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during the gloom of a tempest, cut up bin
body, and carried ^ome the mangled pieces
under their robes. ^

ROMULUS AUGUST&LU8. [Augustulto.]
ROSCllNUM (-i : Roisano)^ a fortress on
the £. coast of Bruttium between Thurii and

ROSCItJS. (1) L., a Roman ambassador
sent to Fidenae in b.o. 438. — (2) Sex., of
Ameria, a town in Umbria, accused of the
murder of his father, and defended by Cicero
(B.C. 80) in an oration which is still extant.
— (3) Qm' the most celebrated comic actor at
Rome, was a native of Solonium, a small
place in the neighbourhood of Lanuvium.
His histrionic powers procured him the favour
of many of the Roman nobles, and, among
others, of the dictator Sulla, who presented
hiin with a gold ring, the symbol of equestrian
rank. Roscius enjoyed the friendship of
Cicero, who constantly speaks of him in terms
both of admiration and affection. Roscius
was considered by the Romans to have reached
such perfection in his profession, that it be-
came the fashion to call every one who
became particularly distinguished in the his-
trionic art, by the name of Roscius. He
realised an immense fortime by his profession,
and died in 62.

ROXANA, daughter of Oxyartes the
Bactrian, feU into the hands of Alexander Oii
his capture of the hill-fort in Sogdiana,
named **the rock," b.c. 327. Alexander
was 80 captivated by her charms, that he
married her. Soon after Alexander's death
(323), she gave birth to a son (Alexander
Aegus), who was admitted to share the nomi-
nal sovereignty with Arrhidaeus, under the
regency of Perdiccas. Roxana afterwards
crossed over to Europe with her son, placed
herself under the protection of Olympias, and
threw herself into Pydna along witti the
latter. In 316 Pydna was taken by Gassan-
der ; Olympias was put to death ; and Roxana
and her son were placed in confinement in
Amphipolis, where they were murdered by
C^assander's orders in 311.

Digitized by





ROXOlINI. [Rhoxolani.]

RIJbI {-6rmn : Euvo)^ a town in Apulia on
the road from Canusium to Brundosiam.

RUBICO (-Snis), a small river in Italy,
falling into the Adriatic a little N. of Ari-
minum, formed the boundary in the republican
period between the province of Gallia Cisal-
pina and Italia proper. It is celebrated in
liistory on account of Caesar's passage across
it at the head of his army, by which act he
declared war against the republic.

RUBRA SAXA, called Rubrae breves {-sc.
petrae) by Martial, a small place in Etruria
only a few miles from Rome, near the river
Cremera, and on the Via Flaminia.


RDBRUM mare. [Eryth&akxtm Mass.]

RtJDIAE (-firum : Rotiglicmo or Ruge), a
town of the Peucetii in Apulia, on the road
from Brundusium to Venusia, was originally
a Greek colony, and afterwards a Roman
municipium. Rudiae is celebrated as the
birthplace of Ennius.

RtJGII (-orum), an important people in
Germany, originally dwelt on the coast of the
Baltic between the Viadus (Oder) and the
Vistula. After disappearing a long time from
history, they are found at a later time in
Attila*8 army ; and after Attila's death they
founded a new kingdom on the N. bank of the
Danube, in Austria and Hungary, the name
of which is still preserved in the modem
Rugiland. They have left traces of their
name in the country which they originally
inhabited, in the modem £i^6n, kilgenwalde,
Rega^ Regenwalde,

RULLUS, P. SERVMUS (-1), tribune of
the plebs b.o. 63, proposed an agrarian law,
which Cicero attacked in 3 orations which
have come down to us.

RtPILlUS (4), P., consul B.C. 132, pro-
secuted with the utmost vehemence all the
adherents of Tib. Gracchus, who had been
slain in the preceding year. As proconsul
in Sicily in the following year he made vari-
ous regulations for the government of the
province, which were known by the name of
Leges Rupiliae. Rupilius was condemned in
the tribunate of C. Gracchus, 123, on account
of his illegal and cruel acts in the prosecution
of the friends of Tib. Gracchus.

RUSCINO (-Onis), a town of the Sordones
or Sordi, in the S.E. part of Gallia Narbonen-
sis, at the foot of the Pyrenees.

RUSELLAE (-amm: nr. Qroueto^ B-^Oj
one of the most ancient cities of Etruria,
situated on an eminence E. of the lake Prelius
and on the Via Aurelia. The walls of Rusellae
still remain, and are some of the most ancient
in Italy.


was a friend and pupil of Paetus Thrasea, and
an ardent admirer of the Stole philosophy.
He was put to death by Domitian, because
he had written a panegyric upon Thrasea.

RUTENI (-drum), a people in Gallia Aqni-
tanica, on the frontiers of Gallia Narbonensis,
in the modem JRovergns.


RtJTILIUS RCFU8(-i), P., a Roman
statesman and orator. He was military tri-
bune under Scipio in the Numantine war,
praetor b.o. 141, consul 105, and legatus in
95 under Q. Mucins Scaevola, proconsul of
Ajsia. While acting in this capacity he dis-
played so much honesty and firmness in re-
pressing the extortions of the publicani, that
he became an object of fear and hatred to the
whole body. Accordingly, on his return to
Rome, he was impeached of malversation {de
repetundia), found gruilty, and compelled to
withdraw into banishment, 92.

RtJT0BA (-ae : Roya)^ a river on the coast
of Liguria, which flows into the sea near
Album Intemelium.

RUTULI (-orum), an ancient people Id
Italy, inhabiting a narrow slip of country on
the coast of Latium, a little to the S. of the
Tiber. Their chief town was Ardea, which
was the residence of Tumus. They were
subdued at an early period by the Romans,
and disappear from history.

RUTUPAE or rCTUPIAE {Riehborough),
a port of the Cantii, in the S.E. of Britain,
where there are still several Roman remains.

C ABA (-ae). (1) (O. T. Sheba), the capital
^ of the Sabaei, in Arabia Felix, lay on a
high woody mountain, and was pointed out
by an Arabian tradition as the residence of
the ** Queen of Sheba." — (2) There was an-
other city of the same name in the interior
of Arabia Felix, where a pl&ce ^Sahea is still
found, nearly In the centre of' JSl-Temen.^—
(3) A seaport town of Aethiopia, on the Red
Sea, S. of PtolemaisTheron.

SABACON, a king of Ethiopia, who in-
vaded Egypt in the reign of the blind king
Anysis, whom he dethroned and drove into
the marshes. The Ethiopian conqueror then
reigned over Egypt for 60 years, but at length
quitted the country in consequence of a
dream, whereupon Anysis regained his king-
dom. This is the account which Herodotus
received from the priests (ii. 137 — 140) ; but
it appears from Manetho, that there were 8
Ethiopian kings who reigned over Egypt,
named Sabaeont SebiohuSt and Taraeut, whose
collective reigns amount to 40 or 50 years,
and who form the 25th dynasty of that writer.

Digitized by





The account of Manetho is to be preferred to
that of Herodotus.

sXbAEI or SABAE (-dram, or ^rum
0. T. Shebaiim), one of the chief peoples of
Arabia, dwelt in the 8. W. comer of the penin-
sola, in the most beautiful part of Arabia
Felix, the N. and centre of the province of
EUYemen. So at least Ptolemf places
them ; but the fact seems to be that they are
the chief representatives of a race which, at
an early period, was widely spread on both
sides of the 8. part of the Bed 8ea, where
Arabia and Aethiopia idl but joined at the
narrow strait of Sab~el~Mandeb ; and hence,
probably, the confusion often made between
the Sht^a and Seha of Scripture, or between
the Shehaiim of Arabia and the SehaUm of
Aethiopia. Their country produced all the
most precious spices and perfumes of Arabia.

8ABATE, a town of Etruria, on the road
from Cosa to Rome, and on the N.W. comer
of a lake, which was named after it Lacus
Sabatinvs {Logo di Bracciano).

SIbATINI (-orum), a people in Campania,
who derived their name from the river
Sabatus {Sahbato), a tributary of the Calor,
which flows into the Vultumus.

SABAZIUS (-i), a Phrygian divinity, com-
monly described as a son of Rhea or Cybele.
In later times he was identified with the mystic
Dionysus (Bacchus), who hence is sometimes
called Dionysus Sabasius. For the same rea.
son Sabazius is called a son of Zeus (Jupiter)
by Persephone, and is said to have been
reared by a nymph, Nysa ; though others, by
philosophical speculations, were led to con-
liider him a son of Cablrus, Dionysus, or
Cronos. He was torn by the Titans into 7


sAbIna (-ae), the wife of the emperor
Hadrian, was the grand-niece of Trajan, be-
ing the daughter of Matidia, who was the
daughter of Marciana, the sister of Trajan.
Sablna was married to Hadrian about a.d.
100, but the marriage did not prove a happy
one. Sablna at length put an end to her life,
probably in 138, and there was a report that
8he had even been poisoned by her hus-

SABINA, POPPAEA (-ae), a woman of sur-
passing beauty, but licentious morals, was the
daughter of T. OUius, but assumed the name
of her maternal grandfather Poppaeus Sabinus,
who had been consul a.d. 9. She was first
married to Ruflus CrisplDUS, and afterwards
to Otho, who was one of the boon companions
of Nero. The latter soon became enamoured
of her ; and in order to get Otho out' of the
way, Nero sent him to govern the province of
Lusitania (58). Foppaea now became the

acknowledged mistress of Nero, over whom
she exercised absolute sway. Anxioos to
become the wife of the emperor, she per-
suaded Nero first to murder his mother
Agrippina (59), who was opposed to such a
disgraceful union, and next to divorce and
shortly afterwards put to death his innocent
and virtuous wife Octavia (62). She then
became the wife of Nero. In 65, Foppaea
being pregnant, was killed by a kick from
her brutal husband.

'sAbINI (^rum), one of the most ancient
and powerful of the peoples of central Italy.
The ancients usually derived their name from
Sabinus, a son of the native god Sancus. The
dllferent tribes of the Sabine race were widely
spread over the whole of central Italy, and
were connected with the Opicans, Umbriams
and those other peoples whose languages were
akin to the Greek. The earliest traces of the
Sabines are found in the neighbourhood of
Amitemum at the foot of the main chain of
the Apennines, whence they spread as far 8.
as the confines of Lucanla and Apulia. The
Sabines may be divided into 3 great classes,
called by the names of Sablnl, Sabelli, and
Samnites respectively. The Sabimi proper
Inhabited the country between the Nar, the
Anio and the Tiber, between Latium, Etruria,
Umbria and Picenum. The Sabslu were
the flmaller tribes who issued from the
Sabines. To these belong the Yestlni, Marsi,
Mamidni, Pelignl, Frentani and Blrpini.
The Picentes, the Pioentlni, and the Lucani,
were also of Sabine origin. The Samnitbs,
who were by far the most powerful of all
the Sabine peoples, are treated of in a separate
article. [Samnittm.] There were certair
national characteristics which distinguished
the whole Babine race. They were a people
of simple and virtuous habits, faithful to
their word, and imbued with deep religious
feeling. Hence we fljid frequent mention of
omens and prodigies in their country. They
were a migratory race, and adopted a peculiar
system of emigration. With the exception
of the Sabines in Lucanla and Campania,
they never attained any high degree of
civilisation or mental culture ; but they were
always distinguished by their love of free-
dom, which they m^talned with the greatest
bravery. The Sabines formed one of the
elements of which the Roman people was
composed. In the time of Romulus, a portion
of the Sabines, after the rape of their wives
and daughters, became incorporated with the
Romans, and the 2 peoples were united into
one under the general name of Quirites. The
remainder of the Sablnl proper, who were
less warlike than the Samnites and Sabellians,
were finally subdued by M. Curius Dentatua,

Digitized by





B.C. 290, and received the Roman franchise,
fine stiffiragio.

SABINUS (4). (1) A contemporary poef
and a friend of Ovid, who informs us that
Sabinns had written answers to six of his
Epistolae Seroidum. — (2) Flavitts, brother
of the emperor Vespasian, governed Moesia
for 7 years during the reign of Claudius,
and held the important office of praefectus
urbis during the last 1 1 years of Nero's reign.
He was removed ft-om this office by Galba,
but was replaced in it on the accession of
Otho, who was anxious to conciliate Vespa-
sian. He continued to retain the dignity
under Vitellius. During the struggle for the
empire between Vespasian and Vitellius,
Sabinus took refuge in the Capitol, where he
was attacked by the Vitellian troops. In
the assault the Capitol was burnt to the
groimd, Sabinus was taken prisoner, and
put to death by the soldiers in the presence
of Vitellius, who endeavoured in vain to
save his life. Sabinus was a man of dis-
tinguished reputation, and of unspotted
character. — (3) Massurius, was a distin-
guished jurist in the time of Tiberius. This
is the Sabinus from whom the school of the
Sabiniani took its name. [Capito.] — (4) Pop-
PAEVs, consul A.D. 9, was appointed in the
lifetime of Augustus governor of Moesia, and
was not only confirmed in this government
by Tiberius, but received from the latter the
ivrovinces of Achaia and Macedonia in addi-
tion. He continued to hold these provinces
till his death in 35, having ruled over Moesia
for 24 yeart. — (5) Q. TrruRnrs, one of
Caesar's legates in Gaul, who perished along
with L. Aurunculeius Cotta in the attack
made upon them by Ambiorix in b.c. 54.

SABIS (Js: Sambre). (1) A broad and
deep river in Gallia Belgica and in the terri-
tory of the Ambiani, falling into the river
Mosa. — (2) A small river on the coast «f
Carmania. — (3) [Sapis.]


8ABRINA (-ae), also called SABRllNA
{Sevem)f a river in the W. of Britain, which
flowed by Venta Silurum into the ocean.

SACAE (-&rum), one of the most numerous
and most powerful of the Scythian nomad
tribes, had their abodes E. and N.E. of the
Massogetae, as far as Serica, in the steppes of
Central Asia, which are now peopled by the
Kirghiz KhasakSy in whose name that of
their ancestors is traced by some geographers.
They were very warlike, and excelled espe-
cially as cavalry, and as archers both on
horse and foot. The name of the Sacae is
often used loosely for other Scythian tribes,
and sometimes for the Scythians in generaL

SACER MONS. (1) An isolated hiU in

the country of the Sabines, on the right bank
of the Anio and W. of the Via Nomentana,
3 miles from Rome, to which the plebeian*
repaired in their celebrated secessions. —
12) A mountain in Hlspania Tarraconensis
near the Minius.

SACRA VIA, the principal street in Rome,
ran from the valley between the Caelian and
Esquiline hills, through the arch of Titus,
and past the Forum Romanum, to the
Capitol. ^

SACRIPOBTUS (-us), a small place in
Latium, of uncertain site, memorable for the
victory of Sulla over the younger Marius,
B.C. 82.

Vincent), on the W. coast of Spain.— (2) (C.
Oorsa\ the N.E. point of Corsica.— (3) {C.
Iria, also Makri, J^a Kavi or Jedi Burum, i.e.
the 7 points), the extreme point of the moun-
tain Cragus, in Lyoia, between Xanthus and
Telmissus.— (4) (C. Khelidoni)^ another pro-
montory in Lycia, near the confines of Pam-
phylia, and opposite the Chelidonian islands,
whence it is also called, Prom. Chslido^


SADTATTES (-is), a king of Lydia, suc-
ceeded his father Ardys, and reigned b.c.
629 — 617. He carried on war with the
Milesians for 6 years, and at his death
bequeathed the war to his son and successor,
Alyattes. [Altattbs.]

SAEPlNUM or SEPINUM (-is : Sepino),
a municipium in Samnium, on the road from
Allifae to Beneventum.

SAETABI8 (-is). (1) {Alcoy ?), a river on
the S. coast of Hispania Tarraconensis, W. of
the Sucro. — (2) Or Setabis (Setabitanus :
Jativa), an important town of the Contestani,
in Hispania Tarraconensis, and a Roman
municipium, was situated on a hill S. of the
Sucro, and was celebrated for its manufacture
of linen.

SAGALASSUS (-i : Allahmny Ru.), a
large fortified city of Pisidia, near the Phry-
gian border, a day's journey S.E. of Apamea
Cibotus. It lay, as its large ruins still show,
in the form of an amphitheatre on the side
of a hill, and had a citadel on a rock 30 feet

SAGARIS (-is), a river of Sarmatia Euro-
paeo, falling into a bay in the N.W. of the
Euxine, which was called after it Saoarichs
Sinus, and which also received the river

SAGARTII (-6rum), according to Hero-
dotus, a nomad people of Persis. Afterwards
they are found, on the authority of Ptolemy,
in Media and the passes of Mt. Zagros.

SAGRA (-ae), a small river in Magna
Graecia, on the S.E. coast of Bruttiuin,

Digitized by





falling into the sea between Canlonia and

SAGUNTUM, more rarely sIgUNTUS (-i :
Murviedro), said to have been founded by the
Zaoynthians, a town of the Edetani or Se-
detani, in Spain, S. of the Ibems, on the
river Palantias, about 5 miles ftom the coast.
Although 8. of the Iberus, it had formed an
alliance with the Romans ; and its siege by
Hannibal, b.c. 219, was the immediate cause
of the 2nd Pimic war. The ruins of a
theatre and a temple of Bacchus, are extant
at Murviedro, which is a corruption of Muri

SAIS (-is: Sa^URqijar, Ru.), a great
city of Egypt, in the Delta, on the E. side of
the Canopic branch of the Nile. It was the
ancient capital of Lower Egypt, and con-
tained the palace and burial-place of the
Pharaohs, as well as the tomb of Osiris. The
city gave its name to the Saltes Nomos.

SAITIS, a surname of Athena, under
which she had a sanctuary on Mt. Pontinus,
near Lema, in Argolis. The name was
traced by the Greeks to the Egyptians,
among whom Athena was said to have been
called SaSis.

8 ALA (-ae: Saale). (1) A river of Germany,
between which and the Rhine Drusus died.
It was a tributary of the Albis. — (2) {Saale),
also a river of Germany, and a tributary of
the Moenus, which formed the boundary
l)etween the Hermunduri and Chatti, with
great salt springs in its neighbourhood.

S4XACIA (-ae), the female divinity of
the sea among the Romans, and the wife of
Neptune. The name is evidently connected
with sal («>>f), and! accordingly denotes the
wide, open sea.

8ALAMIS (.Inis). (1) {Koluri), an island
oflf the W. coast of Attica, from which it is
separated by a narrow channel. It forms
the 8. boundary of the bay of Eleusis. Its
greatest length, from N. to S., is about 10
miles, and its width, in its broadest part,
from E. to W., is a little more. It is said to
have been called Salamis from a daughter of
Asopus, of this name. It was colonised at
nn early time by the Aeacidae of Aegina.
Telamon, the son of Aeacus, fled thither
after the murder of his half-brother Phocus,
and became sovereign of the island. His son
Ajax accompanied the Greeks with 12 Sala.
minian ships to the Trojan war. Salamis
continued an independent state till about the
beginning of the 40th Olympiad (b.c. 620),
when a dispute arose for its possession
between the Megarians and the Athenians.
After a long struggle it first fell into the
hands of the Megarians, but was finally taken
possession of by the Athenians through a

stratagem of Solon [Solon], and became one
of the Attic demi. It continued to belong to
Athens till the time of Cassander, when its
inhabitants voluntarily surrendered it to the
Macedonians, 318. The Athenians reco-
vered the island in 232 through Aratus,
and punished the Salaminiajos for their de-
sertion to the Macedonians with great se-
verity. The old city of Salamis stood on the
S. side of the island, opposite Aegrina ; but
this was afterwards deserted, and a new city
of the same name built on th^ E. coast oppo-
site Attica, on a small bay now called Ambe'
lakia. At the extremity of the 8. promontory
forming this bay was the small island of
PsTTTALiA {Lypsokutali), which is about a
mile long, and from 200 to 300 yards wide.
Salamis is chiefiy memorable on account of
the great battle fought off its coast, in which
the Persian fleet of Xerxes was defeated by
the Greeks b.c. 480. — (2) An ancient city of
Cyprus, situated in the middle of the E. coast
a little N. of the river Pediaeus. Under Con-
stantine it suffered from an earthquake,
which buried a large portion of the inhabit-
ants beneath its ruins. It was, however,
rebuilt by Constantine, who gave it the name
of Ck)nstantia, and made it the capital of the
island. There are still a few ruins of this

SALXpIA (-ae : Salpi), an ancient town of
Apulia, in the district Daunia, was situated
S. of Sipontum, on a lake named after it. It
is not mentioned till the 2nd Punic wat, when
it revolted to Hannibal after the battle of
Cannae, but it subsequently surrendered to
the Romans, and delivered to the latter
the Carthaginian garrison stationed in the

SALXpInI PALUS {Logo di Salpi\ a
lake of Apulia, between the mouths of the
Cerbalus and Aufidus.

SALARIA (-ae), a town of the Bastetani,
in Hispania Tarraconensis, anc a Roman

SALARIA "VIA, a Roman rottd, which
ran from the Porta Salaria through Fi-
denae, Reate, and Asculum Picenimi, to
Castrum Truentinum, and thence along the
coast to Ancona.

SALASSI (-orum), a brave and warlike
people in Gallia Transpadana, in the valley
of the Duria, at the foot of the Graian and
Pennine Alps, whom some regarded as a
branch of the Salyes or Salluvii, in C^ul.
Their chief town was Augusta Praetoria

SALENTInI or SALLENTInI (-orum), a
people in the 8. part of Calabria, who dwelt
around the promontory lapygium, which is
hence called Salbntinuu or Salrntina.

Digitized by





They were subdued by the Bomans at the
conclusion of their -war with Pyrrhus.

SALERNUM (-i : Salerno) ^ an ancient town
In Campania, at the innermost comer of the
Sinns Paestanus, situated on a hill near the
coast. It was made a Roman colony B.C. 1 94 ;
but it attained its greatest prosperity in the
middle ages, after it had been fortified by the

SAIGANEUS or SALGANEA (-1, or -ae),
a small town of Boeotia, on the Euripus, and
on the road from Anthedon to Chalcis.

SaLINAE (-arum), salt-works, the name
of several townp which possessed salt-works
In their vicinity. (1) A town in Britain, on
the E. coast, in the S. part of Lincolnshire.
— (2) A town of the Suetrii, in the Maritime
Alps in Gallia Narbonensis, E. of Rcii. —
(3) {Torre delle Saline) y a place on the coast
of Apulia, near Salapia. — (4) A place in
Picenum, on the river Sannus [Salino)» —
(5). {Torda)j a place in Dacia. — (6) Salinae
Herculeae, near Herculanum, in Campania.

SALINATOR (-Oris), LlVIUS. (1) M., con-
sul B.C. 219, with L. Aemilius Paulus, carried
on war along with his colleague against the
Illyrians. On their return to Rome, both
consuls were brought to trial on the charge
of having unfairly divided the booty among
the soldiers. Livius was condemned, but the
sentence seems to have been an unjust one,
and Livius took his disgrace so much to
heart that he retired to his estate. In 210
the consuls compelled him to return to the
city, and in 207 he was elected consul a 2nd
time with C. Claudius Nero. He shared with
his colleague in the glory of defeating Has-
drubal on the Metaurus. [Neeo, Claudius.]
Next year (206) Livius was stationed in
Etruria, as proconsul, with an army, and his
imperium was prolonged for 2 successive
years. In 204 he was censor with his former
colleague in the consulship, Claudius Nero,
and imposed a tax upon salt, in consequence
of which he received the surname of Sali-
natoTf which seems to have been g^iven him
in derision, but which became, notwith-
standing, hereditary in his family. — (2) C,
curule aedile, 203, and praetor 202, in which
year he obtained Bruttii as his province. —
(3) C, praetor 191, when he had the com-
mand of the fleet in the war against
Antiochus. He was consul 188, and obtained
Gaul as his province.
. SALLENTlNI. [Salentini.]

TIUS (-i). (1) The Roman historian, be-
longed to a plebeian family, and was born

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