William Smith.

A smaller classical dictionary of biography, mythology, and geography ... online

. (page 7 of 90)
Online LibraryWilliam SmithA smaller classical dictionary of biography, mythology, and geography ... → online text (page 7 of 90)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

were transplanted to the new city of Nicopolip,
founded by Augustus after the battle of
Actium, B. c. 31.

AMBRACIUS SINUS {G. ofArta), a gulf
of the Ionian sea between Epirus and Acar-
nania, 25 miles long and 10 wide.

Amaxoos. (From a Sarcophaffos in the Capito) at Kome.)

vemed by a queen, and the female children
had their right breasts cut -off that they
might use the bow with more ease. They
constantly occur in Greek mythology. One
of the labours imposed upon Hercules, was
to take from Hippolyte, the queen of th^
Amazons, her girdle. [HERcrLBs.] In the
reign of Theseus they invaded Attica. Towards
the end of the Trojan war, they came under
their queen PenthesilCa, to the assistance of
Priam ; but she was killed by Achilles.

AMBARRI (.orum), a people of Gaul, on
the Arar {Saone) E. of the Aedui.

AMBIANI (-orum), a Belgic people, be-
tween the Bellovaci and Atrebates, conquered
by Caesar in b.c. 57. Their chief town
was Samarobrlva, afterwards Ambiani, now

AMBIORIX (.Ygis), a chief of the Ebu.
rones in Gaul, who cut to pieces the Roman
troops under Sabinus and Cotta, b. c. 54.

AMBIVARtTI (-orum), the clientes or vas-
sals of the Aedui, probably dwelt N. of the

AMBRONES (-um), a Celtic people, who
joined the Cimbri and Teutoni in their inva-
sion of the Roman dominions, and were de.
feated by Marius near Aquae Sextiae {Aix)
in B.C. 102.

AMBRtSUS or AMPHRTSUS (-i), a town
in l^hocis, S. of M. Parnassus.

AMEN Anus (-i)* a river in Sicily near Ca-
tana, only flowed occasionally.

AMERIA (-ae), an ancient town in
Umbria, and a municipium, the birth-place
of Sex. Roscius defended by Cicero, was
situate in a district rich in vines.

AMERIOLA (-ae), a town in the land of
the Sabines, destroyed by the Romans.

AMESTRATUS (-i), a town in the N. of
Sicily not far from the coast.

AMIDA (-ae), a city in Sophene (Armenia
Major) on the tipper Tigris.

XmILCAR. [Hamilcab,]

AMISIA or AMISiUS (-i : Urns), a river in
northern Germany well known to the Romans.

AMISUS (-i), a large city on the coast
of Pontus, on a bay of the Euxine Sea, calleil

Digitized by





after it (Amisenos Sinus). Mithridates en-
:arged it, and made it one of his residences.

AmITERNUM (.i), one of the most ancient
towns of the Sabines, on the Atemus, the
birth-place of the historian Sallust.

a Greek, and a native of Syrian Antioch, served
among the imperial body guards. He at-
tended the emperor Julian in his campaign
against the Persians (a.d. 363). He wrote
a history of the Roman empire, of which
18 books are extant, embracing the period
from A.D. 853, to the death of Valens, 378.
His style is harsh and inflated, but his accu-
racy, fidelity, and impartiality deserve praise.

AMMON (^nis), an Egyptian divinity,
whom the Greeks identified with Zeus, and
the Romans with Jupiter. He possessed a
celebrated temple and oracle in the oasis of
.\mmonium {Skoah) in the Libyan desert,
which was visited by Alexander the Great.

AMNlSUS (4), a town in the N. of Crete,
and the harbour of Cnossus, situated on a
river of the same name.

AMOR (-5ris), the god of love, had no
place in the religion of the Romans, who
only translate the Greek name Eros into Amor.

AMOROUS (-i), an island in the Grecian
Archipelago, one of the Sporades, the birth,
place of Simonides, and under the Roman
emperors a place of banishment.

AMPELCSIA (-ae), the promontory at the
W. end of the Afirican coast of the Fretum
Gaditanum {Straits of Gibraltar).

AMPHIARAUS (-i), son of Oicles and Hy-
permnestra, a great prophet . and hero at
Argos. By Ms wife Eriph^lS, the sister of
Adrastus, he was the father of Alcmaeon,
Amphilochus, Eurydice, and Demonassa. He
joined Adrastus in the expedition against
Thebes, although he foresaw its fatal termi-
nation, through the persuasions of his wife
EriphyU, who had been induced to persuade
her husband by the necklace of Harmonia,
which Polynices had given her. On leaving
Argos he enjoined his sons to punish their
mother for his death. During the war against
Thebes, Amphiaraus fought bravely, but could
not escape his fate. Pursued by Periclyme-
nus, he fied towards the river Ismenius, and
the earth swallowed him up together witii his
chariot, before he was overtaken by his
enemy. He was made immortal, and was
worshipped as a hero. His oracle between
Potniae and Thebes, where he was said to
have been swallowed up, enjoyed great
celebrity. His son, Alcmaeon, is called

AMPHICLfiA (.ae), a town in the N. of

AMPHICTtON (-finis), son of Deucalion
and Pyrrha, believed to have been the founder
of the Amphictyonic council.

AMPHIlOCHIA (-ae), the country of the
Amphilochi, an Epiix)t race, at the E. end oi
the Ambracian gulf, usually included in
Acamania. Their diief town was Argos
Amphilochicum. [Axphilochvs.]

AMPHILOCHUS (4), son of Amphiaraus
and EriphylS, and brother of Alcmaeon. He
took part in the expedition of the Epigoni
against Thebes, assisted his brother in the
murder of their mother [Alcmaeon], and
afterwards fought against Troy. Like his
father he was a celebrated seer. He was
killed in single combat by Mopsus, who was
also a seer, at Hallos in Cilicia. According
to some he founded Argos Amphilochicum on
the Ambracian gulf.

AMPHION (-«nis), son of Zeus (Jupiter)
and Anti8p€, and twin-brother of Zethus. They

Zethiu and Amphioo.
(From* Baueliefat Borne.)

were bom on Mount Cithaeron, and grew up
among the shepherds. Having become ac-
quainted with their origin they marched

Digitized by





against Thebes, ^here Lycus reigned, the
husband of their mother Antiope, who had
married Dirce in her stead. They took the
city, and killed Lycos and Dirce because they
had treated Antiope -with great cruelty.
They put Dirce to death by tying her to a
bull, who dragged her about till she perished ;
and they then threw her body into a fountain,
which was from this time called the foxmtain
of Dirce. After they had obtained possession
of Thebes, they fortified it by a wall. Am-
phion had received a lyre from Hermes
(Mercury), on which he played with such
magic skill, that the stones moved of their
own accord and formed the wall. Amphion
afterwards married Niobe, who bore him
many sons and daughters, all of whom were
killed by Apollo, whereupon he put an «id to
his own life.^ [Niobb.]

AMPHIPOLIS (-is), a town in Macedonia on
the eastern bank of the Strymon, about 3 miles
from the sea. The Strymon flowed almost
round the town, nearly forming a drdei
whence its name Amphi-polis. It was origin-
ally called Ennea Hodoi, the <*NineWays," and
belonged to the Edonians, a Thracian people.
It was colonised by the Athenians in 437, who
drove the Edonians out of the place. It was
one of the most important of the Athenian
possessions in the N. of the Aegaean sea.
Hence their indignation when it fell Into the
hands of Brasidas (424) and of PhiUp (358).
The port of Amphipolis was Eion.

AMPmSSA (-ae), one of the ' chief
towns of the Locri Ozolae on the borders of
Phocis, 7 miles from DelphL In consequence
of the Sacred War declared against Amphissa
by the Amphictyons, the town was destroyed
by Philip, b.c. 338, but was afterwards rebuilt.

AMPHlTiaTE (-6s), a Nereid or an Oceanid,
wife of Poseidon (Neptune) and goddess of

(Fitmi a Basrelief published by Winckelmann.)

the sea, especially of the Mediterranean. She
was the mother of Triton.

AMPHiTRtON or AMPmTRlJO (-6nis).
son -of Alcaeus and Hipponome, and wife o<
Alcmeng. For details see Alcmbmb. Hercules,
the son of Zeus (Jupiter) and Alcmene, is
called AmphUrpSntOdis in allusion to his re-
puted father. Amphitryon fell in a war
against Erginns, king of the Minyans.

AMPHRtSUS (-i). (1) A smaU river in
Thessaly which flowed into the Pagasaeangulf,
on the banks of which Apollo fed the herd:<
of Admetus. — (2) See Ambrtsus.

AMPSAGA (-ae), a river of N. AfHca,
dividing Numidia from Mauretania Sitifensis,
and flowing past the town of Cirta.

a small lake in Samnium near Aeculanum,
from which mephitic vapours arose. Hence
it was regarded as an entrance to the lower

AMPf CUS (4), son of Pelia^ husband of
Chloris, and fattier of the famous seer Mopsus,
who is bailee called AmpptMit,

AMtliUS. [Romulus.]

AMTCLAE (.ftrum). (1) An aneient town
of Laconia on the Eurotas, 2i mUcs S.E. of
Sparta. It Is said to have been the abode of
Tyndarus, and of Castor and Pollux, who are
hence called Amyelaei Fratres. After the
conquest of Peloponnesus by the Dorians, the
Achaeans maintained themselves in Amyclae
for a long time ; but it was at length taken and
destroyed by the Lacedaemonians under
Teleclus. Amyclae still continued memorable
by the festival of the Hyacinthia celebrated at
the place annually, and by the colossal statue of
Apollo, who was hence called Amydaeua. —
(2) An ancient town of Latium, E. of Terra-
cina, on the Sinus Amyolanus, claimed to be
an Achaean colony firom Laconia. The in-
habitants were said to have deserted it on
account of its being infested by serpents;
whence Virgil speaks of taeitae Amyclae.

AMTCLId£S (-ae), a name of Hyadnthus,
as the son of Amyclas,the founder of Amyclae.

Amicus (-i), son of Poseidon (Neptune),
king of the Bebryoes, celebrated for Ms skill
in boxing. He used to challenge strangers
to box with him and slay them ; but when
the Argonauts came to his dominions, Pollux
killed him in a boxing-match.

AMTHOnS (-Ss), one of the 50 daughters
of Danaus, was the mother by Poseidon (Nep-
tune) of Nauplius, the father of Palamedes.
The fountain of Amymone in Argolis was
called after her.

AJiYNTAS (-ae). (1) King of Macedonia,
reigned from about b.o. 540 to 500, and was
succeeded by his son Alexander I.— -<2) King
of Macedonia, son of Philip, the brother of
Perdiccas II., reigned 393 — 369, and obtained
the crown by the murder of the usurper

Digitized by





Pausanias. He carefully coltlTated the
(tiendship of Athens. He left by his wife
Eurydice 3 sons, Alexander, Perdiccas, and
the famous Philip, who is hemoe called by
Ovid AmynttMit

AMYNTOR (-«ris), king of the Dolopes, and
father of Phoenix, who is hence called .Imyn-
tUHdia. [Phobnix.]

AM^THAON (^nis), son of Crethens and
Tyro, father of Bias and of the seer Melampus,
who is hence called Amythddnlxu.

ANACES or ANACTE8, t. e. " the Kings,»»
a name ftrequently given to Castor and Pollux.

ANACHARSIS (-Is), a Scythian of princely
rank, left his native country in pursuit of
knowledge, and came to Athens, about
B.C. 594. He became acquainted with Solon,
and by his talents and acute observations, he
excited general admiration. He was killed
by his brother Saulius on Ms return to his
native country. The letters which go under
his dame are spurious.

ANACREON (-ontis), acelebrated lyric poet,
bom at Teos, an Ionian city in Asia Minor.
He removed to Abdera, in Thrace, when Teos
was taken by the Persians (about b.c. 644), but
he lived chiefly at Samos, under the patronage
of Polycrates. After the death of Polycrates
(522), he went to Athens at the invitation of
the tyrant Hipparchus. He died at the age
of 85, probably about 478. Of his poems
only a few genuine ftragments have come
down to us ; for the " Odes " attributed to
him are spurious. In his poems he celebrates
the praises of love and wine.

ANACTORIUM (.1), a town in Acamania,
built by the Corinthians, upon a promontory
of the same name at the entrance of the Am-*
bracian gulf.

ANAGNIA (-ae), the chief town of the
Hemici in Latium, and subsequently both a
municipium and a Roman colony. In the
neighbourhood Cicero had a beautiful estate,
Anagninum (sc. praedium)

ANAPH£ (^s), a small island in the S. of
the Aegean sea, E. of Thera.

ANlPUS (-i). (1) A river in Acamania,
flowing into the Achelous. — (2) A viver in
Sicily, flowing into the sea S. of Syracuse
through marshes.

ANARTES (-ium) or -TI (-6mm), a people
of Dacia, N. of the Theiss.

ANAS (-ae : Ouadiana), one of the chief
rivers of Spain, forming the boundary be-
tween Lusitania and Baetica, and flowing
into the ocean by two mouths (now only one).

ANAXAGORAS (-ae), a celebrated Greek
philosopher of the Ionian school, was bom at
Clazomenae in Ionia, b.c. 500. He gave up
his property to his relations, as he intended
to devote his life to higher ends, and went to

Athens at the age of 20 ; here he remained
30 years, and became the intimate friend and
teacher of Euripides and Pericles. His doc
trines gave offence to the religious feelings of
the Athenians; and he was accused of
impiety, 450. It was only through the
eloquence of Pericles that he was not put to
death ; but he was sentenced to pay a fine of
5 talents and to quit AthMU. He retired to
Lampsacus, where he died in 428, at the age
of 7 2. He taught that a sopteme intelligence
was the cause of all things.

ANAXANDRID£S, king of Sparta, reigned
from about b.c. 560 to 520. Having a barren
wife whom he would not divorce, the ephors
made him take with her a second. By her he
had Cleom^ies ; and after this by his first
wife Dorieus, Leonidas, and Cleombrotus.

AnaXARCHUS (-i), a philosopher of
Abdera, of the school of Democritus, accom.
panied Alexander into Asia (b.c. 334). After
the death of Alexander (328), Anaxarchus was
thrown by shipwreck into the power of Nioo.
creon, king of Cyprus, to whom he had given
offence, and who had him pounded to death
in a stone mortar.

ANAXARETfi (-te), 8 maiden of Cyprus,
treated her lover Iphis with such haughtiness
that he hung himself at her door. She looked
with indifference at the fUneral of the youth,
but Venus changed her into a stone statue.

ANAXIMANDER (-dn), of Miletus, was
bom B.C. 610, and died 547, In his 64th year.
He was one of the earliest philosophers of
the Ionian school, and the immediate successor
V Thales, its first founder.

InAXImENES (-is), of Miletus, the third
in the series of Ionian philosophers, flourished
about B.C. 544 ; but as he was the teacher of
Anaxagoras, B.C. 480, he must have lived to
a great age. He considered air to be the first
cause of all things.

ANAZARBUS (-i) or -A (-ae), a city of
Cilicia Campestris, at the foot of a mountain
of the same name. Augustus conferred upon
it the name of CaeearGa (ad Anazarbum).

ANCAEUS (-i). (1) Son of the Arcadian
Lycurgos, and father of Agapenor. He was
one of the Argonauts, and was killed by the
Calydonian boar. — (2) Son of Poseidon
(Neptune) and Astypalaea, also one of the
Argonauts, and the helmsman of the ship
Argo after the death of Tiphys.

ANCHIALfi (-68) and -LU8 (-i). (1) A
town in Thrace, on the Black Sea, on the
borders of Moesia. — (2) An ancient city of
Cilicia, W. of the Cydnus near the coast, said
to have been built by Sardanapalus.

ANCHISES (-ae), son of Capys and Themis,
the daughter of Ilus, and king of Dardanus on
Mount Ida. In beauty he equalled the im-

Digitized by





mortal gods, and -m^ i>e\oved by AphrodTtg
(Venus), by whom he became the father of
AenSas, who is hence called Anchlsiddis.
HaTing boasted of his intercourse with the
goddess, he was struck by a flash of lightning,
which deprived him of his sight. On the
capture of Troy by the Greeks, AenSas carried
his father on his shoulders from the burning
city. He died soon after the arrival of Aeneas
in Sicily, and was buried on mount Eryx.

ANCONA (-ae) or ANCON (^nis), a town
in Picenum on the Adriatic sea, lying in a bend
of the coast between two promontories, and
hence called Aneony or an " elbow." It was
built by the Syracusans in the time of the
elder Dionysius, b.c. 392. The Bomans made
it a colony. It possessed an excellent bar-
hour, completed by Trajan, and was one of
the most important sea-ports of the Adriatic.

ANGUS MARCiUS (4), fourth king of Rome,
reigned 24 years, b.c. 640 — 616, and is said to
hare been the son of Numa's daughter. He
took many Latin towns, transported the inhabl
tants to Rome, and gave them the Aventine
to dwell on : these conquered Latins formed
the original Plebs. He was succeeded by
Tarquinius Priscus.

ANCYRA (-ae). (1) A city of Galatia in
Asia Minor, originally the chief city of a
Gallic tribe named the Tectosages, who came
from the S. of France. When Augustus re-
corded the chief events of his life on bronze
tablets at Rome, the citizens of Ancyra had a
copy made, which was cut on marble blocks
and placed at Ancyra in a temple dedicated
to Augustus and Rome. This inscription is
still extant, and called the Monwnentum An-
eyranum.—{2) A town in Phrygia Epictetus
on the borders of Mvsia.

ANDES (-ium), a Gallic people N. of the Loire,
with a town of the same name, also called
Juliomagus, now Angers.

ANDES (-ium), a village near Mantua,
the birth-place of Virgil.

ANDOCIDfiS, one of the 10 Attic orators,
son of Leogoras, was bom at Athens in
n.c. 467. He belonged to a noble family, and
was a supporter of the oligarchical party at
Athens. In 415 he became involved in the
charge brought against Alcibiades of having
mutilated the Hermae, and was thrown into
prison ; but he recovered his liberty by
denouncing the real or pretended perpetrators
of the crime. He was four times banished
from Athens, anS after leading a wandering
and disreputable life, died in exile. Four of
his orations have come down to us.

ANDRAEMON (-«nis). (1) Husband of
Gorge, daughter of Oeneus king of Calydon in
Aetolia, whom he succeeded, and father of

Thoas, who is hence called Andraenumides. —
(2) Son of Oxylus, and husband of Dryope,
who was mother of Amphissus by Apollo.

ANDROCLUS (-i) or -CL£s (-is), the slave
of a Roman consular, was sentenced to be
exposed to the wild beasts in the circus ; but
a lion, which had been let loose upon him,
exhibited signs of recognition, and began lick-
ing him. Upon inquiry it appeared that An-
droclus had run away from his master in
Africa; and that having taken refiige in
a cave, a lion entered, went up to him, and
held out 'his paw. Androclus extracted a
large thorn which had entered it. Hence-
forth they lived together for some time, the
lion catering for his benefactor. But ai
last, tired of this savage life, Androclus left
the cave, was apprehended by some soldiers,
brought to Rome, and condemned to the wild
beasts. He was pardoned, and presented with
the lion, which he used to. lead about the city.

son of Minos and Pasiphae, conquered all his
opponents in the games of the Panathenaea
at Athens, and was in consequence slain at
the instigation of Aegeus. Minos made war
on the Athenians to avenge the death of his
son, and compelled them to send every year
to Crete 7 youths and 7 damsels to be devoured
by the Minotaur. From this shameful tribute
they were delivered by Tuksbus.

(-ae), daughter of Eetion, king of the Cilician
Thebes, and wife of Hector, by whom she had
a son Scamandrius (Astyanax). On the
taking of Troy her son was hurled from the
walls of the city, and she herself fell to
the share of Neoptolemus (Pyrrhus), the son
of Achilles, who took her to Epirus. She
afterwards married Helenus, a brother of
Hector, who ruled over Chaonia.


Andromeda aud Perseus. (From a terra-cotta of
S. Campana.)

(-es), daughter of Cepheus, king of Aethioi)ia,

Digitized by





snd CassiopSa. In consequence of her mother
boasting that the beauty of her daughter
surpassed that of the Nereids, Poseidon
(Neptune) sent a sea-monster to lay waste
the country. The oracle of Ammon promised
delirerance if Andromeda was given up to
the monster; and Cepheus was obliged to
chain his daughter to a rock. Here she was
found and saved by Perseus, who slew the
monster and obtained her as his wife. She
had been previously promised to Phineus, and
this gave rise to the famous ftght of Phhieus
and Perseus at the wedding, in which the
former and all his associates were slain. After
her death, she was placed among the stars.


ANDROS or RUS (-i), the most northerly
and one of the largest islands of the Cyelades,
S. E. of Euboea, 21 miles long and 8 broad,
early attained importance, and colonised
Acanthus and Stagira about b.c. 654. It was
celebrated for its wine, whence the whole
island was regarded as sacred to Dionysus.

ANGLI or ANGLII (-drum), a German
people on the left bank of the Elbe, who passed
over with the Saxons into Britain, which was
called after them England. [Saxonies.] Some
of them appear to have settled in Angeln in

ANGRIVARn (-drum), a German people
dwelling on both sides of the Visurgis ( Weser)^
separated from the Cherusci by an agger or
mound of earth.

ANIGRUS (-i), a small river in the Tri-
phylisui EUs, the Minyeius of Homer, flowing
into the Ionian sea near Samicum. Its waters
had a disagreeable smell, in consequence it is
said of the Centaurs having washed in them
after they had been wounded by Hercules.
. ANIO, anciently ANIEN (hence Gen.
Anignis), a river rising in the mountains of the
Hemici near Treba, which, after receiving
the brook Digentia, forms at Tibur beautiful
water-falls, and flows into the Tiber, 3 miles
above Rome. The water of the Anio was
conveyed to Rome by two Aqueducts, the
Anw vettts and Anio novus.

ANIUS (-i), son of Apollo by Creiisa, and
priest of Apollo at Delos. By Dry6p6 he had
three daughters, to whom Dionysus gave the
power of producing at will any quantity of
wine, com, and oil, — ^whence they were called
OenotrfSpae. With these necessaries they the
said to have supplied the Greeks during are
first 9 years of the Trojan war.

ANNA (-ae), daughter of Belus and sister of
Dido. After the death of the latter, she fled
from Carthage to Italy, where she was kindly
received by Aeneas. Here she excited the
jealousy of Lavinia, and being warned in a
dream by Dido, she fled and threw herself

into the river Numicius. Henceforth she was
worshipped as the nymph of that river under
the name of Anna Perenna.


ANSER (-^ris), a poet of the Augustan
age, a friend of the triumvir M. Antonius,
and one of the detractors of VirgiL

German people, originally dwellin^r between
the sources of the Ems and the Weser, a&d
afterwards in the interior of the countr>'
near the Cherusci.

ANTAEOPOLIS (-is), an ancient city of
Cpper Egyp* (the Thebais), on the E. side of
the Nile, and one of the chief seats of the
worship of Osiris.

ANTAEUS (-1), son of Poseidon (Neptune)
and G€ (Earth), a mighty giant and wrestler
in Libya, whose strength was invincible so long
as he remained in contact with his mother
earth. Hercules discovered the source of his
strength, lifted him fh>m the earth, and
crushed hini in the air.

ANTALCIDAS (-ae), a Spartan, son of Leon,
is chiefly known by the celebrated treaty con-
cluded with Persia in b. c. 387, usually
called the peace of Antalcidas, since it was
the ftruit of his diplomacy. According to
this treaty all the Greek cities in Asia Minor
were to belong to the Persian king: the
Athenians were allowed to retain only Lemnos,
Imbros, and Scyros ; and all the other Greek
cities were to be independent.

ANTANDRUS (-i), a city of Great Mysla,
on the Adramyttian Gulf, at the foot of Mount
Ida ; an Aeolian colony.

ANTKA or ANTlA. [Bkllkrophon.]

ANTEMNAE (-anun), an ancient Sabine
town at the junction of the Anio and the
Tiber, destroyed by the Romans in the earliest

ANTENOR (-5ri8), a Trojan, son of Aesyetes
and Cleomestra, and husbimd of Theano. He
was one of the wisest among the elders at
Troy ; he received Menelaus and Ulysses into
his house when they came to Troy as ambassa-
dora; and he advised his fellow-citizens to
restore Helen to Menelaus. On the capture
of Troy, Antenor was spared by the Greeks.
His history after this event is told differ-
ently. Some relate that he w6ht with the
Heneti to the western coast of the Adriatic,
where he foxmded Patavium. His sons and
descendants were called AntenOrldae,

ANTEROS. [Eros.]

ANTHEDON (-8nis), a town of Boeotia with
a harbour, on the coast of the Euboean sea, said
to have derived its name from Anthedon, son

Online LibraryWilliam SmithA smaller classical dictionary of biography, mythology, and geography ... → online text (page 7 of 90)