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regained his kingdom (295). After this he
made an attempt to conquer Macedonia, and
actually obtained a share of the throne with
Lysimachus, but was driven out of the
country after a reign of 7 months (286). For
the next few years Pyrrhus reigned quietly in
Epims ; but in 280 he accepted the invitation
of the Tarentines to assist them in their war
against the Romans. He crossed over to
Italy with a large army, and in the 1st cam.
paign defeated the Roman consul, M. YalerJus
Laevinus, near Heraclea. The battle was long
and bravely contested ; and it was not till
Pjrrrhus brought forward his elephants,
which bore down everything before them,
that the Romans took to fiight. The loss of
Pyrrhus, though inferior to that of the
Romans, was still very considerable. Hence
he advanced within 24 miles of Rome ; but
as he found it impossible to compel the

Romans to accept peace, he retraced his
steps, and withdrew into winter-quarters to
Tarentum. In the 2nd campaign (279)
Pyrrhus gained another victory near Ascu-
lum over the Romans, who were conmianded
by the consuls P. Decius Mus and P. Sul-
picius Saverrio. The battle, however, was
followed by no decisive results, and his forces
were so much exhausted by it, that he lent a
ready ear to the invitations of the Greeks in
Sicily, who begged him to come to their
assistance against the Carthaginians. He
accordingly crossed over into Sicily, where
he remained from the middle of 278 to the
end of 276. At first he met with brilliant
success, but having failed in an attempt upon
Lilybaeum, he lost his popularity with the
Greeks, who began to form cabals and plots
against him. His position in Sicily at length
became so uncomfortable and dangerous,
that he returned to Italy in the autumn of
276. The following year he was defeated
with great loss near Beneventum by the
Roman consul Curius Dentatus, and obliged
to leave Italy. He brought back with him
to Epirus only 8000 foot and 500 horse, and
had not money to maintain even these with-
out undertaking new wars. He therefore
invaded Macedonia, of which he became king
a second time, and afterwards turned his
arms against Sparta and Argos. In the last
city he was killed (272) by a tile hurled by
a woman fr^m the house-top, in the 46th
year of his age, and 23rd of his reign.
Pyrrhus was the greatest warrior, and one
of the best princes of his time. — (3) II.
King of Epirus, son of Alexander 11, and
Olympias, and grandson of Pyrrhus I.

PYTHAGORAS (-ae). (1) A celebrated
Greek philosopher, a native of Samos,
flourished in the times of Polycrates and
Tarquinius Superbus (b.c. 540 — 510). He
studied in his own country under Creophilus,
Pherecydes of Syros, and others, and is said
to have visited Egypt and many countries of
the East for the purpose of acquiring know-
ledge. He believed in the transmigration of
souls ; and is said to have pretended that he
had been Euphorbus, the son of Panthos, in
the Trojan war, as well as various other
characters. He paid great attention to
arithmetic, and its application to weights,
measures, and the theory of music. Hf
pretended to divination and prophecy ; anu
he appears as the revealer of a mode of life
calculated to raise his disciples above tht
level of mankind, and to recommend them to
the favour of the gods. Having settled ai
Crotona, in Italy, he formed a select brother*
hood or club of 300, bound by a sort of vow
to Pythagoras and each other, for the pur-

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1)086 of cultiyating the religious and ascetic j
observances enjoined by their master, and of
studying his religious and philosophical
theories. It appears that they had some
secret conventional symbols, by which mem-
bers of the fraternity could recognise each
other, and they were bound to secresy. But
the populace of Crotona rose against them ;
the building in which they assembled was set
on fire, and only the younger and more active
members escaped. Similar commotions ensued
in the other cities of Magna Graecia, in which
Pythagorean clubs had been formed. Re-
specting the fate of Pythagoras himself, the
accounts varied. Some say that he perished
in the temple with his disciples ; others that
he fled first to Tarentum, and that, being
driven thence, he escaped to Metapontum,
smd there starved himself to death. - -(2) Of
Rhegium, one of the most celebrated statu-
aries of Greece, probably flourished b.c.

PYTHEAS (-ae). (1) An Athenian oratorj
distinguished by his unceasing animosity
against Demosthenes. — (2) Of Massilia, in
Gaul, a celebrated Greek navigator, who
probably lived in the time of Alexander the
Great, or shortly afterwards. He appears to
tiave undertaken voyages, one in which he
visited Britain and Thule, and a second in
which he coasted along the whole of Europe
from Gadira {Cadiz) to the Tanais, and the
description of which probably formed the
subject of his Periplus, Pytheas made Thule
a 6 days' sail from Britain ; and said that
the day and the night were each 6 months
long in Thule. Hence some modem writers
have supposed that he must have reached
Iceland ; while others have maintained that
he advanced as far as the Shetland Isladds.
But either supposition is very improbable.

PYTHIUS (-i), the Pythian, a surname of
the Delphian Apollo. [Python.]

PYTHON (-onis), the celebrated serpent,
which was produced from the mud left on the
earth after the deluge of Deucalion. He
lived in the caves of Mt. Parnassus, but was
slain by Apollo, who foimded the Pythian
games in commemoration of his victory, and
received in consequence the surname Pythim.


QUADI, a powerful German people of the
Suevic race, dwelt in the S.E. of Germany,
between Mt. Gabreta, the Hercynian forest,
the Sarmatian mountains, and the Danube.
They were boimded on the W. by the Marco-
manni, with whom they were always closely
united, on the N. by the Gothini and Osi, on

the E. by the lazygcs Metanastae, from whom
they were separated by the river Granuas
{Gran)y and on the S. by the Pannonians,
from whom they were divided by the Danube.
In the reign of Tiberius, the Quadi were
taken under the protection of the Romans.
In the reign of M. Aurelius, however, they
joined the Marcomanni and other German
tribes in the long and bloody war against the
empire, which lasted during the greater part
of that emperor's reign. Their name is es- ■
pecially memorable in the history of thi»
war by the victory which M. Aurelius gained
over them in 174. The Quadi disappear
from history towards the end of the 4th

QUADRIFRONS (-ontis), a surname of
Janusi It is said that after the conquest of
the Faliscans an image of Janus was found
with 4 foreheads. Hence a temple of Janus
Quadrifrons was afterwards built in the
Forum transitorium, which had 4 gates. The
fact of the god being represented with 4 heads
is considered by the ancients to be an indica-
tion of his being the divinity presiding over
the year with its 4 seasons.

Roman historian who flourished b.c. 1 00 — 78.
His work commenced immediately after the
destruction of Rome by the Gauls, and must
in all probability have come down to the
death of Sulla.


most celebrated of Roman rhetoricians, was
bom at Calagurris {Calahorra)^ in Spain,
A.n. 40. He completed his education at
Rome, and began to practise at the bar about
68. But he was chiefly distinguished as a
teacher of eloquence, bearing away the pahn
in this department from all his rivals, and
associating his name, even to a proverb, with
pre-eminence in the art. By Domitian he
was invested with the insignia and title of
consul {eonsularia omamenta)^ and is, more-
over, celebrated as the first public instructor,
who, in virtue of the endowment by Vespa-
sian, received a regular salary from the im-
perial exchequer. He is supposed to have
died about 118. The great work of Quin-
tilian is a complete system of rhetoric, in 12
books, entitled De Institutione Oratoria Libri
Xll.f or sometimes Institutiones Oratoriae^
dedicated to his friend MarceUus Victorius,
himself a celebrated orator, and a favourite
at court. This production bears throughout
the impress of a clear, sound judgment, keen
discrimination, and pure taste, improved by
extensive reading, deep reflection, and long
practice. There are also extant 164 decla-
mations under the name of Quintilian, but

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no one belieyes these to be the genuine pro-
ductions of Quintilian, and few suppose that
they proceeded from any one individuaL

TUS (-i), a celebrated general in the early
history of the republic, and equally distin-
iiruished in the internal history of the state.
He was six times consul, namely, in b.c. 471,
468, 465, 446, 443, 4S9. - Seyeral of his de-
ftcendants held the consulship, but none of
these require mention except T. Quimtitis
Penitos CAPrroLimjs CiuspiKira, who was
consul 208, and was defeated by Hannibal.



QUINTUS SMYRNAEUS (-i), commonly
caUed QUINTUS CALABER, author of a
Greek epic poem on the events of the Trojan
war from the death of Hector to the return
of the Greeks. Quintui closely copied Homer,
but not a single poetical idea of his own seems
ever to have inspired him.

QUIRINUS (4), a Sabine word, perhaps
derived from quiriSf a lance or spear. It
occurs first of all as the name of Romulus,
after he had been raised to the rank of a
divinity; and the festival celebrated in his
honour bore the name of Quirinalia. It is
also used as a s^omame of Mars, Janus, and
even of Augustus.

"DXbIRiUS (-i). (1) C, an aged senator,
^^ was accused in b.c. 63, by T. Labienus,
tribune of the plebs, of having put to death
the tribune L. Appnleius Satuminus in 100,
nearly 40 years before. [Sattjrninxjs.] The
accusation was set on foot at the instigation
of Caesar, who Judged it necessary to deter
the senate firom resorting to arms against the
popular party. The Duumviri Perduellioniay
(an obsolete tribunal), appointed to try Rabi-
rius were C. Caesar himself and his relative
L. Caesar. Rabirius was condemned, but
appealed to the people in the comitia of the
centuries. The case excited the greatest in-
terest ; since it was not simply the life or
death of Rabirius, but the power and autho-
rity of the senate, which were at stake.
Rabirius was defended by Cicero ; but the
eloquence of his advocate was of no avail,
and the people would have ratified the deci-
sion of the duumvirs, had not the meeting
been broken up by the praetor, Q. Metellus
Celer, who removed the military flag which
floated on the Janiculum. — (2) C. Rabirius
PosTUMus was the son of the sister of the

preceding. After the restoration of Ptolemy
Auletes to his kingdom by means of Gabinius,
in B.C. 66, Rabirius repaired to Alexandria,
and was invested by the king with the office
of DioeceteSf or chief treasurer. In this office
his extortions were^ so terrible that Ptolemy
had him apprehended ; but Rabirius escaped
from prison, probably through the connivance
of the king, and returned to Rome. Here a
trial awaited him. Gabinius had been sen-
tenced to pay a heavy fine on account of his
extortions in Egypt ; and as he was unable
to pay this fine, a suit was instituted against
Rabirius, who was liable to make up the de-
ficiency, if it could be proved that he had
received any of the money of which Gabinius
had illegally become possessed. Rabirius was
defended by Cicero, and was probably con-
demned. — (8) A Roman poet, who lived in
the last years of the republic, and wrote o
poem on the Civil Wars.

RAMSES, the name of many kings of
Egypt of the 18th, 19th, and 20th dynasties.

RAPHIA or RAPH£A (-ae : Itepha\ a sea-
port town in the extreme S.W. of Palestine,
beyond Gaza, on the edge of the desert.

RASENA. [Etruria.]

J2ou«n),the chief town of the Yelloeasses in
Gallia Lugdunensis.

RAUDlI CAMPI. [Camm RAunn.]

RAURAcI (.5mm), a people in Gallia
Belgioa, bounded on the S. by the Helvetii,
on the W. by the Sequani, on the N. by the
Tribocci, and on the E. by the Rhine. They
must have been a people of considerable im-
portance, as 23,000 of them are said to have
emigrated with the Helvetii in b.c. 68, and
they possessed several towns, of which the
most important were Augusta {August) and
Basilia {Baale or Bdle).

RAVENNA (-ae: (Northern Italy) J2a-
venna)j an important town in Gallia Cisalpina,
on the river Bedesis and about a mile from
the sea, though it is now |ibout 6 miles in
the interior, in consequence of the sea having
receded all along this coast. Ravenna was
situated in the midst of marshes, and was
only accessible in one direction by land, pro-
bably by the road leading from Ariminum.
It was said to have been founded by Thessa-
lians (Pelasgians), and afterwards to have
passed into the hands of the Umbrians, but
it long remained an insignificant place, and
its greatness does not begin till the time of the
empire, when Augustus made it one of the 2
chief stations of the Roman fleet. Ravenna
thus suddenly became one of the most im-
portant places in the N. of Italy. When the
Roman empire was threatened by the bar.
barians, the emperors of the West took up

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their residences at Rareima, -which, on
account of its situations and fortifications,
-was regarded as impregnable. After the
downfall Of the Western empire, Theodoric
also made it the capital of his kingdom ; and
after the overthrow of the Gothic dominion
by Narses, it became the residence of the
Exarchs or the governors of the Byzantine
empire in Italy, tiU the Lombards took the

BEATE (-is : Itieti)^ an ancient town of
the Sabines In Central Italy, said to have
been founded by the Aborigines or Pelas-
gians, was situated on the Lacus Velinus
and the Via Salaria. It was the chief place
of assembly for the Sabines, and was subse-
quently a praefectura or a munlcipium. The
valley in which Reate was situated was so
beautiful that it received the name of Tempe ;
and in its neighbourhood is the celebrated
waterfall, which is now known under the
name of the fall of Term or the Cascade
delle Marmore,

REDONES (-um), a people in the interior
of Gallia Lugdunensis, whose chief town was
Condate [Retmea)*

REGILLUS LACUS (4), a lake in Latium,
memorable for the victory gained on its
banks by the Romans over the Latins, b.o.
498. It was E. of Rome in the territory of
Tusculum, and between Lavicum and Gabii ;
but it cannot be identified with certainty with
any modem lake.

or simply REGIUM, also FORUM LEPIDI
{Seggio)f a town of the Boil in Gallia Cisal.

REGIJlUS (-i), the name of a family of
theAtllia gens. (1) M. Atilius Reoitlus,
consul B.C. 267, conquered the Sallentini,
took the town of Brundusium, and obtained
in consequence the honour of a triumph. In
256, he was consul a 2nd time with L.
Manlius Yulso Longus. The 2 consuls de-
feated the Carthaginian fleet, and afterwards
landed in Africa with a large force. They
met with great and striking success; and
after Manlius returned to Rome with half of
the army, Regulus remained in Attica with
the other half, and prosecuted the war with
the utmost vigour. The Carthaginian gene-
rals, Haiidrubal, Bostar, and Hamilcar, with-
drew into the mountains, where they were
attacked by Regulus, and defeated with great
loss. The Carthaginian troops retired within
the walls of the city, and Regulus now over-
ran the country without opposition. The
Carthaginians in despair sent a herald to
Regulus to solicit peace; but the Roman
general would only grant it on such into-
lerable terms that the Carthaginians resolved

to continue the war, and hold out to the last.
A Lacedaemonian named Xanthippus pointed
out to the Carthaginians that their defeat was
owing to the incompetency of their generals,
and not to the superiority of the Roman
arms. Being placed at the head of their
forces, he totally defeated the Romans, au<)
took Regulus himself prisoner (255). Regu-
lus remained in captivity for the next 5 years,
till 250, when the Carthaginians, after their
defeat by the proconsul Metellus, sent an em-
bassy to Rome to solicit peace, or at least an
exchange of prisoners. They allowed Regulus
to accompany the ambassadors on the promise
that he would return to Rome if their pro-
posals were declined. This embassy of Re-
gulus is one of the most celebrated stories in
Roman history. It. is related that he dis-
suaded the senate from assenting to a peace,
or even to an exchange of prisoners, and that
resisting all the persuasions of his friends to
remain In Rome, he returned to Carthage,
where a martyr's death awaited him. On
his arrival at Carthage he is said to have been
put to death with the most excruciating tor-
tures. When the ne^s of the barbarous
death of Regulus reached Rome, the senate
is said to have given Hamilcar and Bostar,
2 of the noblest Carthaginian prisoners, to
the family of Regulus, who revenged them-
selves by putting them to death with cruel
torments. But many writers have supposed
that this tale was invented in order to excuse
the cruelties perpetrated by the family of
Regulus on the Carthaginian prisoners com.
mitted to their custody. Regulus was one of
the favourite characters of early Roman story.
Not only was he celebrated on account of his
heroism in giving the senate advice which
secured him a martyr's death, but also on
account of his friigality and simplicity of life.
— (2) C, sumamed Serrakus, consul 257.
when he defeated the Carthaginian fleet ofl
the Liparean islands, and obtained possession
of the islands of Lipara and Melite.. He was
consul a second time in 250, with L. Manliuo
Vulso. This Regulus is the first Atilius who
bears the surname of Serramu.

R£MI or RHEMI (-drum), one of the most
powerful people in Gallia Belgica, inhabited
the country through which the Axona flowed,
and were bounded on the S. by the Nervii,
on Ihe 8.E. by the Yeromandui, on the E. by
the Suessiones and Bellovaci, and on the W.
by the Nervii. They formed an alliance with
Caesar, when the rest of the Belgae made
war against him, b.o. 57. Their chief town
was Durocortorum, afterwards called Remi

REMUS. [Romulus.]


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Ras-el-Ain)t a city of Mesopotamia, near the
sources of the Chahoras, on the road from
Carrae to Nisibis. After its restoration and
fortification by Theodosins, it was called

REUDIGNI (-Srum), a people in the N.
of Germany, on the right bank of the Albis,
N. of the Langobardi.

REX (R€gi8), MARCiuS. (1) Q., praetor
B.C. 144, built the aqueduct called Aqua
Marcia. — (2) Q.* consul in 118, founded in
this year the colony of Narbo Martius, in
Gaul. — (3) Q., consul 68, and proconsul in
Cilicia in the following year. Being refused
a triumph on his return to Rome, he remained
outside the city till the Catilinarian conspiracy
broke out in 63, when the senate sent him to
Faesulae, to watch the movements of C.
Mallius or Manlius, Catiline's general.

RHA ( Volga) t a great river of Asia, first
mentioned by Ptolemy, who describes it as
rising in the N. of Sarmatia, in 2 branches,
Rha Occidentalis and Rha Orientalis (the
Volga and the Kama)^ after the junction of
which it flowed S.W., forming the boundary
between Sarmatia Asiatica and Scythia, till
near the Tanai's {Don)y where it suddenly
turns to the S.E., and faUs into the N.W. part
of the Caspian.

RHADAMANTHUS (4), son of Zeus (Jupi-
ter) and Europa, and brother of king Minos
of Crete. From fear of his brother he fled to
Ocalea in Boeotia, and there married Alcmene.
In consequence of his justice throughout life,
he became after his death, one of the judges
in the lower world.

RHAETIA (-ae), a Roman province S. of
the Danube, was originally distinct from
Vindelicia, and was bounded on the W. by
the Helvetii, on the E. by Noricum, on the
N. by Vindelicia, and on the S. by Cisalpine
Gaul, thus corresponding to the Orisons in
Switzerland, and to the greater part of the
Tyrol. Towards the end of the first century,
however, Vindelicia was added to the pro-
vince of Rhactia, whence Tacitus speaks of
Augusta Vindelieorum as situated in Rhaetia.
At a later time Rhaetia was subdivided into
2 provinces, Rhaetia Prima and Rhaetia
Secunda^ the former of which answered to
the old province of Rhaetia, and the latter to
that of Vindelicia. Rhaetia was a very moun-
tainous country, since ttie main chain of the
Alps ran through the greater part of the pro-
vince. These moimtains were called Alpes
Rhaeticae, and extended from the St. Gothard
to the Orteler by the pass of the Stelvio ;
and in them rose the Oenus {Inn) and most
of the chief rivers in the N. of Italy, such as
the Athesis {Adige)^ and the Addua {Adda).
The original inhabitants of the coimtry, the

Rhaxti, are said by most ancient writers to
have been Tuscans, who were driven out of
the N. of Italy by the invasion of the Celts,
and who took refuge in this mountainous dis-
trict under a leader called Rhaetus. They
were a brave and warlike people, and caused
the Romans much trouble by their marauding
incursions into Gaul and the N. of Italy.
They were not subdued by the Romans till
the reign of Augustus, and they offered a
brave and desi>erate resistance against both
Drusus and Tiberius, who fijially conquered
them. Rhaetia was then formed into a Ro-
man province, to which Vindelicia was after-
wards added, as has been already stated.
The only town in Rhaetia of any importance
was Tkidektiktm {Trent).

RHAGAE (-&rum : Rai^ Ru. S.E. of Tehran),
the greatest city of Media, lay in the extreme
N. of Great Media, at the S. foot of the moun-
tains (Caspius M.), which border the S. shores
of the Caspian Sea, and on the W. side of the
great pass through those mountains called the
Caspiae Pylae. It was therefore the key of
Media towards Parthia and Hyrcania. Hav-
ing been destroyed by an earthquake, it was
restored by Seleucus Nicator, and named
EuKOPus. In the Parthian wars it was again
destroyed, but it was rebuilt by Arsaces, and
called Absacia. In the middle ages it was
still a great city under its original name,
slightly altered {Rai) ; and it was finally de-
stroyed by the Tartars in the 12th cenuiry.

RHAMNtJS (-untis : Obrio Kastro), a demus
ji Attica, belonging to the tribe Aeantia,
which derived its name from the rhamnus, a
kind of prickly shrub. Rhamnus was situ-
ated on a small rocky peninsula on the £.
coast of Attica, 60 stadia from Marathon.
It possessed a celebrated temple of Nemesis,
who is hence called by Uie Latin poets
Rhamnusia dea or virgo.

RHAMPSINlTUS (-i), one of the ancient
kings of Egyyt, succeeded Proteus, and was
succeeded by Cheops. Rhampsinitus belongs
to the 20th dynasty, and is known in inscrip-
tions by the name of Ramessu Neter-hek-pen,

RHEA (-ae), an ancient Greek goddess,
appears to have been a goddess of the earth.
She is represented as a daughter of Urinus
and G€, and the wife of Cr5nos (Saturn),
by whom she became the mother of Hestia
(Vesta), Demeter (Ceres), Hera (Jxmo), Hadea
(Pluto), Poseidon (Neptune), and Zeus
(Jupiter). Cr5nos devoured all his children
by Rhea, but when she was on the point of
giving birth to Zeus, «he went to Lyctus, in
Crete, by the advice of her parents. When
Zeus was bom she gave to Cr5nos a stone
wrapped up like an infant, which the god
swallowed, supposing it to be his child.

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Crete was undoubtedly the earliest seat of
the worship of Rhea; though many other
parts of Greece laid claim to the honour of
being the birthplace of Zeus. Rhea was
afterwards identified by the Greeks in Asia
Minor with the great Asiatic goddess, known
under the name of " the Great Mother," or
" the Mother of the Gods," and also bearing
other names, such as Cj^bfilS, Agdistis, Dindj^-
menS, &c. Hence her worship became of a
wild and enthusiastic character, and yarious
Eastern rites were added to it^ which soon
spread through the whole of Greece. From
the orgiastic nature of these rites, her

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