William Smith.

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ministration. Of these works the chief were
the Propylaea of the Acropolis, and, above all,
the temple of Athena on the Acropolis, called
the ParthXnon, on which the highest efforts
of the best artists were employed. The
sculptured ornaments of this temple, the
remains of which form the glory of the
British Museimi, were executed under the
immediate superintendence o' Phidias ; but
the colossal statue of the divimty m<tde o .
ivory and gold, which was enclosed within
that magnificent shrine, was the work of the
artist's own hand. The statue was dedicated
in 438. Having finished his great work at
Athens, he went to Elis and Olympia, where
he finished his statue of the Olympian Zeus,
the greatest of all his works. On his return
to Athens he fell a victim to the jealousy
against his great patron, Pericles. [Pericles.]
Phidias was first accused of peculation, but
this charge was at once refuted, as, by the
advice of Pericles, the gold had been afl^ed
to the statue of Athena, in such a manner
that it could be removed, and the weight of
it examined. The accusers then charged
Phidias with impiety, in having introduced
into the battle of the Amazons, on the shield
of the goddess, his own likeness and that of
Pericles. On this latter charge Phidias was
thrown into prison, where he died ttom
disease, in 432.

celebrated courier, who was sent by the
Athenians to Sparta in b.c. 490, to ask for aid
against the Persians, and arrived there on
the second day from his leaving Athens.

PHIDON (-onis), a king of Argos, who
extended his sovereignty over the greater
part of Peloponnesus. In b.c. 748, he de-
prived the Eleans of their presidency at the

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Olympic games, and celebrated them jointly
with the Pisana; but the Eleans not long
after defeated him, with the aid of Sparta,
and recovered their privilege. The most
memorable act of Phidon was his intro.
duction of copper and silver coinage, and a
new scale of weights and measures, which,
through his influence, became prevalent in
the Peloponnesus, and ultimately throughout
the greater portion of Greece. The scale in
question was known by the name of the
Aeginetan, and it is usually supposed that
the coinage of Phidon was struck in Aegina ;
but this name was perhaps given to it only
in consequence of the commercial activity of
the Aeginetans.

PHIGALIA (-ae), a town in the S. W. comer
of Arcadia on the frontiers of Messenia and
Elis, which owes its celebrity in modern
times to the remains of a splendid temple in
its territory, built in the time of Pericles.
The sculptures in alto-relievo, which orna-
mented the frieze in the interior, are now
preserved in the British Museum. They
represent the combat of the Centaurs and
the Lapithae, and of the Greeks and the

PHILADELPHIA (-ae). (1) A city of
Lydia, at the foot of Mt. Tmolus, built by
Attalus Philadelphus, king of Pergamus. It
was an early seat of Christianity, and its
church is one of the 7 to which the Apoca-
lypse is addressed. — (2) A city of Cilicia
Aspera, on the Calycadnus, above Aphrodisias.

Ph!laDELPHUS (-i), a surname of Pto-
lemaeus II., king of Egypt [Ptolemaetjs], and
of Attalus II., king of Pergamum. [Attalus.]

PHILAE (-Urum), an island in the Nile,
just below the first cataract, on the S. boun-
dary of the country towards Aethiopia. It
was inhabited by Egyptians and Ethiopians
jointly, and was covered with magnificent
temples, whose splendid ruins still remain.

PHILAENI (-orum), 2 brothers, citizens
of Carthage, of whom the following story is
told. A dispute having arisen between the
Carthaginians and Cyrenaeans about their
boundaries, it was agreed that deputies should
start at a fixed time from each of the cities,
and that the place of their meeting should
thenceforth form the limit of the 2 territo-
ries. The Philaeni departed from Carthage,
and advanced much farther than the Cyre-
naean party. The Cyrenaeans accused them
of having set forth before the time agreed
upon, but at length consented to accept the
spot which they had reached as a boundary-
line, if the Philaeni would submit to be
buried alive there in the sand. The Philaeni
accordingly devoted themselves for their
oountry in the way proposed. The Cartha.

ginians paid high honours to their memory,
and erected altars to them where they had
died ; and from these the place was called
" ThejUtars of the Philaeni."

PHILAMMON (.6nis), a mythical poet and
musician, said to have been the son of Apollo,
and the father of Thamyris and Eumolpus.

PHIlEmON {-»nis). (1) An aged Phry-
gian, and husband of Baucis, who hospitably
entertained Zeus (Jupiter) and Hermes (Mer-
cury). — (2) A celebrated Athenian poet of
the New Comedy, was a native of Soli in
Cilicia, but at an early age went to Athens,
and there received the citizenship. He
flourished in the reign of Alexander, a little
earlier than Menander, whom, however, he
long survived. He began to exhibit about
B.C. 330^ and lived nearly ICO years. Al-
though Philemon was inferior to Menander
as a poet, yet he was a greater favourite
with the Athenians, and often conquered his
rival in the dramatic contests. [Mbnakdbk.]
— (3) The younger Philemon, also a poet of
the New Comedy, was a son of the former.

PHILETAERUS. [Peegamum.]

PHIleTAS (-ae), of Cos, a distinguished
Alexandrian poet and grammarian,, and the
tutor of Ptolemy II. Philadelphus.

PHILIPPI (-orum), a celebrated city in
Macedonia adjecta, situated on a steep height
of Mt. Pangaeus, and founded by Philip of
Macedon, on the site of an ancient town,
Crekides, a colony of the Thasians. Philippi
is celebrated in history in consequence of
the victory gained here by Octavianus and
Antony over Brutus and Cassius, b.c. 42, and
as the place where the Apostle Paul first
preached the gospel in Europe, a.d. 53. One
of St. Paul's Epistles is addressed to the
church at Philippi.

PHILIPPOPOLIS (-is, Philippopolt), an Im-
portant town in Thrace, founded by Philip of
Macedon, was situated in a large plain, S.E.
of the Hebrus, on a hill with 3 summits,
whence it was sometimes called Trimontium.
Under the Roman empire it was the capital
of the province of Thracia.

PmLIPPUS (-i).— I. Kings of Macedonia.
(1) Son of Argaeus, wasthe 3rd king, accord-
ing to Herodotus and Thucydides, who, not
reckoning Cakastus and his two immediate
successors, look upon Perdiccas I. as the
founder of the monarchy. — (2) Youngest son
of Amyntas n. and Eurydice, reigned b.c.
359 — 336. He was bom In 882, and was
brought up at Thebes, whither he had been
carried as a hostage by Pelopidas, and where
he received a most careful education. Upon
the death of his brother, Perdiccas III.,
Philip obtained the government of Macedonia,
at first merely as guardian to his infant

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nephew Amyntas ; but at the end of a few
months he set aside the claims of the young
prince, and assumed for himself the title of
king. As soon as he was firmly established
on the throne, he introduced among the
Macedonians a stricter military discipline,
and organised their army on the plan of the
phalanx. He then directed his -views to the
aggrandisement of his kingdom. He resolved
first to obtain possession of the various
Greek cities upon the Macedonian coast.
Amphipolis, Pydna, Potidaea, Methone, and,
finally, Olynthus, successively fell into his
hands. Demosthenes, in his Philippic and
Olynthiac orations, endeavoured to rouse the
Athenians to the danger of Athens and
Greece from the ambitious schemes of PhUip ;
but the Athenians did not adopt any rigorous
efforts to check the progress of the Mace,
donian king. On the invitation of the
Amphictyons he subdued the Phocians, and
was rewarded with the place of the latter in
the Amphiotyonic council (b.c 846). The
Athenians at length became thoroughly
alarmed at his aggrandisement ; and accord-
ingly, when he marched through Thermo-
pylae, at the invitation of the Amphictyons,
to ptmish the Locrians of Amphissa, they
resolved to oppose him. Through the influ-
ence of Demosthenes, they succeeded in
forming an alliance with the Thebans ; but
their united army was defeated by Philip in
the month of August, 338, In the decisive
battle of Chaeronea, which put an end to the
independence of Greece. A congress was
now held at Corinth of the Grecian states,
in which war with Persia was deternmied
. on, and the king of Macedonia was appointed
to command the forces of the national con-
federacy. But in the midst of his prepara-
tions for his Asiatic expedition, he was
murdered during the celebration of the
nuptials of Jiis daughter with Alexander, of
Epirus, by a youth of noble blood, named Pau-
sanias. His motive for the deed is stated by
Aristotle to have been private resentment
against Philip, to whom he had complained
in vain of a gross outrage offered to him by
Attains. His wife, Olympias, however, was
suspected of being implicated in the plot.
[Olympias.] Philip died in the 47th year
of his age, and the 24th of his reign, and
was succeeded by Alexander the Great. — (3)
The name of Philip was bestowed by the
Macedonian army upon Arrhidaeus, the
bastard son of Philip II., when he was raised
to the throne after the death of Alexander
ihe Great. He accordingly appears in the
list of Macedonian kings as Philip III.
[AttRHiDAJBTJs.] — (4) Eldest son of Cassander,
whom he succeeded on the throne, b.c. 296,

but he reigned only a few months. — (5) Son
of Demetrius II., reigned b.c 220 — 178. He
succeeded his uncle, Antigonus Doson, at 1 7
years of age. During the first 8 years of his
reign he conducted the war against the
Aetolians at the request of the Achaeans and
Aratus. But soon after bringing this war tc
a conclusion, he became jealous of Aratos,
whom he caused to be removed by a slow
and secret poison. Philip was engaged in
two wars with the Eomans. The first lasted
from B.C. 215, when he concluded an alliance
with Hannibal, to 205. The second com-
menced in 200, and was brought to an end
by the defeat of Philip, by the consul Fla-
mininus, at the battle of Cynosceph'alae, in
197. [Flaminikts.] Through the false accu-
sations of his son Perseus, he put to death his
other son Demetrius ; but discovering after-
wards the innocence of the latter, he
died (b.c 179) a prey to remorse. He was
succeeded by Perseus. — II. Family of the
Marcii Philippic — (L) L. Marcitjs Philippus,
consul B.c 91, opposed with vigour the
measures of the tribune Drusus. He was
one of the most distinguished orators of his
time. — (2) L. and Marcius Philippus, son of
the preceding, consul b.c. 56, and step-father
of Augustus, having married his mother,
Atia. — III. kmperort of Rome, — ^M. Julius
Philippus, the name of two Roman empe-
rors, father and son, of whom the former
reigned a.d. 244 — 249. He was an Arabian
by birth, and rose to high rank in the Roman
army. He obtained the empire by the
assassination of Gordian. He was slain near
Verona, either in battle against Decius, or
by his own soldiers. His son, whom he had
proclaimed Augustus two years before,
perished at the same time.

PHIlISTUS (-i), a Syracusan, and a friend
of the younger Dionysius, commanded the
fiect of the latter in a battle with Dion, and
being defeated put an end to his life. He
was the author of a celebrated history of
Sicily, in which he closely imitated Thu-

PHIlO (-Snis). (1) An academic philo-
gopher, was a native of Larissa and a disciple
of Clitomachus. After the conquest of Athens
by Mithridates he removed to Rome, where
he had Cicero as one of his hearers— (2) Of
Byzantium, a celebrated mechanician, and a
contemporary of Ctesibius, flourished about
B.C. 146. — (3) Judaeus, or sumamedtheJew,
was bom at Alexandria, and was sent to
Rome in a.d. 40 on an embassy to the em-
peror Caligula. He wrote several works
which have come down to us, in which he
attempts to reconcile the Sacred Scriptures
with the doctrines of the Greek philosophy.

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PHIlO, Q. PUBLILIUS, a distinguished
general in the Samnite wars, proposed, in his
dictatorship, b.o. 339, the celebrated Pu6/t7ia«
Leges, which abolished the power of the
patrician assembly of the curiae, and elevated
the plebeians to an equality with the patri-
cians for all practical purposes.

PHILOCTETES (-is), a son of Poeas
(whence he is called PoeantX&des), was the
most celebrated archer in the Trojan war.
He was the friend and armour-bearer of Her-
cules, who bequeathed to him his bow and
the poisoned arrows, for having set fire to
the pile on Mt. Oeta, on which Hercules
perished. Philootetes was also one of the
suitors of Helen, and thus took part in the
Trojan war. On his voyage to Troy, while
staying in the island of Chryse, he was bitten
in the foot by a snake, or wounded by one of
his arrows. The wound produced such an in-
tolerable stench that the Greeks, on the advice
of Ulysses, left Philoctetes on the solitary
coast of Lemnos. He remained in this island
till the 10th year of the Trojan war, when
Ulysses and Diomedes came to fetch him to
Troy, as an oracle had declared that the city
could not be taken without the arrows of
Hercules. He accompanied these heroes to
Troy, and on his arrival Aescidapius or his
sons cured his wound. He slew Paris and
many other Trojans. On his return from Troy
he is said to have settled in Italy.

PHILODEMUS (-i), of Gadara, in Palestine,
an Epicurean philosopher, and epigrammatic
poet, contemporary with Cicero. He is also
mentioned by Horace {Sat. L 2. 121).

PHILOLAUS (-i), a distinguished Pytha-
gorean philosopher, was a native of Croton or
Tarentum, and a contemporary of Socrates.

PHILOMELA (-ae), daughter of Pandion,
' king of Athens, and sister of ProcnS, who
had married Tereus, king of Thrace. Being
dishonoured by the latter, Philomela was
metamorphosed into a nightingale. The story
is given under Tereus.

city of Phrygia, on the borders of Lycaonia and
Pisidia, said to have been named from the
numbers of nightingales in its neighbourhood.

PHILOPOEMEN (-^nis), of MegalopoUs in
Arcadia, one of the few great men that Greece
produced in the decline of her political in-
dependence. The great object of his life was
to infuse into the Achaeans a military
spirit, and thereby to establish their inde-
pendence on a firm and lasting basis. He
distinguished himself at the battle of Sellasia
(B.C. 221), in which Cleomenes was defeated.
Soon afterwards he sailed to Crete, and served
for some years in the wars between the cities
of that island. In a.c. 208 he was elected

strategus, or general of the Achaean league, and
in this year slew in battle with his own hand
Machanidas, tyrant of Lacedaemon. He wa»
8 times general of the Achaean league, and
discharged the duties of his office with honour
to himself and advantage to his country. In
B.C. 183, when he was marching against the
Medsenians who had revolted from th"
Achaean league, he fell in with a large body
of Messenian troopti, by whom he was taken
prisoner, and carried to Messene, where hu
was compelled to drink poison.

native of Lemnos, flourished in the Ist half
of the 8rd century of the Christian era, and
taught rhetoric first at Athens and afterwards
at Rome. He wrote several works, of which
the most important is the Life of ApolUmius
of Tyana in 8 books. — (2) The younger, and
a grandson of the preceding. He wrote a
work entitled Imagines,

PHILOTAS (-ae), son of Parmenion, en-
joyed a high place in the friendship of Alex-
ander, but was accused in b.c. 830 of beint;
privy to a plot against the king's life. Therf
was no proof of his guilt ; but a confession
was wrung from him by torture, and he
was stoned to death by the troops. [Par-

PHILOXENUS (-i), of Cythera, one of the
most distinguished dith^irambio poets of
Greece, was bom b.c 435 and died 380. Be
spent part of his life at Syracuse, where he
waa cast into prison by Dionysius, because he
had told the tyrant, when asked to revise one
of his poems, that the best way of correcting
it would be to draw a black line through the
whole paper. Only a few fragments of his
poems have come down to us.

PHILUS, L. FCRIUS (-i), consul B.C. 186,
was fond of Greek literature and refinement,
and is introduced by Cicero as one of the
speakers in his dialogue De Sepvblica,

PHILtRA (-ae), a nymph, daughter of
Oceanus, and mother of the centaur Chiron,
was changed into a linden-tree. Hence
Chiron was called FhtlprldSs, and his abode
FhllprSia tecta,

PHINEUS (-€88, -«, or -el). (1) Son of
Belus and Anchinoe, and brother of Cepheub,
slain by Perseus. [Andromeda and Persdus.
— (2) Son of Agenor, and king of Salmydessus,
in Thrace, and a celebrated «oothsayer. Be
deprived his sons of sight, in consequence of
a false accusation made against them by Idaea,.
their step-mother. The gods, in consequence,
punished him with the loss of his sight, and
sent the Harpies to torment him. [Harftiae. 1
"When the Argonauts visited Thrace he was
delivered from these monsters by Zetes and
Calais, the sons of Boreas. Phineus in n -

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turn explained to the Argonauts the further
oourse they had to take. According to other
accounts he was slain by Hercules.

PHINTiAS. [Damon.]

PHLEGETHON (-ontis), i, e. the flaming,
a river in the lower world, in whose channel
flowed flames instead of water.

PHLEGRA. [Pallknb.]

PHLEGRAEI CAMPI (-5rum), the name
of the volcanic plain extending along the coast
of Campania ft*om Cumae to Capua, so called
because it was believed to have been once on

PHLEGtAS (-ae), son of Ares (Mars) and
Chryse, and king of Orchomenos, in Boeotia.
He was the father of Ixion and Coronis, the
latter of whom became by Apollo the mother
oi Aescidapius. Enraged at this, Phlegyas
set fire to the temple of the god, who killed
him with his arrows, and condemned him to
severe punishment in the lower world. His de-
scendants, Phlegyae, are represented as a my-
thical race, who destroyed the temple at Delphi.

PHLiCS (-untis), the chief town of a small
province in the N.E. of Peloponnesus, whose
territory, Phliasia, was bounded by Sicyonia,
Arcadia, and Argos.

PHOCAEA (.ae), the N.-mostof the Ionian
cities on the W. coast of Asia Minor, cele-
brated as a great maritime state, and espe-
cially as the founder of the Greek colony of
MassilIa, in Gaul. The name of Phocaean
is often used with reference to Massilia.

PHOCION (-Snis), an Athenian general and
statesman, born about b.c. 402. He fre-
quently opposed the measures of Demosthenes,
and recommended peace with Philip ; but he
was not one of the mercenary supporters of the
Macedonian monarch. On the contrary, his
virtue is above suspicion, and his public con-
duct was always influenced by upright mo-
tives. When the Piraeus was seized by Alex-
ander, the son of Polysperchon, in 3 1 8, Phocion
was suspected of having advised Alexander to
take this step ; whereupon he fled to Alex-
ander, but was basely surrendered by Poly-
sperchon to the Athenians. He was con-
demned to drink the hemlock, and thus
perished in 317, at the age of 85. The
Athenians are said to have repented of their

PHOCIS (-Ydis), a country in Northern
Greece, bounded on the N. by the Locri Epi-
cnemidii andOpuntii, on the E. by Boeotia, on
the "W. by the Locri Ozolae and Doris, and on
the S. by the Corinthian gulf. It was a moun-
tainous and unproductive country, and owes
Its chief importance in history to the fact of
its possessing the Delphic oracle. Its chief
mountain was Parkasstjs, and its chief river
the CEPiosavs. The Phocians played no con-

spicuous part in Greek history till the time
of Philip of Macedon ; but at this period they
became involved in a war, called the Phocian
or Sacred War, in which the principal states
of Greece took part. At the instigration of
the Thebans, the inveterate enemies of the
Phocians, the Amphictyons imposed a flne
upon the Phocians, and, upon their refusal to
pay it, declared the Phocian land forfeited to
the god at Delphi. Thereupon the Phocians
seized the treasures of the temple at Delphi
for the purpose of carrying on the war. This
war lasted 10 years (b.c. 357 — 846), and was
brought to a close by the conquest of the
Phocians by Philip of Macedon. All their
towns were razed to the ground with the ex-
ception of Abae ; and the 2 votes which they
had in the Amphictyonic council were taken
away and given to Philip.

PHOCUS (-i), son of Aeacus and the Nereid
Psamathe, was murdered by his half-brothers
Telamon and Peleus. [Peleus.]

PHOCtLIDfiS (-is), of MUetus, a gnomic
poet, contemporary with Theognes, was bom
B.O. 560.

PHOEBfi (.es). (1) A surname of Artemis
(Diana) as the goddess of the moon (Luna),
the moon being regarded as the female
Phoebus or sun. — (2) Daughter of Tyndareop
and Leda, and a sister of Cly taemnestra. — (3)
Daughter of Leucippus.

PHOEBUS (-i), the Briffht or Pure, an
epithet of Apollo.

PHOENICfi (-€s), a country of Asia, on
the coast of Syria, extending from the river
Eleutherus on the N. to below Mt. Carmel on
the S., and bounded on the E. by Coele-Syrin
and Palestine. It was a mountainous strip
of coast land, not more than 10 or 12 miles
broad, hemmed in between the Mediterranean
and the chain of Lebanon, whose lateral
branches nm out into the sea in bold pro-
montories, upon which were situated some of
the greatest maritime states of the ancient
world. For the history of those great cities,
see SiDON, Ttrus, &c. The people were oi
the Semitic race, and their language was a
dialect of the Aramaic, closely related to the
Hebrew and Syriac. Their written characters
were the same as the Samaritan or Old
Hebrew ; and from them the Greek alphabet,
and through it most of the alphabets of
Europe, were undoubtedly derived; hence
they were regarded by the Greeks as the in-
ventors of letters. Other inventions in the
sciences and arts are ascribed to them ; such
as arithmetic, astronomy, navigation, the
manufacture of glass, and the coining of
money. That, at a very early time, they ex-
celled in the flne arts, is clear from the aid
which Solomon received from Hiram, king of

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Tyre, in the "building and the sculptured de-
corations of the temple at Jerusalem, and from
the references in Homer to Sidonian artists.
In the sacred history of the Israelitish con-
quest of Canaan, in that of the Hebrew
monarchy, and in the earliest Gree^ poetry,
vee find the Phoenicians already a great
maritime peoj^le. Their voyages and their
settlements extended beyond the pillars of
Hercules, to the W. coasts of Africa and
Spain, and even as far as our own islands.
[BaiTANNiA.] Within the Mediterranean
they planted numerous colonies, on its
islands, on the coast of Spain, and especially
on the N. coast of Africa, the chief of which
was Carthago. They were successively
subdued by the Assyrians, Babylonians, Per-
sians, Macedonians, and Romans ; but these
conquests did not entirely ruin their com-
merce, which was still considerable at the
Christian era. Under the Romans Phoenice
formed a part of the province of Syria.

PHOENIX (-Tcis). (1) Son of Agenor and
brother of Europa. Being sent by his father
m search of his sister, who was carried oflf
by Zeus (Jupiter), he settled in the country,
which was called after him Phoenicia. —
(2) Son of Amyntor by Cleobule or Hippo-
damia. His father having neglected his wife,
and attached himself to a mistress, Cleobule
persuaded her son to gain the affections of
the latter. Phoenix succeeded in the attempt,
but was in consequence cursed by his father.
Thereupon he fled to Phthia in Thessaly, where
he was hospitably received by Peleus, who
made him ruler of the Dolopes, and entrusted
to him the education of his son Achilles.
He afterwards accompanied Achilles to the
Trojan war. According to another tradition,
Amyntor put out the eyes of his son, who
fled in this condition to Peleus ; but Chiron
restored his sight.

PHOLOE (-es), a mountain forming the
boundary between Arcadia and Elis ;
mentioned as one of the seats of the Centaurs.

PHOLUS (4), a Centaur, accidentally slain
by one of the poisoned arrows of Hercules,

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