
of Thersites, threw the body of Penthesilea
into the river Soamander; but, according



to others, Achilles himself buried it on the
banks of the Xanthus.

PENTHEUS (JkM or Jii ;aee.JlkiOT .«um),
son of Eohlon and Agftve, the daughter of
Gadmus. He succeeded Cadmus as king of
Thebes; and having resisted the introduction
of the worship of Dionysus (Bacchiis) into his
kingdom, he was driven mad by the god, his
palace was hurled to the ground, and he him.
self was torn to pieces by his own mother and
her two sisters, Ino and Autono#, who in
their Bacchic frenzy believed him to be a
wild beast. The place where Pentheus
suffered death is said to have been Mt. Ci-
thaeron or Mt. Parnassus. It is related that
Pentheus got upon a tree, for the purpose of
witnessing in secret the revelry of the Bacchic
women, but on being discovered by them
was torn to pieces.

PENTRI (-drum), one of the most impor.
tant of the tribes in Samnium. Their chief
town was Boviaiotm.

PEPARETHUS (-1), a smaU island in the
Aegaean sea, off the coast of Thessaly, and B.
of Halonesos. It produced a considerable
quantity of wine.

PEPHKEdO. [Graxab.]

PERAEA (.ae), Le., the country on the
opposite side^ a general name for any district
belonging to or closely connected with a
oountry, flrom the main part of which it was



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PERCOTE.



811



PERICLES.



separated by a sea or river. (1) The part of
Palestine £. of the Jordan. — (2) Peiiaea
Rhodiorxth, a district in the S. of Caria,
opposite to the island of Rhodes, and subject
to the Rhodians, extending' from Mt. Phoenix
on the W. to the frontier of Lycia on the £.
— (3) A city on the W. coast of Mysia, near
Adramyttium, one of the colonies of the
Mytilenaeans.

PERCOtE (-§8), a very ancient city of
Mysia, between Abydos and Lampsacus, near
the Hellespont.

PERDICCAS (-ae). (1) The founder of
the Macedonian monarchy, according to
Herodotus, though later writers represent
Caranus as the 1st king of Macedonia, and
make Perdiccas only the 4th. [Carakxts.]
Perdiccas and his two brothers, Gauanes and
Aeropus, are said to have come from Argos,
and settled near Mt. Bermius, firom whence
they subdued the rest of Macedonia. — (2)
King of Macedonia, from about b.o. 454 to
413, son and successor of Alexander I. In
the Peloponnesian war we find him at one
time in alliance with the Spartans, and at
another time with the Athenians ; and it is
evident that he joined one or other of the
belligerent parties, according to the dictates
of his own interest at the moment. — (3) King
of Macedonia, b.c. 864 — 859, second son of
Amyntas II., obtained the throne by the
assassination of the usurper Ptolemy of
Alorus. He fell in battle against the Illy,
rians. — (4) One of the most distinguished of
the generals of Alexander the Great. The
king on his death-bed is said to have taken the
royal signet ring from his finger and to have
given it to Perdiccas. After the death of the
king (823), Perdiccas had the chief authority
entrusted to him imder the command of the
new king Arrhidaeus. His ambitious schemes
Induced Antipater, Craterus, and Ptolemy, to
unite in a league, and declare open war against
Perdiccas. Thereupon Perdiccas marched
into Egypt against Ptolemy, but having been
defeated in battle, he was slain by his own
troops, B.C. 821.

PERDIX (-Icis), the nephew of Daedalus,
and the inventor of the saw, the chisel, the
compasses, &c. His skill excited the jealousy
of Daedalus, who threw him headlong from
the temple of Athena (Minerva), on the
Acropolis, but the goddess caught him in his
fall, and changed him into the bird which
was named after him, perdix, the partridge.

PERENNA, ANNA. [Anna.]

PERGA (-ae), an ancient and important
city of Pamphylia, lay a little inland, N.E.
of Attalia, between the rivers Catarrhactes
and Oestrus, 60 stadia (6 geog. miles) from
the mouth of the former. It was a celebrated



seat of the worship of Artemis (Diana). It
was the first place in Asia Minor visited by
the apostle Paul on his first missionary
journey.

PERGAMA and PERGAMIA. [Pbboa.
HON, No. 1.]

PERGAMUM or PERGAMU8 (4). The
former by far the most usual form in the
classical writers, though the latter is more
common in English, probably on account of
its use in our version of the Bible, Rev. ii.
13. The word is significant, connected with
in^ySf a tower, (X) The citadel of Troy, and
used poetically for Troy itself : the poets also
use the forms Pbroama (-orum) and Pbb-
OAUiA (-ae). — (2) A celebrated city of Asia
Minor, the capital of the kingdom of Per-,
gamus, and afterwards of the Roman pro-
vince of Asia, was situated in the district of
S. Mysia called Teuthrania, on the N. bank
of the river CaVcus, about twenty miles from
the sea. The kingdom of Pergamus was
founded about b.c. 280 by Philetaerus, who
had been entrusted by Lysimachus with the
command of the city. The successive kings
of Pergamus were : Philxtabbus, b.c. 280
— 268 ; EvMEMES I., 263 — 241 ; Attalus I.,
241—197; ExjMBNBS II., 197—169; Atta-
lus II. Philadklphus, 159 — 138; Attalus
III. Philometob, 188 — 133. The kingdom
reached its greatest extent after the defeat of
Antiochus the Great by the Romans, in b.c
190, when the Romans bestowed upon
Eumenes II. the whole of Mysia, Lydia, both
Phrygias, Lycaonia, Pisidia and Pamphylia.
It was under the same king that the cele-
brated library -^as founded at Pergamus,
which for a long time rivalled that of Alex-
andria, and the formation of which occasioned
the invention of parchment, Oharta Perga..
mena. On the death of Attalus III. in b.c.
133, the kingdom, by a bequest in his will,
passed to the Romqjis. The city was an
early seat of Christianity, and is one of the
Seven Churches of Asia, to which the Apoca.
lyptic epistles are addressed. Among the
celebrated natives of the city were the rheto-
rician ApoUodorus and the physician Galen.

PERGfi. [PxROA.]

PERIANDER (-dri), son of Cypselus,
whom he succeeded as tyrant of Corinth, b.c.
625, and reigned 40 years, to b.c 585. His
rule was mild and beneficent at first, but
afterwards became oppressive. He was a
patron of literature and philosophy; and
Arion and Anacharsis were in favour at his
court. He was very commonly reckoned
among the Seven Sages.

PERICLES (-is or -i), the greatest of
Athenian statesmen, was the son of Xanthip-
pus, and Agariste, both of whom belonged to



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PERICLES.



312



PERSAll.



the noblest families of Athens. The fortune
of his parents procured for him a careful
education, and he received instruction firom
Damon, Ze;io of Elea, and Anaxagoras. In
B.C. 469, Pericles began to take part in public
affairs, 40 years before his death, and was
soon regrarded as the head of the more demo-
cratical part in the state, in opposition to
Cimon. It was at his instigation that his
friend Ephialtes proposed in 461 the measure
by which the Areopagus was deprived of
those functions which rendered it formidable
to the democratical party. This success was
followed by the ostracism of Cimon. Pericles
was distinguished as a general as well as a
statesman, and frequently commanded the
Athenian armies in their wars with the
neighbouring states. In 448 he led the army
which assisted the Phocians in the Sacred
War ; and in 445 he rendered the most signal
service to the state by recovering the island
of Euboea, which had revolted ftom Athens.
After the death of Cimon in 419, the aristo-
cratical party was headed by Thucydides, the
son of Melesias ; but on the ostracism of th^
latter in 444, Pericles was left without a rival,
and throughout the remainder of his political
course no one appeared to contest his supre-
macy. The next important event in which
Pericles was engaged was the war against
Samos, which had revolted fh>m Athens, and
which he subdued after an arduous cam-
paign, 440. The poet Sophocles was one of
the generals who fought with Pericles against
Samos. For the next 10 years till the out-
break of the Peloponnesian war, the Athenians
were not engaged in any considerable military
operations. Pericles employed this time of
peace in adorning Athens with public buildings,
which made this city the wonder and admi-
ration of Greece. [Phidias.] The enemies
of Pericles made many attempts to ruin his
reputation, but failing in these, they attacked
him through his fHends. His firiends Phidias
and Anaxagoras, and his mistress Aspasia
were all accused before the people. Phidias
was condemned and cast into prison [Phi-
DiAs] ; Anaxagoras was also sentenced to pay
a fine and quit Athens [Am axaoo&as] ; and
Aspasia was only acquitted through the en-
treaties and tears of Pericles. — The Pelopon-
nesian war has been falsely ascribed to the
ambitious schemes of Pericles. It is true
that he counselled the Athenians not to yield
to the demands of the Lacedaemonians ; but
he did this because he saw that war was
Inevitable ; and that as long as Athens
retained the great power which she then
possessed, Sparta would never rest contented.
On the outbreak of the war in 431 a Pelo-
ponnesian army under Archidamus invaded



Attica , and upon the advice of Pericles, the
Athenians conveyed their property into the
city, and allowed the Peloponnesians to deso-
late Attica without opposition. Next year
(430) when the Peloponnesians again invaded
Attica, Pericles pursued the same policy as
before. In this summer the plague made its
appearance in Athens. It carried off his two
sons Xanthippus and Paralus, and most of
his intimate friends. In the autumn of
429 Pericles himself died of a lingering sick,
ness. He left no legitimate children. His
son Pericles, by Aspasia, was one of the
generals at the battle of Arginusae, and was
put to death by the Athenians with the other
generals, b.c. 406.

PERICLtMENUS (-i), one of the Argo-
nauts, son of Neleus, and brother of Nestor.

PERILLUS. [Phalaeis.]

PERINTHUS (-i), an important town of
Thrace on the Propontis, and founded by the
Samians about b.c. 559, situated 22 miles W.
of Selymbria on a small peninsula. At a later
time, it was called Heracl^at and sometimes
Heraclea Thraeiae or Eeraelea Perinthus.

PERIPHAS (-antis). (1) A king of Attica.
— (2) One of the Lapithae. — (3) A companion
of Pyrrhus at the siege of Troy.

PERMESSUS (-i), a river in Boeotia,
descending fromMt. Helicon, and falling into
the lake Copals near Haliartus.

P£rO (-dnis), daughter of Neleus and
Chloris, and wife of Bias.

PERP£R£N A (.ae), a small town of Mysia,
S. of Adramyttium.

PERPERNA or PERPENNA (-ae : the
former is the preferable form). (1) M.,
consul B.C. 130, when he defeated Aristonicus
in Asia, and took him prisoner. — (2) M.
PsBPSBMA Vento, SOU of the last, joined the
Marian party in the civil war, and was raised
to the praetorship. He afterwards crossed
over into 8^ain and fought under Sertorius
for some years; but being jealous of the
latter, Perpema and his friends assassinated
Sertorius at a banquet in 72. His death soon
brought the war to a close. Perpema was
defeated by Pompey, was taken prisoner, and
was put to death.

PERRHAEBI (-Srum), a powerful and
warlike Pelasgio people in the N, of Thessaly.
Homer places the Perrhaebi in the neigh-



Online LibraryWilliam SmithA smaller classical dictionary of biography, mythology, and geography ... → online text (page 59 of 90)