William Smith.

A smaller classical dictionary of biography, mythology, and geography ... online

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worship became closely connected with that
of Dionysus (Bacchus). Under the name of
Cybele, her worship was universal in Phry-
gia. Under the name of Agdistis, she was
worshipped with great solemnity at Pessi-
nus, in Galatia, which town was regarded
as the principal seat of her worship. Under
different names we might trace ttie worship
of Rhea as far as the Euphrates, and even
Bactriana. She was, in fact, the great god-
dess of the Eastern world, and we find her
worshipped there under a variety of forms
and names. As regards the Romans, they
had from the earliest times worshipped Jupi-
ter and his mother Ops, the wife of Saturn,
who seems to have been identical with Rhea.
In all European coimtries Rhea was con-
ceived to be accompanied by the Curetes, who
are inseparably connected with the birth and
bringing up of Zeus in Crete, and in Phrygia
by the Corybantes, Atys, and Agdistis. The
Corybantes were her enthusiastic priests, who,



the forests and on the mountains of Fhrygia.
In Rome the Galli were her priests. The
lion was sacred to her. In works of art she
is usually represented seated on a throne,
adorned with a mural crown, from which a
veil hangs down. Lions appear crouching
on the right and left of her throne, and some-
times she is seen riding in & chariot drawn
by lions.



lUiea, or Cybele. (h'rom a Aornan Lamp.)

with drums, cymbals, horns, and in full
armour, performed their orgiastic dances* in



Bhea, or Cybele. (From a Medallion of Hadrian.)

RHEA SILVIA. [Romulus.J

RHEDONES. [Rkdones.]

RHEGIUM (-i: Reggio), a celebrated
Greek town on the coast of Bruttium in
the S. of Italy, was situated on the Fretum
Siculum, or the Straits, which separate
Italy and Sicily. Rhegium was founded
about the beginning of the first Messenian
war, B.C. 743, by Aeolian Chalcidians from
Euboea and by Doric Messenians, who had
quitted their native country on the com-
mencement of hostilities between Sparta and
Messenia. Even before the Persian wars
Rhegium was sufSciently powerful to send
3000 of its citizens to the assistance of the
Tarentines, and in the time of the elder
Dionysius it possessed a fleet of 80 ships of
war. This monarch, having been offended
by the inhabitants, took the city, and treated
it with the greatest severity. Rhegium
never recovered its former greatness, though
it still continued to be a place of considerable
importance. The Rhegians having applied
to Rome for assistance when Pyrrhus was in
the S. of Italy, the Romans placed in the
town a garrison of 4000 soldiers, who had
been levied among the Latin colonies in Cam-
pania. These troops seized the town in 279,
killed or expelled the male inhabitants, and
took possession of their wives and ohildrcu



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The Romans were too muoh engaged at
the time with their war against Pyrrhas
to take notice of this outrage; hut when
Pyrrhus was driven out of Italy, they took
signal vengeance upon these Campanians,
and restored the surviving Rhegians to their
city. Rhegium was the place firom which
persons usually crossed over to Sicily, but the
spot at which they embarked was called
(ToLCMNA Rhboina {ToTTe di Cktrallo)f and
was 100 stadia N. of the town.

RH£n£a (-ae), anciently called Oriygia
and Oeladiusa^ an island in the Aegean sea
and one of the Cyclades, W. of Deloe, from
which it was divided by a narrow strait only
4 stadia in width.

RH£NUS(-i). (l)(i2A«» in German, J2A»n«
in English), one of the great rivers in Europe,
forming in ancient times the boundary be-
tween Gaul and Germany, rises in Mt.
AdOlas {St. Oothard) not far from the sources
of the Rhone, and flows first in a W.-ly
direction, passing through the Lacus Brigan-
tinus {Lake of Constance), till it reaches
Basilia {Sasle), where it takes a N.4y direc
tion and eventually flo^^-s into the ocean by
several mouths. The ancients spoke of 2
main arms, into which the Rhine was divided
on entering the territory of the Batavi, of
which the one on the E. continued to bear
the name of Rhenus, while that on the W.,
into which the Mosa {Maas or Metue) flowed,
was called Yahalis ( Wofll). After Drusus in
B.C. 12 had connected the Flevo Lacus
[Zuyder-Zee) with the Rhine by means of a
canal, in making which he probably made
use of the bed of the Yssel, we find mention
of 3 mouths of the Rhine. Of these the
names, as given by Pliny, are on the W.,
Helium (the Vahalis of other writers), in the
centre Rhenus, and on the E., Flevum ; but
at a later time we again find mention of only
2 mouths. The Rhine is described by the
ancients as a broad, rapid, and deep river.
It receives many tributaries, of which the
moat important are the Mosella {Moselle) and
Mosa {Maas or Meuse) on the left, and the
Nicer {Neckar), Moenus {Main) and Luppia
{Lippe) on the right. Its whole course
amounts to about 950 miles. The inundations
of the Rhine near its mouth are mentioned
by the ancients. Caesar was the first Roman
i^eneralwho crossed the Rhine. He threw
a bridge of boats across the river, probably
in the neighbourhood of Ck)logne. — (2) {Beno) ,
a tributary of the Padus {Po) in Gallia Cisal-
ptna near Bononia, on a small island of which
Octavian, Antony, and Lepidus formed the
celebrated triumvirate.

RHESUS (-i). (1) A river-god in Bithy.
nia, one of the sons of Oceanus and Tethys.



— (2) Son of king EYoneus in Thrace, marched
to the assistance of the Trojans in their war
with the Greeks. An oracle had declared
that Troy would never be taken if the snow-
white horses of Rhesus should once drink
the water of the Xanthus, and feed upon the
grass of the Trojan plain. But as soon as
Rhesus had reached the Trojan territory and
had pitched his tents late at night, Ulysses
and Diomedes penetrated into his camp, slew
Rhesus himself, and carried off his horses.

RHIANUS (-i), of Crete, a distinguished
Alexandrian poet and grammarian, flourished
B.C. 222.

RHINOCOLtJRA or RHINOCORtJRA
{KiUat-eUArish), the frontier town of Egypt
and Palestine, lay in the midst of the desert,
at the mouth of the brook {El-Arith), which
was the boundary between the countries, ana
which is called in Scripture the river of
Egypt.

RHIPAEI MONTES (-Orum), the name of
a lofty rang^ of mountains in the northern
part of the earth, respecting which there are
diverse statements in the ancient writers.
The name seems to have been given by the
Greek poets quite indefinitely to all the
mountains in the northern parts of Europe
and Asia. Thus the Rhipaei Montes are
sometimes called the Hyperborei Montes.
[Htpkbbo&bi.] The later geographical
writers place the Rhipaean mountains N.E.
of Mt. Alaunus on the frontiers of Asiatic
Sarmatia, and state that the Tanais rises in
these mountains. According to this account
the Rhipaean mountains may be regarded a.s
a western branch of the Ural Mountaius.

RHIUM (-i : Castello di Morea), a pro-
montory in Achaia, opposite to the promon-
tory of Antirrhium {Castello di JSomelia)^ on
the borders of AetoUa and Locris, with which
it formed the narrow entrance to the Co-
rinthian gulf, which Straits are now called
the Little Dardanelles.

RHODA or RHODUS (-ae, or -i : Itozas),
a Greek emporium on the coast of the Indi-
getae in Hispania Tarraconensis, founded by
the Rhodians, and subsequently occupied by
the inhabitants of Massilia.

RHODANUS (-i : Rhone), one of the chief
rivers of Gaul, rises in Mt. Adulas, on the
Pennine Alps, not far from the sources of the
Rhine, flows first in a westerly direction, and
after passing through the Lacus Lemanus,
turns to the S., passes by the towns of Lug-
dunum, Vienna, Avenio, and Arelate, receives
several tributaries, and finally falls by several
mouths into the Sinus Gallicus in the Medi-
terranean. The Rhone is a very rapid river,
and its upward navigation is therefore dif-
ficult, though it is navigable for large vessels



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as high as Lugdonum {Lyon), and by means
of the Arar still farther N.

RHODE. [Rhodos.]

RHODIUS (-i : prob. tJut brook of the
Dardanelles) y a small river of the Troad,
mentioned both by Homer and Hesiod. It
rose on the lower slopes of Mt. Ida, and
flowed N.W. into the HeUespont, between
Abydus and Dardanus, after teceiying the
SelleVs Jrom the W.

RHODOPE (-68), one of the highest ranges
of mountains in Thrace, extending from Mt.
Scomius, E. of the river Nestus and the boun-
daries of Macedonia, in a S.E.-ly direction
almost down to the coast. It is highest in
its northern part, and is thickly covered with
wood. Rhodope, like the rest of Thrace, was
sacred to Dionysus (Bacchus).

RHODOPIS (-tdis), a celebrated Oreek
courtesan, of Thracian origin, was a fellow-
slave with the poet Aesop, both of them
belonging to the Samian ladmon. She
afterwards became the property of Xanthus,
another Samian, who carried her to Nau-
cratis in Egypt, in the reign of Amasis, and
at this great sea-port she carried on the
trade of an hetaera for the beneftt of her
master. "While thus employed, Charaxus,
the brother of the poetess Sappho, who had
come to Naucratis as a merchant, fell in love
with her, and ransomed hOT from slavery for
a large sum of money. She was in conse-
quence attacked by Sappho in a poem. She
continued to live at Naucratis, and with the
tenth part of her gains she dedicated at
Delphi 10 iron spits, which were seen by
Herodotus. She is caUed Rhodopis by He-
rodotus, but Sappho in her poem spoke of
her under the name of Doricha. It is
therefore probable that Doricha was her real
name, and that she received that of Rhodopis,
which signifies the "rosy-cheeked," on ac-
count of her beauty.

RHODOS, sometimes called RHODE (-es),
daughter of Poseidon (Neptune) and Helia,
or of Helios (Sol) and Amphitrite, or of
Poseidon and Aphrodite (Venus), or lastly of
Oceanus. From her the island of Rhodes is
said to have derived its name ; and in this
island she bore to Helios 7 sons.

RHODUS (-i : RhodoSy Rhodes)^ the most
easterly island of the Aegean, or more spe-
cifically, of the Carpathian Sea, lies off the
S. coast of Caria, due S. of the promontory
of Cynossema (C. Aloupo), at the distance of
about 12 geog. miles. Its length, from N.E.
to S.W., is about 45 miles; its greatest
breadth about 20 to 25. In early times it
was called Aethraea and Ophiussa, and several
other names. There are various mythological
stories about its origin and peopling. Its



Hellenic colonisation is ascribed to Tlepo-
lemus, the son of Hercules, before the Trojan
war, and after that war to Althaemenes.
Homer mentions the 3 Dorian settlements in
Rhodes, namely, Lindus, lalysus, and Ca-
mirus; and these cities, with Cos, Cnidus,
and Halicamassus, formed the Dorian Hexa-
polis, which was established, from a period
of unknown antiquity, in the S."W. comer of
Asia Minor. Rhodes soon became a great
maritime state, or rather confederacy, the
island being parcelled out between the 3
cities above mentioned. The Rhodians made
distant voyages, and founded numerous colo-
nies. At the beginning of the Peloponnesian
war, Rhodes was one of those Dorian mari-
time states which were subject to Athens ;
but in the 20th year of the war, b.c. 412, it
joined the Spartan alliance, and the oligar-
chical party, which had been depressed, and
their leaders, theEratidae, expelled, recovered
their former power, under Dorieus. In 408,
the new capital, called Rhodus, was built,
and peopled from the 3 ancient cities of
lalysus, Lindus, and Camirus. At the Mace-
dcmian conquest the Rhodians submitted to
Alexander, but upon his death expelled the
Macedonian garrison. In the ensuing wars
they formed an alliance with Ptolemy, the
son of Lagus, and their city, Rhodes, suc-
cessfolly endured a most famous siege by the
forces of Demetrius Poliorcetes, who at
length, in admiration of the valour of the
besieged, presented them with the engines he
had used against the city, from the sale of
which they defrayed the cost of the celebrated
Colossus. At length they came into connexion
with the Romans, whose alliance they joined,
with Attalus, king of Pergamus, in the war
against Philip III. of Macedon. In the en-
suing war with Antiochus, the Rhodians
gave the Romans great aid with their fleet ;
and, in the subsequent partition of the
Syrian possessions of Asia Minor, they were
rewarded by the supremacy of S. Caria,
where they had had settlements from an early
period. A temporary interruption of their
alliance with Rome was caused by their es-
pousing the cause of Perseus, for which they
were severely punished, 168 ; but they re-
covered the favour of Rome by the important
naval aid they rendered in the Mithridatic
war. In the civil ward they took part with
Caesar, and suffered in consequence from
Cassius, 42, but were afterwards compensated
for their losses by the favour of Antonius.
They were at length deprived of their inde-
pendence by Claudius ; and their prosperity
received its final blow from an earthquake,
which laid the city of Rhodes in ruins, in the
reign of Antoninus Pius, a.d. 155

A A 2



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856



BOMA.



EHOECUS (-1). (1) A Centaur, who, in
eonjunction with Hylaens, pursued Atalanta
in Arcadia, but was killed by her with an
arrow. The Roman poets call him Eboetus,
and relate that he was wounded at the nup-
tials of Pirithous. — (2) Son of Phileas or
Philaeus, of Samoe, an architect and statuary,
flourished about b.c. 640. He invented the
art of casting statues in bronze and iron.

RHOETEUM (-i : C. Intepeh or -BarWm),
a promontory, or a strip of rocky coast,
breaking into several promontories, in Mysia,
on the Hellespont, near Aeantium, with a
town of the same name (prob. Faleo Castro).

RHOETUS. (1) A Centaur. [Rhoecus.]
— (2) One of the giants who was slain by
Dionysus ; he is usually called Eurytus.

RHOXOLXNI or ROXOLANI (-5rum), a
warlike people in European Sarmatia, on the
coast of the Palus Maeotis, and between the
Borysthenes and the Tanais, usually sup-
posed to be the ancestors of the modem
Russians.

RHYNDXcUS (4 : JEdrenos), or Ltcus, a
considerable river of Asia Minor. Rising in
Mt. Dindymene, opposite to the sources of
the Hermus, it flows N. through Phrygia,
then turns N.W., then W., and then N.
through the lake Apolloniatis, into the
Propontis. From the point where it left
Phrygia, it formed the boundary of Mysia
and Bithynia.

RHTPES, one of the 12 cities of Achaia,
situated between Aegium and Patrae. It
was destroyed by Augustus, and its inha-
bitants removed to Patrae.

RHYTIUM (-i), a town in Crete, men-
tioned by Homer.

RICIMER (.€ris), the Roman "King-
Maker," was the son of a Suevian chief, and
was brought up at the court of Valentinian
III. In A.D. 472 he took Rome by storm,
and died 40 days afterwards.

ROBIGUS or ROBIGO (-i, or -Itnis), is
described by some Latin writers as a divinity
worshipped for the purpose of averting blight
or too great heat from the young cornfields.
The festival of the Robigalia was celebrated
on the 25th of April, and was said to have
been instituted by Numa.

ROBUS (-i), a fortress in the territory of
the Rauraci, in Gallia Belgica.

ROMA (-ae : Some), the capital of Italy
and of the world, was situated on the left
bank of the river Tiber, on the N.W. con-
fines of Latium, about 16 miles from the
sea. Rome is said to have been a colony
from Alba Longa, and to have been founded
by Romulus, about b.c. 763. [Romxjujs.]
All traditions agree that the original city
comprised only the Mom Palatinus or



Palatiumy and some portion of the ground
immediately below it. It was surrounded
by walls, and was built in a square form,
whence it was called Boma Quadrata, On
the neighbouring hills there also existed
from the earliest times settlements of Sabines
and Etruscans. The Sabine town, probably
called Qutrtum, and inhabited by Qutrites,
was situated on the hills to the N. of the
Palatine, that is, the Qmrinalis and Capito~
linus, or Capitolium^ on the latter of which
hills was the Sabine Arx or citadel. Accord-
ing to traditions, the Sabines were united
with the Romans, or Latins, in the reign of
Romulus, and thus was formed one people,
under the name of *' Populus Romanus (et)
Quirites." The Etruscans were settled on
Mom CaeliuSf and extended over Mons Ois-
piua and Mon$ Oppitta, which are part of the
Esquiline. These Etruscans were at an early
period incorporated in the Roman state, but
were compelled to abandon their seats on the
hills, amd to take up their abode in the plains
between the Caelius and the Esquiline,
whence the Vicus Tuscus derived its name.
Under the kings the city rapidly grew in
population and in size. Ancus Martius added
the Mon$ Aventinus to the city. The same
king also built a fortress on the JanicutuSy a
hill on the other side of the Tiber, as a pro-
tection against the Etruscans, and connected
it with the city by means of the Pons Subli-
cius. Rome was still further improved and
enlarged by Tarquinius Priscus and Servius
Tullius. The completion of the city, however,
was ascribed to Servius Tullius. This king
added the Mona Viminalit and Mona Usguilu
ntM, and surrounded the whole city with u
line of fortifications, which comprised all the
seven hills of Rome {Palatinus, Capitolinus,
QuirinaliSf Caelitts, Aventintts, Viminalis, JEs-
guilinus). Hence Rome was called Urbs
SepticoUis, These fortifications were about
7 miles in circumference. In b.c. 390 Rome
was entirely destroyed by the Gauls, with
the exception of a few houses on the Palatine.
On the departure of the barbarians it was
rebuilt in great haste and confusion, without
any attention to regularity, and with narrow
and crooked streets. After the conquest of
the Carthaginians and of the monarchs of
Macedonia and Syria, the city began to be
adorned with many public buildings and
handsome private houses ; and it was still
further embellished by Augustus, who used
to boast that he had foimd the city of brick
and had left it of marble. The great fire at
Rome in the reign of Nero (a.d. 64) destroyed
two-thirds of the city. Nero availed himself
of this opportunity to indulge his passion for
building ; and the city now assumed a still



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more regular and stately appearance. The
emperor Anrelian surrounded Rome with
new walls, which embraced the city of
Servius Tullius and all the suburbs which
had subsequently grown up around it, such
as the M, Janiculus on the right bank of the
Tiber, and the Oollis Hortulorum or M.
FincianuSf on the left bank of the river, to
the N. of the Quirinalis. The walls of Aure-
lian were about 1 1 miles in circumference.
They were restored by Honorius, and wer?
also partly rebuilt by Belisarius. Rome was
divided by Servius Tullius into 4 Regionea or
districts, corresponding to the 4 city tribes.
Their names were: 1. Suburana^ compre-
hending the space fi'om the Subura to the
Caelius, both inclusive. 2. Eaquilina^ com-
prehending the Esquiline hill. 3. Oallina,
extending over the Quirinal and Viminal.
4. Palatina, comprehending the Palatine hill.
The Capitoline, as the seat of the gods, and the
A ventine, were not included in these Regiones.
These Regiones were again subdivided into
27 Sacella Argaeorum, which were probably
erected where two streets {compita) crossed
each other. The division of Servius Tullius
into 4 Regiones remained unchanged till
the time of Augustus, who made a fresh
division of the city into 14 Regiones, viz. :
1. Porta Capena. 2. Caelimontium. 3. Isis et
Serapis. 4. Via Sacra. 5. JEsquilina cum
Colle Viminali. 6. Alta Semita. 7. Via
Lata, 8. Forum Bomanum, 9. Oircut Flo.



minius. 10. Falatium, 11. Circus Maaeimus.
12. Piscina Publico. 13. Aventinus ; and
14. lyans Tiberim, the only region on the
right bank of the river. Each of these
Regiones was subdivided into a certain
number of Ftct, analogous to the sacella of
Servius Tullius. The houses were divided
into 2 different classes, called respectively
domus and insulae. The former were the
dwellings of the Roman nobles, correspond,
ing to the modem palazzi ; the latter were
the habitations of the middle and lower
classes. Each insula contained several apart-
ments or sets of apartments, which were let
to different families ; and it was frequently
surrounded with shops. The number of
insulae of course greatly exceeded that of the
domi. It is stated that tiiere were 46,602
insulae at Rome, but only 1790 domus. We
learn from the Monumentum Ancyranum,
that the plebs urbana, in the time of Augus-
tus, was 320,000. This did not include the
women, nor the senators, nor knights ;
so that the free population could not have
been less than 650,000. To this number we
must add the slaves, who must have been at
least as numerous as the free population.
Consequently the whole population of Rome
in the time of Augustus must have been at
least 1,300,000, and in all probability greatly
exceeded that number. Moreover, as we
know that the city continued to increase in
size and population down to the time of



Aocient Rome, (liestored by Prot'essor CockerelL)



Vespasian and Trajan, we shall not be far j of those emperors. The Aqueducts {Aquae-
^Tong in supposing that the city contained j ductus) supplied Rome with an abundance of
neai ly 2 millions of inhabitants in the reigns I pure water from the hills which surround



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the Campagna. The fiomans at first had
recourse to the Tiber and to wells simk in
the city. It was not till b.o. 313 that the
first aqneduct was oonstnicted, but their
number was gradually increased, till they
amounted to 14, in the time of Prooopius,
that is, the 6th century of the Christian
era.

ROMULEA (-ae), an ancient town of the
Hirpini, in Samnium, on the road ttom
Beneventum to Tarentum.

ROMtJLUS (4), the founder of the city of
Roiae, must not be regarded as a real per-
sonage. The stories about him are mythical.
According to the common legend, Romulus
and Remus were the sons of Rhea Silvia, by
Mars. Silvia was the daughter of Numitor
(a descendant of lulus, the son of Aeneas),
\Tho had been exduded from the throne of
Alba Longa, by his brother, Amulius ; and
as Silvia was a vestal virgin, she and her
twin offspring were condemned to be
drowned in the Tiber. The cradle in which
the children were exposed, having stranded,
they were suckled by a she-wolf, which
carried them to her den, where they Were
discovered by Faustulus, the king's shepherd,
who took the children to his own house, and
gave them into the care of his wife, Acca
Larentia. When they were grown up,
Romulus and Remus left Alba to foimd a city
on the banks of the Tiber. A strife arose
l>etween the brothers where the city should
be built, and after whose name it should be
called, in which Remus was slain by his
brother. As soon as the city was built,
Romulus found his people too few in num-
bers. He therefore set apart, on the Ca-
pitoline hill, an asylum, or sanctuary, in
which homicides and rimaway slaves pight
take refuge. The city thus became filled
with men, but they wanted women. Romu-
lus, therefore, proclaimed that games were
to be celebrated in honour of the god Consus,
and invited his neighbours, the Latins and
Sabines, to the festival, duiing which the
Roman youths rushed upon their guests, and
carried off the virgins. This produced a war
between the two nations ; but during a long
and desperate battle, the Sabine women
rushed in between the armies, and prayed
their husbands and fathers to be reconciled.
Their prayer was heard ; the two people not
only made peace, but agreed to form only
one nation. But this union did not last
long. Titus Tatius, the Sabine king, who
reigned conjointly with Romulus, was slain
at a festival at Lavinium by some Lauren-
tines, to whom he had refused satisfaction
for outrages which had been committed by
his kinsmen. Henceforward Romulus ruled



alone over both Romans and Sabines. After
reigning 37 years, he was at length taken away
firom the world by his father, Mars, who
carried him up to heaven in a fiery chariot.
Shortly afterwards he appeared in more than
mortal beauty to Julius Proculns, and bade
him tell the Romans to worship him as their
guairdiaii god, under the name of Quirinus.
Such was the glorified end of Romulus in the
genuine legend ; but, according to another
tale, the senators, discontented with the
tyrannical rule of their king, murdered him



Online LibraryWilliam SmithA smaller classical dictionary of biography, mythology, and geography ... → online text (page 68 of 90)