William Smith.

A smaller classical dictionary of biography, mythology, and geography ... online

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and buried in the mountain called Pholoe
after him. For the details of his story see
p. 197.

PHORCUS (-i), PHORCYS (-j^Ss), or
PHORCTN (-jTitts), a sea deity, son of Pontus
and Ge, and father of the Graeae and
Gorgones, who are hence called Phorcldes,
PhorcJ^des, or Phorc543ldes (-um.)

PHORMION (.onis), a celebrated Athe-
nian general in the Peloponnesian war.

PHORONEUS (-^88 or -6l), son of Inachus
and Melia, one of the fabulous kings of Argos,
and father of Niobe, and Apis. Hence



Ph6r5n5us and PhSrunis are used in the
general sense of Argive.

PHRAATES (-ae), the name of 4 kings of
Parthia. [Arsacbs, V. VII. XII. XV.]

PHRAORTES, 2nd king of Media, son and
successor of Deioces, reigned b.c. 656 — 634.
He was killed while laying siege to Ninus
(Nineveh).

PHRIXU8 (-1), son of Athamaa and
Nephele, and brother of Helle. In conse-
quence of the intrigues of his stepmother,
Ino, he was to be sacrificed to Zeus (Jupiter) ;
but Nephele rescued her 2 children, who
rode away through the air upon the ram with
the golden fieece, the gift of Hermes (Mer-
cury). Between Sigeum and the Chersonesus,
Helle fell into the sea which was called after
her the Hellespont ; but Phrixus arrived in
safety in Colchis, the kingdom of Aeetes, who
gave him his daughter Chalciope in marriage.
Phrixussacrificed to Zeus the ram which had
carried him, and gave its fieece to Aeetes,
who fastened it to an oak tree in the grove
of Ares (Mars). This fieece was afterwards
carried away by Jason and the Argonauts.
[Jason.]

PHRtGIA MATER. [Phetoia.]

^ PHRtGIA (-ae), a country of Asia Minor,
which was of different extent at different
periods. Under the Roman empire, Phrygia
was bounded on the W. by Mysia, Lydia, and
Caria, on the S. by Lycia and Pisidia, on the
E. by Lycaonia (which is often reckoned as a
part of Phrygia) and Galatia (which formerly
belonged to Phrygia), and on the N. by
Bithynia. The Phrygians are mentioned by
Homer as settled on the banks of the
Sangarius, where later writers tell us of the
powerful Phrygian kingdom of Gorditjs and
Midas. It would seem that they were a
branch of the great Thracian^family, originally
settled in the N.W. of Asia Minor, as far as
the shores of the Hellespont and Propontis,
and that the successive migrations of other
Thracian peoples, as the Thyni, Bithyni,
Mysians, and Teucrians, drove them farther
inland. They were not, however, entirely
displaced by the Mysians and Teucrians from
the country between the shores of the Helles-
pont and Propontis and Mts. Ida and Olympus,
where they continued side by side with the
Greek colonies, and where their name wai<
preserved in that of the district under all
subsequent changes, namely Phbtoia Minob
or Phrtoia Hellebpontus. The kingdom
of Phrygia was conquered by Croesus, and
formed part of the Persian, Macedonian, and
Syro-Grecian empires ; but, under the last,
the N.E. part, adjacent to Prfphlagonia and
the Halys, was conquered by the Gauls, and
formed the W. part of Galatia ; and under
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the Romans was included in the prorince of
Asia. In connexion with the early intel-
lectual cultore of Greece, Phrygia is highly
important. The earliest Greek music, espe-
cially that of the flute, was borrowed in part,
through the Asiatic colonies, ft*om Phrygia.
With this country also were closely associated
the orgies of Dionysus (Bacchus), and of
Cybele, the Mother of the Gods, the Phrygia
Mater of the Roman poets. After the Persian
conquest, however, the Phrygians seem to
have lost all intellectual activity, and they
became proverbial among the Greeks and
Romans for submissiveness and stupidity.
The Roman poets constantly use the epithet
Phrygian as equivalent to Trojan.

PHRYNICHUS (-i), an Athenian, and one
of the early tragic poets, gained his first
tragic victory in b.c. 511, 12 years before
Jkeschylus (499).

PHTHIA. [PHTmons.]

PHTHIOTIS (-Idis), a district in the S.E.
of Thessaly, bounded on the S. by the Maliac
gulf, and on the £. by the Pagasaean gulf,
and inhabited by Achaeans. [Thessalia.]
Homer calls it Phthia, and mentions a
city of the same name, which was celebrated
as the residence of Achilles. Hence the
• poets call Achilles Phthitu ?iero, and his
father Peleus Phthuts rex.

PHTC08 (-untis), a promontory on the
coast of Cyrenaica, a little W. of Apollonia.

PHtLACE (-es), a small town of Thessaly
in Phthiotis, the birthplace of Protesilaus,
hence called Phylacideg : Ms wife Laodamia
is also called Phylaceis.

PHYLE (-es), a strongly fortified place in
Attica, on the confines of Boeotia, and me-
morable as the place which Thrasybulus and
the Athenian patriots seized soon after the
end of the Peloponnesian war, b.c. 404, and
from which they directed their operations
against the 30 Tyrants at Athens.

PHYLLIS. [Dkmophon.]

PHYLLUS (-i), a town of Thessaly In the
district Thessaliotis. The poets use PhylleU
and Phylltitts in the sense of Thessalian.

PHYSCON. [Ptolemaus.]

PICENI.^ [PiCENUM.]

PICENTIA (-ae : ncenza)^ a town in the
8. of Campania at the head of the Sinus
Paestanus. The name of Picentini was not
confined to the inhabitants of Picentia, but
was given to the inhabitants of the whole
coast of the Sinus Paestanus, from the pro-
montory of Minerva to the river Silarus.
They were a portion of the Sabine Picentes,
who were transplanted by the Romans to this
part of Campania after the conquest of Pice-
nunx, B.C. 268, at which time they founded
the town of Picentia.



PfCENTINI. [Picentia.]

PIcENUM (-i), a country in central Italy,
was a narrow strip of land along the coa^t
of the Adriatic, and was bounded on the >'.
by Umbria, on the W. by Umbria and the
territory of the Sabines, and on the S. by tlte
territory of the Marsi and Yestini. It is said
to have derived its name ft-om the bird picus^
which directed the Sabine immigrants into
the land. They were conquered by tlie
Romans in b.c. 268, when a portion of them
was transplanted to the coast of the Sinus
Paestanus, where they founded the town
Picentia. [Picentia.]

PICTI (-orum), a people inhabiting the
northern part of Britain, appear to have
been either a tribe of the Caledonians, or tli#
same people as the Caledonians, though imdor
another name. They were called Picti by
the Romans, from their practice of painting
their bodies. They are first mentioned in
A.D. 296 ; and after this time their name
frequently occurs in the Roman writers, and
often in connexion with that of the Scoti.

PICTONES (-um), subsequently PICTAM
(-orum), a powerful people on tiie coast of
Gallia Aquitanica. Their chief town was
Limonum, subsequently Pict&vi {Poitiera).

PICUMNUS and PILUMNUS (-i), two gods
of matrimony in the rustic religion of the
ancient Romans. Pilunmus was considered
the ancestor of Tumus.

PICUS (-i), a Latin prophetic divinity, son
of Satumus, husband of Canens, and fath( r
of Faunus. The legend of Picus is foimded
on the notion that the woodpecker is a pro-
phetic bird, sacred to Mars. Pomona was
beloved by him ; and when Circe's love for
him was not requited, she changed him into
a woodpecker, who retained the prophetic
powers which he had formei'ly possessed as a
man.^

PIERIa (-ae). (1) A narrow slip of country
on the S.E. coast of Macedonia, extending
from the mouth of the Peneus in Thessaly to
the Haliacmon, and bounded on the W. by
Mt. Olympus and its offshoots. A portion of
these mountains was called by the ancient
writers Piervs, or the Pierian mountain.
The inhabitants of this country were a Thra-
cian people, and are celebrated in the early
history of Gre^k poetry and music, since
their country was one of the earliest seats of
the worship of the Muses, who are hence
called Pt^rldes, After the establishment of
the Macedonian kingdom in Emathia in the
7th century, b.c, Pieria was conquered by
the Macedonians, and the inhabitants were
driven out of the country. — (2) A district in
Macedonia, E. of the Strymon, near Mt. Pan-
gaeum, where the Pierians settled, who had



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been driven out of their original abodes by
the Macedonians, as already related. — (3) A
district on the N. coast of Syria, so called
from the mountain Pieria, a branch of the
Amanus, a name given to it by the Macedo-
nians^after their conquest of the East.

PIERIDES (-urn). (1) A surname of the
Muses. [Pieria, No. 1.] — (2) The nine
daughters of Pierus, king of Emathia (Ma-
t'ledonia), to whom he gave the names of the
ft Muses. They afterwards entered into a
contest with the Muses, and, being conquered,
were metamorphosed iato birds.

PIERUS. (1) Mythological. [Pikridbs.]
— (2) A mountain. [Pibria, No. 1.]

PILUMNU8. [PicuMNTjs.] '

PIMPLE A (-ae), a town in the Macedonian
province of Pieria, sacred to the Muses, who
were hence called Pimpleldes. Horace uses
the form Fimplea in the singular, and not
l^impleis.

PINARA (-orum), an inland city of Lycia.

PINARII and POTITII (-orum), the
name of two ancient Roman families, who
presided over the worship of Hercules at
liome. ^

PINARUS (4), a river of Cilicia, rising in
iMt. Amanus, and falling into the grulf of

liiSUS.

PINDARUS (4), the greatest lyric poet of
tireece, was bom at Cynoscephalae, a village
in the territory of Thebes, about B.C. 522.
lie commenced his career as a poet at an
early age, and was soon employed by dif-
ferent states and princes in all parts of the
Hellenic world to compose for them choral
e^ongs for special occasions. He received
money and presents for his works ; but he
never degenerated into a common mercenary
poet, and he continued to preserve to his
latest days the respect of all parts of Greece.
The praises which 'he bestowed upon Alexan-
der, king of Macedonia, are said to have been
tlie chief reason which led Alexander the
Great to spare the house of the poet, when
he destroyed the rest of Thebes. He died in
his 80th year, b.c. 442. Pindar wrote poems
of various kinds, most of which are men-
tioned in the well-known lines of Horace :

" Seu per audace« nova dithyramboi
Verba devolvit, numerisque fertor

Lege aolutis :
Seu deos IhymnM and paecMt) regeive (encomia)

canlt, deorum
Sanguinem : . . .
Sive quos Elea dotnum rednclt
Palma caelestes (the Epinicia) i . . .
Flebili sponsae juvenemTe raptum
Plorat" (the dirgea).

But his only poems which have come down
to us entire are his Epinicia^ which were
composed in commemoration of victories in
the public games. They are divided into



4 books, celebratihg the victories gained in
the Olympian, Pytbian, Nemean, and Isth- .
mian games.

PINDENISSUS (-i), a fortified town of
Cilicia, which was taken by Cicero when' he
was proconsul of Cilicia.

PINDUS (-i). (1) A lofty range of moun-
tains in northern Greece, a portion of the
great back bone, which runs through the
centre of Greece from N. to S. The name of
Pindus was confined to that part of the chain
which separates Thessaly and Epirus; and
its most N.-ly and also highest part was called
Lachon. — (2) One of the 4 towns in Doris.

PINNA (-ae), the chief town of the VestinI
at the foot of the Apennines.

PIRAEEUS (-65s) or PIRAEUS (-i : Porto
Leone or Porto Dracone), the most important
of the harbours of Athens, was situated in
the peninsula about 5 miles S.W. of Athens.
This peninsula, which is sometimes called by
the general name of Piraeeus, contained 3
harbours, Pirabeus proper on the W. side,
by far the largest of the 3 ; Zba on the E.
side, separated from Piraeeus by a narrow
isthmus, and Muntchia {Phamari) still
further to the E. It was through the sug-
gestion of Themistocles that the Athenians
were induced to make use of the harbour of
Piraeeus. Before the Persian wars their
principal harbour was Phalerum, which was
not situated in the Piraean peninsula at all,
but lay to the E. of Munychia. [Phalerxth.]
The town or demus of Piraeeus was sur-
rounded with strong fortifications by The.
mistocles, and was connected with Athens by
means of the celebrated Long Walls under
the administration of Pericles. (See p. 66.)
The town possessed a considerable population,
and many public and private buildings.

PIREnE (-Ss), a celebrated fountain at
Corinth, at which Bellerophon is said to have
caught the horse Pegasus. It gushed forth
from the rock in the Acrocorinthus, was
conveyed down the hill by subterraneous con-
duits, and fell into a marble basin, from which
the greater part of the town was supplied
with water. The poets frequently used
Plrenis^in the general sense of Corinthian.

PIRITHOUS (-i), son of Ixion and Dia,
and king of the Lapithae in Thessaly. Piri-
thoils once invaded Attica, but when Theseus
came forth to oppose him, he conceived a
warm admiration for the Athenian king ; and
from this time a most intimate friendship
sprang up between the two heroes. When
Pirithous was celebrating his marriage with
Hippodamia, the intoxicated Centaur Eurytion
or Eurytus carried her off, and this act oc-
casioned the celebrated fight between the
Centaurs and Lapithae, in which the Centaur:*



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were defeated. Theseos, who was present at
the wedding of Pirithous, assisted him in his
battle against the Centaurs.' Hippodamia
afterwards died, and each of the two Mends
resolved to wed a daughter of Zeus (Jupiter).
With the assistance of PirithoOs, Theseus
carried off Helen from Sparta. PirithoOs
was still more ambitious, and resolved to
carry off Persephone (Proserpina), the wife
of the king of the lower world. Theseus
would not desert his friend in the enterprise,
though he knew the risk which they ran.
The two friends accordingly descended to the
lower world, but they were seized by Pluto
and fostened to a rock, where they both re.
mained till Hercules visited the lower world.
Hercules delivered Theseus, who had made
the daring attempt only to please his friend ;
but PirithoOfl remained for ever in torment.

PiSA (-ae), the capital of PIS&TIS (.idis),
the middle i>ortion of the province of Elis, in
Peloponnesus. [Elis.] Pisa itself was situated
N. of the Alphaeus, at a very short distance
K. of Olympia, and, in consequence of its
proximity to the latter place, was frequency
identified by the poets with it. The history
ni the Pisatae consists of their struggle with
the Eleans, with whom they contended for
the presidency of the Olympic games. The
Pisatae obtained this honour in the 8th
Olympiad (b.o. 748) with the assistance of
Phidon, tyrant of Argos, and also a 2nd time
in the 84th Olympiad (644) by means of their
own king Pantaleon. In the 52nd Olympiad
(573) the struggle between the 2 peoples was
brought to a close by the conquest and destruc-
tion of Pisa by the Eleans.

PfSAE (4irum : Pisa)^ an ancient city of
Btruria, and one of 12 cities of the confedera-
tion, was situated at the confluence of the
Amos and Ausar (Sei^chio), about 6 miles
fiom the sea. According to some traditions,
Pisae was founded by the companions of
NcHtor, the inhabitants of Pisa in Elis, who
were driven upon the coast of Italy on their
return ftrom Troy ; whence the Roman poets
give the Etruscan town the surname of Alphea.
In B.C. 180 it was made a Latin colony. Its
harbour, called Portvs Pisantts, at the mouth
of the Amus, was much used by the Eomans.

PiSANDER (-dri), an Athenian, the chief
agent in effecting the revolution of the Four
Hundred, b.o. 412.

PIsATIS. [Pisa.]

pIsAURUM (4: Pe8ara)y an ancient town
of^ Umbria, near the mouth of the river
PISAURUS {Foglia)f on the roadtoAriminum.

PisiDLA. (-ae), an inland district of Asia
Minor, lying N. of Lycia and Pamphylia, was
a mountainous region, inhabited by a war.
like people, who maintained their indepen-



dence against all the successive rulers of Asia
Minor.

PISISTRATIDAE (-arum), a name given
to Hippias and Hipparchus, as the sons of
Pisistratus.

PISISTRATUS (-1), an Athenian, son of Hip-
pocrates, belonged to a noble family at Athens.
His mother was cousin-german to the mother
of Solon. When Solon had retired from
Athens, after the establishment of his con-
stitution, the old rivalry between the par-
ties of the Plain, the Coast, and the High-
lands, broke out into open feud. The first
was headed by Lycurgus, the second by
Megacles, the son of Alcmaeon, and the third
by Pisistratus, who had formed the design of
making himself tyrant or despot of Athens.
Solon, on his return, quickly saw through
his designs, and attempted in vain to dissuade
him f^om overthrowing the constitution.
When Pisistratus found his plans sufi&ciently
ripe for execution, he one day made his ap-
pearance in the agora, his mules and his own
person exhibiting recent wounds, and pre-
tended that he had been nearly assassinated
by his enemies as he was riding into the
country. An assembly of the people was
forthwith called, in which one of his partisans
proposed that a body-guard of 50 citizens,
armed with clubs, should be granted to him.
Pisistratus took the opportunity of raising
a much larger force, with which he seized
the citadel, b.o. 560, thus becoming tyrant
of Athens. His first usurpation lasted but a
short time. Before his power was firmly
rooted, the factions headed by Megacles and
Lycurgus combined, and Pisistratus was coni.
pelled to evacuate Athens. But Megacles and
Lycurgus soon quarrelled; whereupon the
former offered to reinstate Pisistratus in the
tyranny if he would marry his daughter.
The proposal was accepted by Pisistratus,
who thus became a second time tyrant of
Athens. Pisistratus now married the daugh-
ter of Megacles ; but in consequence of the
insulting manner in which he treated his
wife, Megacles again made common cause
with Lycurgus, and .Pisistratus was a second
time compelled to evacuate Athens. He re-
tired to Eretria, in Euboea ; and after spend,
ing 10 years in making preparations to re-
gain his power, he invaded Attica, and made
himself master of Athens for the third time.
He was not expelled again, but continued to
hold his power till his death. His rule was
not oppressive. He maintsdned the form of
Solon's institutions, and not only exacted
obedience to the laws from his subjects and
friends, but himself set the example of sub-
mitting to them. He was a warm patron of
literature ; and it is to him that we owe the



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PISTOR.



first written text of the -whole of the x>oeins
ot Homer, which, without his care, would
most likely now exist only in a few disjointed
fragments. [Hombrxjs.] He died in b.c. 527,
and was succeeded in the tyranny hy his two
iKons Hippias and Hipparchus. They con-
tinued the government on the same principles
08 their father. Hipparchus inherited his
father's literary tastes. Several distinguished
poets lived at Athens under the patronage of
Hipparchus, as, for example, Simonides of
Ceos and Anacreon of Teos. After the mur-
der of Hipparchus, in b.c. 514, an account of
which is given under Harmodfus, a great
change ensued in the character of the govern-
ment. Under the influence of revengeful
feeliAgs and fears for his own safety, Hippias
now became a morose and suspicious tyrant.
His old enemies the Alcmaeonidae, to whom
Megacles belonged, availed themselves of the
growing discontent of the citizens ; and after
one or two unsuccessful attempts they at
length succeeded, supported by a large force
under Cleomenes,in expelling Hippias from At-
tica. Hippias first retired to Sigeum, b.c. 510.
He afterwards repaired to the court of Darius,
and looked forward to a restoration to his
country by the aid of the Persians. He ac-
companied the expedition sent under Datis
and Artaphemes, and pointed out to the Per-
sians the plain of Marathon as the most suit-
able place for their landing. He was now
(490) of great age. According to some ac-
counts he fell in the battle of Marathon ;
tvccording to others he died at Lemnos, on his
return.

PISO (.5nis), the name of a distinguished
family of the Calpurnia gens. The name is
connected with agriculture, the most honour-
able pursuit of the ancient Romans : it comes
from the verb piaere or pinserey and refers to
the pounding or grinding of com. The chief
members of the family are : — (1) L. Calptjr-
Nius Piso Caesominus, consul b.c. 112, served
as legatus under L. Cassius Longinus, b.c.
107, and fell in battle against the Tigurini,
in the territory of the Allobroges. This Piso
was the grandfather of Caesar's father-in-law,
a circumstance to which Caesar alludes in
recording his own victory over the Tigurini
at a later time. — (2) L. Calpurnixis Piso
Krcoi, consul b.c. 138, received, ft-om his in-
tegrity and conscientiousness, the surname of
Frugi, which is nearly Univalent to our
** man of honour." He was a staunch sup-
porter of the aristocratical party, and offered
a strong opposition to the measures of C.
(Iracchus. He wrote Annals, which con-
tained the history of Rome from the earliest
period to the age in which Piso himself lived.
—(3) C. Calpubmus Piso, consul b.c. 67,



belonged to the aristocratical party. He
afterwards administered the province of 'Nar-
bonese Oaul as iHro-consul. In 63 he was
accused of plundering the province, and was
defended by Cicero. The latter charge was
'brought agpainst Piso at the instigation of
Caesar; and Piso, in revenge, implored
Cicero, but without success, to accuse Caesar
as one of the conspirators of Catiline. —
(4) M. Calpurnius Piso, usually called M.
Pupivs Piso, because he was adopted by M.
Pupius. He was elected consul b.c. 61,
through the influence of Pompcy. — (5) Cn.
Calpurnius Piso, a young noble who had dis-
sipated his fortune by his extravagance and
profligpacy, and therefore joined Catiline in
what is usually called his first conspiracy (66).
The senate, anxious to get rid of Piso, sent
him into Nearer Spain as quaestor, but with the
rank and title of propraetor. His exactions in
the province soon made him so hateful to the
inhabitants, that he was murdered by them. —
(6) L. Calptjbnius Piso, consul b.c. 58, was
an unprincipled debauchee and a cruel and
Anrupt magistrate. Piso and his colleague,
Gabinius, supported Clodius in his measures
against Cicero, which resulted in the banish,
ment of the orator. Piso afterwards governed
Macedonia, and plundered the province in the
most shameless manner. On his return to
Rome (55), Cicero attacked him in a speech
which is extant {In Piaonem), Calpurnia,
the daughter of Piso, was the last wife of the
dictator Caesar. — (7) C. Caltubious Piso
Frtjoi, the son-in-law of Cieero, married his
daughter TuUia, in b.c. 68. He died in 57.~

(8) Cn. Calpurnius Piso was appointed by
Tiberius to the command of Syria in a.d. 18,
in order that he might thwart and oppose
Germanicus, who had received from the em-
peror the government of all the eastern pro-
vinces. Plancina, the wife of Piso, was also
urged on by Livia, the mother of the emperor,
to vie with and annoy Agrippina. German-
icus and Agrippina were thus exposed to
every species of insult and opposition from
Piso and Plancina ; and when Germanicus
fell ill in the autumn of 19, he believed that
be had been poisoned by them. Piso, on his
return to Rome (20), was accused of murder-
ing Germanicus ; the matter was investigated
by the senate ; but before the investigation
came to an end, Piso was found one morning
in his room with his throat cut, and his sword
lying by his side. The powerful influence of
Livia secured the acquittal of Plancina. —

(9) C. Calpurnits Piso, the leader of the
well-known conspiracy against Nero in ad
65. On the discovery of the plot he put an
end to his life by opening his veins,

PISTOR (-oris), the Baker, a tumame of



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PLATO.



Jupiter at Rome, because when the Gauls
were besieging Rome, he suggested to the
besieged the idea of throwing loaves of bread
among the enemies, to make them believe
that the Romans had plenty of provisions.

PISTORIA (-ae), or PISTORIUM (-i:
Pistoia)t a small place in Etruria, on the
road from Luca to Florentia, rendered
memorable by the defeat of Catiline in its
neijrtibourhood.

PITANE (-6s), a seaport town of Mysia, on
the coast of the Elaitic gulf ; the birthplace
of the Academic philosopher Arcesilaus.

PITHECCSA. [Aenaria.]

PITHO (-as), the Greek goddess of persua-
sion, called SvADA or Svadela by the Romans.
Iler worship was closely connected with that



Online LibraryWilliam SmithA smaller classical dictionary of biography, mythology, and geography ... → online text (page 62 of 90)