William Smith.

A smaller classical dictionary of biography, mythology, and geography ... online

. (page 6 of 90)
Online LibraryWilliam SmithA smaller classical dictionary of biography, mythology, and geography ... → online text (page 6 of 90)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

Corinthian gulf.

ALEA (-ae), a town in Arcadia, S. of the .

Stymphalean lake. Athena (Minerva) was
worshipped under the name of Alea in this
place and in Tegea.
ALECTO (-08 ; ace, 5), one of the Furies.


(-orum) {trom the German alle Mdnnery all
men), a confederacy of German tribes, be-
tween the Danube, the Rhine, and the Main.
They first came into contact with the Romans
in Uie reign of Caracalla, who assumed the
surname of Alemannicus on account of a
pretended victory over them (a.d, 214).
After this time they continually invaded the
Roman dominions, and in the fifth century
were in possession of Alsace and of German

ALERIA or ALALIA (-ae), one of the chief
cities of Corsica, on the £. of the island,
founded by the Phocaeans b.c. 564, and made
a Roman colony by Sulla.

ALESA (-ae). [Halesa.]

Xl^IA (-ae), an ancient town of the
Mandubii in Gallia Lugdunensis, and situateil
on a high hill (now Atucois))^ which was
washed by the two rivers Lutosa {Oze) and
Osera {Ozerain), It was taken and destroyed
by Caesar, in b.c. 52, after a memorable

ALETRIUM or XlATRIUM, an ancient
town of the Hernici, subsequently a muni-
cipium and a Roman colony, W. of Sora and
E. of Anagnia.

ALEUADAE (-trum). [Alruas.]

XlEUAS (.ae),a descendant of Hercules,
was the ruler of Larissa in Thessaly, and the
reputed founder of the celebrated family of
the Aleuadae. They were divided into two
branches, the Aleuadae and the Scopadae, of
whom the latter inhabited Crannon, while the
former remained at Larissa. In the invasion
of Greece by Xerxes (b.c. 480), the Aleuadae
espoused the cause of the Persians, and the
family continued to be the predominant one
in Thessaly for a long time afterwards.

ALEXANDER (-dri), the usual name of
Paris in the Iliad.


Alexander, i. Kings of Epims.—

(1) Son of Neoptolemus and brother of
Olympias, the mother of Alexander the Great,
was made king of Epirus by Philip, b.c 336.
In 832, Alexander crossed over into Italy, to
aid the Tarentines against the Lucanians and
Bruttii. He was defeated and slain in battle
in 326, near Pandosia, on the banks of the
Acheron in Southern Italy. — (2) Son of
Pyrrhus and Lanassa, succeeded his father in

II. Eings of Macedonia, — (I) Son of Amyn.
tas I., succeeded his father about b.c. 505, was

Digitized by





obliged to submit to the Persians, and aocom-
panied Xerxes in his invasion of Greece (b.c.
480). He was secretly inclined to the cause of
the Greeks. He died about 455, and was suc-
ceeded by Perdiccas II. — (2) Son of Amyn-
tas II., whom he succeeded, reigrned 369 —
367. He was murdered by Ptolemy Alorites.
— (3) Sumamed the Great, son of Philip II.
and Ol3^mpias, was bom at Pella, b.c. 356.
He was educated by Aristotle, who acquired a
^eat influence over his mind and character.
He first distinguished himself at the battle
of Chaeronga (338), where the victory was
mainly owing to his impetuosity and courage.
On the murder of Philip (336), he ascended
the throne, at the age of 20, and foimd him-
self surrounded by enemies on every side.
He first put down rebellion in his own* king,
dom, and then rapidly marched into Greece.
His unexpected activity overawed all oppo.
sition ; Thebes, which had been most active
against him, submitted when he appeared at
its gates ; and the assembled Greeks at the
Isthmus of Ck>rinth elected him to the com-
mand against Persia. He now directed his
arms against the barbarians of the north, and
crossed the Danube (335). A report of his
death having reached Greece, the Thqbans
once more took up arms. But a terrible
punishment awaited them. He took Thebes
by assault, destroyed all the buildings, with
the exception of the house of Pindar, killed
most of the inhabitants, and sold the rest as
slaves. Alexander now prepared for his great
expedition against Persia. In the spring of
334, he crossed the Hellesirant, with about
35,000 men. Of these 30,000 were foot and
5000 horse; and of the former only 12,000
were Macedonians. Alexander's first engage,
ment with the Persians was on the river
GranTcus in Mysia (May, 334), where they
were entirely defeated by him. In the
following year (333) he collected his army
at Gordium in Phrygia, where he cut or
untied the celebrated Gordian knot, which,
it was said, was to be loosened only by the
conqueror of Asia. From thence he marched
to Issus, on the confines of Syria, where he
gained a great victory over Darius, the Persian
king. Darius himself escaped; but his
mother, wife, and children, fell into the hands
of Alexander, who treated them with the
utmost delicacy and respect. Alexander
now directed his arms against the cities of
Phoenicia, most of which submitted; but
Tyre was not taken till the middle of 332,
after an obstinate defence of 7 months. He
next marched into Egypt, which willingly
submitted to him. At the beginning of 3 3 1, he
founded at the mouth of the Nile the city of
AucxANDRiA, and about the same time visited

the temple or Jupiter Ammon, in the desert
of Libya, and was saluted by the priests as
the son of Jupiter Ammon. In the spring of
the same year (331), he set out against Darius,
who had collected another army. He crossed
the Euphrates and the Tigris, and at length
met with the immense hosts of Darius, said
to have amounted to more than a million of
men, in the plains of Gaugamela. The battle
was fought in the month of October, 331, and
ended in the complete defeat of the Persians.
Alexander was now the conqueror of Asia,
and began to adopt Persian habits and cus-
toms, by which he conciliated the affections
of his new subjects. From Arbela he marched
to Babylon, Susa, and Persepolis, all of which
surrendered to him. He is said to have set
fire to the palace of Persepolis, and, according
to some accounts, in the revelry of a banquet,
at the instigation of Thais, an Athenian
courtesan. At the beginning of 330, Alex-
ander marched from Persepolis into Media,
in pursuit of Darius, whom he followed into
Parthia, where the unfortunate king was
murdered by Bessus, satrap of Bactria. In
329 Alexander crossed the mountains of the
Paropamisus {the Hindoo Koosh)^ and marched
into Bactria against Bessus, who was betrayed
to him, and was put to death. During the
next 2 years he was chiefly engaged in the
conquest of Sogdiana. He also crossed the
Jaxartes (the Sir), and defeated several
Scythian tribes N. of that river. On the
conquest of a mountain fortress he obtained
possession of Roxana, the daughter of tho
Bactrian chief Oxyartes, whom he made his
wife. It was about this time that he killed
his fHend Gurus in a drunken brawl. He
had previously put to death his faithful
servant Pabmenion, on the charge of treason.
In 327 he invaded India, and crossed the
Indus, probably near the modem Attock. He
met with no resistance till he reached the
Hydaspes, where he was opposed by Porus,
an Indian king, whom he defeated after a
gallant resistance, and took prisoner. Alex-
ander restored to him his kingdom, and treated
him with distinguished honour. He foimded
a town on the Hydaspes, called Bucephala,
in honour of his horse Bucephalus, who died
here, after carrying him through so many
victories. From thence he penetrated as far
as the Hyphasis {Garra). This was the
furthest point which he reached, for the
Macedonians, worn out by long service, and
tired of the war, refused to advance further ;
and Alexander, notwithstanding his entreaties
and prayers, was obliged to lead them back.
He returned to the Hydaspes, and then saile<l
down the river with a portion of his troops,
while the remainder marched along the bank>«

Digitized by





in two dirisions. lie finally reached the
Indian ocean about the middle of 326.
Searchus was sent with the fleet to sail along
ihe coast to the Persian golf [Nbabchvs] ;
and Alexander marched with the rest of his
forces through Qedrosia, in which country
his army suffered greatly from want of water
and provisions. He reached Susa at the
begmning of 325. Here he allowed himself
and his troops some rest from their labours ;
and anzipus to form his European and Asiatic
subjects into one people, he assigned Asiatic
wives to about 80 of his generals. He himself
took a second wife, Barsine, the eldest
daughter of Darius. Towards the close of
the year 325, he went to Ecbatana, where he
lost his great favourite HsPHAisnoH. From
ecbatana he marched to Babylon, which he
intended to make the capital of Us empire,
as the best point of conununication between
his eastern and western dominions. His
schemes were numerous and gigantic; but'
he was cut off in the midst of them. He was
attacked by a fever, which was probably
a^ravated by the quantity of wine he had
drunk at a banquet given to his principal
officers, and he died after an illness of 1 1 days,
in the month of May or June, b.c. 323, at the
age of 32, after a reign of 12 years and 8
months. He appointed no one as his suc-
cessor, but just before his death he gave his
ring to Perdiccas. Boxana was with child at
the time of his death, and afterwards bore a
son who is known by the name of Alexander
Aegus. — (4) Akous, son of Alexander the
Great and Roxana, was bom shortly after the
death of his father, in b.c. 323, and was
acknowledged as the partner of Philip Arrhi-
daeus in the empire, under the guardianship
of Perdiccas, Antipater, and Polysperchon,
in succession. Alexander and Ms mother
Roxana were imprisoned by Cassander, when
^e obtained possession of Macedonia in 316,
and remained in prison till 311, when they
were put to death by Cassander.

III. Kings of Syria. — (1) Surnamed Balas,
a person of low origin, pretended to be the
.«»on of Antiochus IV. Epiphanes, and reigned
in Syria b. c. 150 — 146. He was defeated and
dethroned by Demetrius II. Nicator. — (2)
Sumamed Zebina or Zabinas, son of a
merchant, was set up by Ptolemy Physcon as
a pretender to the throne of Syria, b.c. 128.
He was defeated by Antiochus Qrypus, by
whom he was put to death, 122.

IV. Literary. — (1) Of Aeoae, a peripatetic
philosopher at Rome in the first century aftei
Christ, was tutor to the emperor Nero. — (2)
The Aetouak, of Pleuron in Aetolia, a Greek
poet, lived in the reign of Ptolemaeus Phila-
delphus (B.C. 285 — 247), at Alexandria, where

he was reckoned one of the 7 tragic poets who
constituted the tragic pleiad. — (3) Of Aphbo.^
DisiAS, in Caxia, the most celebrated of the'
commentators on Aristotle, lived about
A.D. 200. Some of his works were edited
and translated into Latin at the revival of

ALEXANDRIA, oftener lA, rarely fiA(.ae),.
the name of several cities founded by, or
in memory of, Alexander the Great. Of
these the most important are: — (1) The
capital of Egypt under the Ptolemies, ordered
by Alexander to be founded in b.c. 332. It
was built on the narrow neck of land between
the Lake Mareotis and the Mediterranean,
opposite to the I. of Pharos, which was joined
to the city by an artificisJ dyke. On this
island a great lighthouse was built in the
reignof Ptolemy PhiUidelphus (283). Undei
the care of the Ptolemies, as the capital of a
great kingdom, and commanding by its posi-
tion all the commerce of Europe with the
East, Alexandria soon became the most
wealthy and splendid city of the known world.
It was celebrated for its magnificent library,
founded by the first two Ptolemies. The
library suffered severely by fire when Julius
Cae^ was besieged in Alexandria, and was
finally destroyed by Amrou, the lieutenant of
the (>tliph Omar, In a.d. 651. Under tLc
Romans, Alexandria retained its commercial
and literary importance, and became also a
chief seat of Christianity and theological
learning. Its site is new covered by a mass
of ruins, among which are the two obelisks
(vulg. Cleopatra** JYeetUei), which adorned
the gateway of the royal palace, and, outside
the walls, to the S., the column of Diocletian
(vulg. Potnpey^s PUlar). The modem city
stands on the dyke tmiting the island of
Pharos to the mainland. — (2) A. Tboas, also
Tboas simply, on the sea-coast S.W. of
Troy, was enlarged by Antigonus, hence
called AntigonTa, but afterwards it resumed its
first name. It flourished greatly, both under
the Greeks and the Romans ; and both Julius
Caesar and Constantine thought of establish,
ing the seat of empire in it. — (3) A. An
IssuM, a sea-port at the entrance of Syria, a
little S. of Issus. — (4) In Susiana, aft. Anti-
ocBiA, aft. Chabax Spasini, at the mouth of
the Tigris, built by Alexander ; destroyed by
a flood; restored by Antiochus Epiphanes:
birthplace of Dionysius Periegetes and
Isidorus Characenus.

ALFENUS varus (4), a celebrated Roman
jurist, who was originally a shoemaker or a
barber.^ He is mentioned by Horace.

ALGIDUS MONS, a range of mountains in
Latium, extending S. from Praeneste to M.
Albanus, cold, but covered with wood, and

Digitized by



containing good pasturage. On it was situated
the town of Algidum. It was an ancient
seat of the worship of Diana. From it the
Aequi usually made their incursions into the
Roman territory.


ALIMENTUS, L. CINCIU8 (4), a celebrated
Eoman annalist, antiquary, and jurist ; was
praetor in Sicily, b.c. 209, and wrote several
works, of which the best known was his
AnnaleSy which contained an account of the
second Punic war.

ALIFHEEA (-ae), a fortified town in Ar.
cadia, situated on a mountain on the borders
of Elis, 8. of the AlphSus.

ALISO (^nis : .S2sm), a strt>ng fortress
built by Drusus, b.c. 11, at the confluence
of the Lnppia {Lippe) and the Eliso {Alme),

ALLIA (-ae), or more correctly AIJA, a
small river flowing into the Tiber about 6 miles
fronf Rome. It is memorable by the defeat
of the Romans by the Gauls on its banks,
July 16th, B.C. 390. Hence the dies Allierms
was an ujilucky day in the Roman calendat.

ALIIfAE or ALIFAE (-arum), a town of
Samnium, on the Vultumus, celebrated for
the manufacture of its large drinking-cups
(Allifana pocula).

ALLOBROGES (-um), a powerful people of
^ Gaul dwelling between the Rhodanus {Rhone)
and the Isara {Isere), as far as the L. Lemannus
{Lake of Geneva) , consequently inthe modem
Dauphin^ and Savoy. Their chief town was
Vienna on the Rhone. They were conquered,
in B.C. 121, by Q. Fabius Maximus Allobro-
gicus, and made subjects of Rome, but they
bore the yoke unwillingly, and were always
disposed to rebellion.

ALMO (-onis), a small river, rising near
Bovillae, and flowing into the Tiber S. of
Rome, in which the statues of CybelS were
washed annually.

ALMOPES (-um), a people in Macedonia,
inhabiting the district Almopia between
Eordaea and Pelagonia.

ALOEUS (.«5s, ei or el ; dat. ^ or eo ;
ace. ^), son of Poseidon (Neptune) and
Canace, manned Iphimedia, the daughter of
Triops. His wife was beloved by Poseidon,
by whom she had two sons, Otus and Ephi-
altes, who are usually called the Al5idaey from
their reputed father Aloeus. They were
renowned for their extraordinary strength
and daring spirit. When they were 9 years
old, each of their bodies measured 9 cubits in
breadth, and 27 in height. At this early
age, they threatened the Olympian gods with
war, and attempted to pile Ossa upon Olym-
pus, and Pelion upon Ossa. They would have
accomplished their object, says Homer, had
they been allowed to grow np to the age of


manhood ; but Apollo destroyed them before
their beards began to appear. They also put
the god Ares in chains, and kept t^iwi impri-
soned for 13 months.

ALOIDAE (.arum). [Aloeus.]

ALOPE (-^), a town in the Opuntian Locris,
opposite Euboea.

ALOPECONNESUS (-i),atown intheThra-
cian Chersonesus, founded by the Aeolians.

ALPENUS (-i), a town of the Epicnemidii
Locri at the entrance of the pass of Ther-

ALPES (-ium : probably ftrom the Celtic Alb
or Alpy « a height "), the mountains forming
the boundary of northern Italy, which were
distinguished by the foUowing names. We
enumerate them in order from W. to £.
1. Alpes MAKrmiAE, the Maritime or Ligu-
rian Alps, from Genua {Genoa), where the
Apennines begin, run W. as far as the ilver
Varus (Far), and then N. to M. Vesulus
{Monte Viao), one of the highest points of the
Alps. — 2. Alfes C!ottiae of Cottianab, the
Cottian Alps (so called from a king Ck>ttiu8 in
the time of Augfustus), from Monte Viso to
Mont Cenis, contained M. Matrona, after-
wards called M. Janus or Janna {Mont
Gendvre), across which Cottins constructed a
road, which became the chief means of com-
munication between Italy and Gaul. — 3.
Alpes Gralae, also Saltvs Gbaius (the name
is probably Celtic, and has nothing to do
with Greece), the Graian Alps, from Mont
Cenis to the Little St. Bernard inclusive, con-
tained the Jugrum Cremonis {le Oramont) and
the Centronicae Alpes, apparently the Little
St. Bernard and the surrounding mountains.
The Little St. Bernard, which is sometimes
called Alpid Graia, is probably the pass by
which Hannibal crossed the Alps ; the road
over it, which was improved by Augustus, led
to Augusta {Aosta) in the territory of the
Sala8si.^-4. Alpes Penninae, the Penmtie
AlpSf from the Great St. Bernard to the
Simplon inclusive, the highest portion of the
chain, including Mont Blanc, Monte Rosa,
and Mont Cervin. The Great St. Bernard wat*
called M. Pennlnus, and on its summit the
inhabitants worshipped a deity, whom the
Romans called Jupiter Penninus. The name
is probably derived from the Celtic pen, " a
height." — 5. Alpes Lepontiobum or Lb»>on.
TLAB, the Lepontian or Helvetian Alps, from
the Simplon to the St. Goth&rd.> 6. Alpes
Rhaeticas, the Rhaetian Alps, from the

Gothard to the Orteler by the pass of the
Stelvio. M. Adaia is usually supposed to be
the St, Gothard. — 7. Alpes TbidentInae, the
mountains of southern Tyrol, in which the
AthSsis {Adiffe) rises, with the pass of the
Brenner. — 8. Alpes Nobicab, the Horio Alps,

Digitized by





N.E. of the Tridentine Alps, comprinng the
mountains in the neighbourhood of Salzburg.
— 9. Alfbs Carnicar, the Camie Alps, £. of
the Tridentine, and S. of the Noric, to Mount
Terglu. — 10. Alpes Jxjuab,. the Jit/ton ^(p«,
from Mount Terglu to the conmiencement of
the niyrian or Dalmatian mountains, which
are known by the name of the Alpcs Dalma-
ticae, f^irther north by the name of the Alpes
Pannonicae. The Alpes Juliae were so called
because Julius Caesar or Augustus constructed
roads across them : they are also called Alpes
Vcnetae. ^

ALPHESIHOEA (-ae), daughter of Phegeus,
and wife of Alcmaeon. For details see

ALPHfiUS (-1), the chief river of Pelopon-
nesus, rising in the S.E. of Arcadia, flowing
through Arcadia and Elis, not far from Olym.
pia, «nd falling into the Ionian sea. In some
parts of its course the river flows under ground ;
and this subterranean descent gave rise to
the story about the river-god AlphCus and
the nymph Arethusa. The latter, pursued
by Alpheus, was changed by Artemis into the
fountain of Arethusa in the island of Ortygia
at Syracuse, but the god continued to pursue
her under the sea, and attempted to mingle
his stream with the fountain in Ortygia.
; ALPINUS (-i), a name which Horace gives
in ridicule to a bombastic poet. He probably
means Bibaculus.

ALSiUM (-i), one of the most ancient
Etruscan towns on the coast near Caere, and
a Koman colony after the 1st Punic war.

ALTHAEA (-ae), daughter of Thestius,
wife of Oeneus, and mother of Meleaoxb,
upon whose death she killed herself.

ALTINUM (-i), a wealthy town of the
Veneti in the N. of Italy, at the mouth of the
river Silis, and the chief emporium for all
the goods which were sent from southern
Italy to the countries of the north.

ALTI8. [Olympia.]

ALUJJTIUM or HALUIfTIUM (-i), a town
on the N. coast of Sicily on a steep hill, cele-
bi*ated for its wine.

ALUS or HALUS, a town in Phthiotis in
Thessaly, at the extremity of M. Othrys.

ALtATTES (-is), king of Lydia, b.c. 617—
560, succeeded his father Sadyattes, and was
himself succeeded by his son Croesus. The
tomb of Alyattes, N. of Sardis, near the lake
Oygaea, which consisted of a large mound
of earth, raised upon a foimdation of great
atones, still exists. It is nearly a mile in

ALYZIA or ALYZfiA (-ae), a town in Acar-
nania near the sea opposite Leucas, with a
harbour and a temple both sacred to Hercules.

AMALTHEA (-ae), the nurse of the infant

Zeus (Jupiter) in Crete, was according to
some traditions the goat which suckled Zeus,
and was rewarded by being placed among
the stars. According to others, Amalthea
was a nymph, who fed Zeus with the milk of
a goat. Wh^i this goat broke off one of her
horns, Amalthea filled it with fresh herbs
and gave it to ZeuQ, who placed it among the
stars. According to other accoimts Zeus
himself broke off one of the horns of the goat,
and endowed it with the wonderful power of
becoming filled with whatever the possessor
might wish. Hence this horn was commonly
called the horn of plenty or cornucopia : and
it was used in later times as the symbol of
plenty in general.

AMALTHEUM (-i) or AMALTHfiA (-ae), a
villa of Atticus in Epirus, perhaps originally
a shrine of the nymph Amalthea, which
Atticus converted into a beautlftil summer
retreat. Cicero, in imitation, constructed a
similar retreat on his estate at Arplnimi.

AMANTLA (ae), a Greek town and district
in Illyricum, at soine distance from the coast,
E. of Oricum.

AMANUS (-i), abranchofMt. Taurus, which
runs from the head of the Gulf of Issus N. E.
to the principal chain, dividing Syria from
Cilicia and Cappadocia. Its inhabitants were
wUd banditti.

AMARDI or MARDI (-5rum), a powerful,
warlike, and predatory tribe who dwelt on the
S. shore of the Caspian Sea. ,

AMARYNTHUS (-i), a town in Euboea 7
stadia from Eretria, with a celebrated temple
of Artemis (Diana), who was hence called
Amarynthia or Amaryaia.

AMASENUS (-1), a small river in Latium,
which, after being joined by the Ufens, falls
into the sea between Circeii and Terracina,
though the greater part of its waters are lost
in the Pontine marshes.

IMASIa (-ae) or .£A (-ae), the capital of
the kings of Pontus, was a strongly fortified
city on both banks of the river Iris. It was
the birthplace of Mithridates the Great and
of the geographer Strabo.

AMASIS (-is), king of Egypt, b. c. 670—
526, succeeded Apries, whom he dethroned.
During his long reign Egypt wasr in a very
prosperous condition } and the Greeks were
brought into much closer intercourse with
the Egyptians than had existed previously.

AMASTRIS (-is). (1) Wife of Xerxes, and
mother of Artaxerxes I., was of a cruel and
vindictive character. — (2) Also called Amas-
TKiNE, niece of Darius, the last king of Persia.
She married, 1. Craterus; 2 Dionysius,
tyrant of Heraclea in Dithynia, b. c. 322 ;
and 3. Lysiinachus, 302. She was drowned
by her two sons about 288. — (3) A city on

Digitized by





the coast of Paphlagonia, built by Amastris
after her separation from Lysimaclias.

AMATA (-ae), wife of king Latinus and
mother of Lavinia, opposed Lavinia being
given in marriage to Aeneas, because she had
already promised her to Tumus. When she
heard that Tumns had fallen in battle, she
hung herself.

AMATHtJS (-untis), an ancient town on
the 8. coast of Cyprus, with a celebrated
temple of Aphrodite (Venus), who was hence
called AmeUhigia. There were copper-mines
in the neighbourhood of the town.

(.imi) a mythical race of warlike females,
are said to have come from the Caucasus,
and to have settled in Asia Minor, about
the river Thermodon, where they founded
the city Themisc^a. They were go-

AMBIVARITI (-drum), a Gallic pcopl.»,
W. of the Maas, in the neighbourhood oi

AMBRACIA (-ae : Aria), a town on the left
bank of the Arachthus, N. of the Ambracian
gulf, was originally included in.Acamania, but
afterwards in Epirus. It was colonised by
the Corinthians about b. c. 660. Pyrrhns
made it the capital of his kingdom, and
adorned it with public buildings and statueH.
At a later time it Joined the Aetolian League,
was taken by the Romans in b. o. 189, and
stripped of its works of art. Its inhabitants

Online LibraryWilliam SmithA smaller classical dictionary of biography, mythology, and geography ... → online text (page 6 of 90)