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B.C. 86, at Amitemum, in the country of the
Sabines. He was quaestor about 59, and
tribune of the plebs in 52, the year in which



Clodius was killed by Milo. In his tribunate
he joined the popular party, and took an
active part in opposing Milo. In 50 Sallust
was expelled firom the senate by the censors,
probably because he belonged to Caesar's
party, though some grive as the ground of his
ejection from the senate his adultery with
the wife of Milo. In the civil war he
followed Caesar's fortune. In 47 we find
him praetor elect, by obtaining which dig-
nity he was restored to his rank. He nearly
lost his life in a mutiny of some of Caesar's
troops in Campania, who had been led
thither to pass over into Africa. He ac-
companied Caesar in his African war (46),
and was left by Caesar as the governor of
Numidia, in which capacity he is charged
with having oppressed the people, and en-
riched himself by unjust means. The charge
is somewhat confirmed by the fact of his
becoming immensely rich, as was shown by
the expensive gardens which he formed
{Jwrti Sallustiani) on the Quirinalis. He
retired into privacy after he returned from
AfHca, and passed quietly through the
troublesome period after Caesar's death. He
died 34, about 4 years before the battle
of Actium. The story of his marrying
Cicero's wife, Terentia, ought to be rejected.
It was probably not till after his return from
Africa that Sallust wrote his historical works,
namely, the Catilinaf or Bellum Catilina-
rium^ a history of the conspiracy of Catiline
during the consulship of Cicero, 68 ; the Jtt-
gurthOf or Bellum Jugurthinum^ the history
of the war of the Romans against Jugurtha,
king of Numidia ; and the Historiarum Libri
Quingtte. This last work is lost, with the
exception of fragments which have been
collected and arranged. Besides these there
are attributed to Sallust Jhtae Epiatolae de
Repuhlica ordinanda^ and a Declamatio in
Oioeronem. Some of the Roman writers
considered that Sallust imitated the style
of Thucydides. His language is generally
concise and perspicuous : perhaps his love of
brevity may have caused the ambigruity that
is sometimes found in his sentences. He
also affected archaic words. He has, how-
ever, probably the merit of being the first
Roman who wrote what is usually called
history. — (2) The grandson of the sister of
the historian, was adopted by the latter, and
inherited his great wealth. On the fall of
Maecenas he became the principal adviser of
Augustus. He died in a.d. 20, at an ad-
vanced age. One of Horace's odes (Cartn.
il. 2) is addressed to him.

SALMANTiCA (-ae : Salamanca), called
HELMANTICA or HERMANDICA by Livy,
and ELMANTICA by Polybius, an important



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8ALM0NA.



864



SAMARIA.



town of the Ycttones, in Lusitania, S. of the
Durius, on the road fh>m Bmerita to Caesar-
angusta.

SALMONA or SALMONIA (-ae), a town
of Elis, in the district Pisatis, on the river
Cnipeus, said to have been founded ^y
Salmoneus.

SALMONEUS (.^ ^I), son of Aeolus and
Enarete, and brother of Sisyphus. He
originally lived in Thessaly, but emigrated to
Elis, where he built the town of Saimone.
His presumption and arrogance were so great
that he deemed himself equal to Zeus
(Jupiter), and ordered sacrifices to be offered
to himself; nay, he even imitated the
thunder and lightning of Zeus, but the father
of the gods killed him with his thunderbolt,
destroyed his town, and punished him in the
lower world. His daughter Tyro bears the
patronymic Salmonia,

8ALMYDE8SUS (-i), called HALMTDES-
RUS also in later times {Mi^ja or Mi4jeh)t a
town of Thrace, on the coast of the Euxine, S.
of the promontory Thynias. The name was
originally applied to the whole coast from this
promontory to the entrance of the Bosporus ;
and it was from this coast that the Black Sea
obtained the name of Fontus Axenot, or
inhospitable.

SALO (-dnis: X(ilon)y a tributary of the
Iberus, in Celtiberia, which flowed by Bil-
bilis, the birth-plAoe of Martial, who ac-
cordingly frequently mentions it in his
poems.

SALONA (-ae), sXlOnAE (.arum), or
SALON (-dnis : Salona)^ an important town
t>f Illyria, and the capital of Dalmatia, was
situated on a small bay of the sea. The
emperor Diocletian was bom at the small
village Dioclea, near Salona ; and after his
abdication he retired to the neighbourhood
of this town, and here spent the rest of his
days. The remains of his magnificent palace
are still to be seen at the village of Spaiatro^
the ancient Spolattju, 3 miles S. of Salona.

SALViUS OTHO. [Otho.]

SALUS (.atis), a Roman goddess, the
personification of health, prosperity, and the
public welfare. In the first of these three senses
she answers closely to the Greek Hygieia,
and was accordingly represented in works of
art with the same attributes as the Greek
i^dess. In the second sense she represents
prosperity in general. In the third sense
Khe is the goddess of the public welfare
{Salw publico or Bomana). In this capacity
a temple was vowed to her in the year b.c.
307, by the censor G. Junius Bubulcus, on
the Quirinal hill, which was afterwaras
decorated with paintings by C. Fabius Pictor.
She was worshipped publicly on the SOth of



April, in conjunction with Fax, Concordia,
and Janus. Salus was represented, like
Fortuna, with a rudder, a globe at her feet,
and sometimes in a sitting posture, pouring
from a patera a libation upon an altar,
round which a serpent is winding.
SALUSTIUS. [Salujstixjs.]
8ALYES (.um) or 8ALLUVII (-6rum), the
most powerful and most celebrated of all the
Ligurian tribes, inhabited the 8. coast of
Gaul from the Rhone to the Maritime Alps.
They were troublesome neighbours to Mas-
silia, with which city they frequently carried
on war. They were subdued by the Romans
in B.C. 1 23 after a long and obstinate struggle,
and the colony of Aquae Sextiae was founded
in their territory by the consul Sextius.
SAMARA. [Samakobriva.]
SAMARIA (-ae : Heb. Shomron, Chaldee,
Shamrain: Samarltes, pL Samarltae), aft.
Sebastb [Sebustieh, R^Ot ^^^ ^^ ^^^ chief
cities of Palestine, was built by Omri, king
of Israel (about b.c. 922), on a hill in the
midst of a plain surrounded by mountains,
just in the centre of Palestine W. of the
Jordan. Its name was derived from Shemer,
the owner of the hill which Omri purchased
for its site. It was the capital of the king,
dom of Israel, and the chief seat of the
idolatrous worship to which the ten tribes
were addicted, until it was taken by Shal-
maneser, king of Assyria (about b.c. 720),
who carried away the inhabitants of the city
and of the surrounding country, which is
also known in history as Samaria [see below]«
and replaced them by heathen peoples firom
the E. provinces of his empire. When the
Jews returned firom the Babylonish captivity,
those of the Samaritans who worshipped
Jehovah offered to assist them in rebuilding
the temple at Jerusalem ; but their aid was
revised, and hence arose the lasting hatred
between the Jews and the Samaritans. Under
the Syrian kings and the Maccabean princes,
we find the name of Samaria used distinctly
as that of a province, which consisted of the
district between Galilee on the N. and Judaea
on the 8. Fompey assigned the district to
the province of Syria, and Gabinius fortified
the city anew. Augustus gave the district
to Herod, who greatly renovated the city of
Samaria, which he called Sebaste in honour
of his patron. By the 4th century of our
era it had become a place of no importance.
Its beautiful site is now occupied by a poor
village, which bears the Greek name of the
city, slightly altered, viz. Sebustieh, As a
district of Palestine, Samaria extended ftom
Ginaea {Jenm) on the N. to Bethhoron, N.W.
of Gibeon on the 8. ; or, along the coast,
froui u little 8. of Caesarea on the N. to a



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8AM0S.



little N. of Joppa on the S. It was inter-
sected by the mountains of Ephraim, running
N. and S. through its middle, and by their
lateral branches, which divide their country
into beautiful and fertile yaHeys. [Palabs.

TIKA.]

SAMAROBRIVA (-ae), afterwards AM-
BIANI {Amiens) f the chief town of the
Ambiani in Gallia Belgica, on the river
Samara ; whence its name, which signifies
Samara-Bridge.

SAME (-es) or sImOS (-i), the ancient
name of Cephallenia. [Ckphallknia.] It
was also the name of one of the 4 towns of
Cephallenia. The town Same or Samos was
situated on the £. coast, opposite Ithaca, and
was taken and destroyed by the Romans,
B.C. 189.^

SAMNIUM (-i) (Samnltes, -um, more
rarely Samnltae, pi.), a country in the centre
of Italy, bounded on the N. by the Marsi,
Peligni, and Marrucini, on the W. by Latium
and Campania, on the S. by Lucania, and on
the £. by the Frentani and Apulia. The Sam-
nites were an offshoot of the Sabines, who
emigrated from their country between the
Nar, the Tiber, and the Anio, before the
foundation of Rome, and settled in the
coimtry afterwards called Samnium. [Sabini.]
This coimtry was at the time of their migra-
tion inhabited by Opicans, whom the Samnites
conquered, and whose language they adopted ;
for we find at a later time that the Samnites
spoke Opican or Oscan. Samnium is a country
marked by striking physical features. The
greater part of it is occupied by a huge mass
of mountains, called at the present day the
Matese, which stands out from the central
line of the Apennines. The Samnitos were
distinguished for their bravery and love of
freedom. Issuing from their mountain fast-
nesses, they overran a great part of Campania ;
and it was in consequence of Capua applying
to the Romans for assistance against the
Samnites, that war broke out between the 2
peoples in b.c. 343. The Romans found the
Samnites the most warlike and formidable ene-
mies whom they had yet encountered in Italy ;
and the war, which commenced in 343, was
continued with few interruptions for the space
of 63 years. The civil war between Marius
and Sulla gave them hopes of recovering
their independence ; but they were defeated
by Sulla before the gates of Rome (82), the
greater part of their troops fell in battle, and
the remainder were put to death. Their
towns were laid waste, the inhabitants sold
as slaves, and their place supplied by Roman
colonists.

SAMOS or SAMUS (-i : Greek SamOf
Turkish Swam Adaasi), one of the principal



islands of the Aegaean Sea, lying in that
portion of it called the Icarian Sea, off the
coast of Ionia, from which it is separated only
by a narrow strait formed by the overlapping
of its E. promontory Posidium (C. Oolonna]
with the W.-most spur of Mt. Mycale, Pr.
Trogilium (C. S, Maria), This strait, which
is little more than 3-4ths of a mile wide, was
the scene of the battle of Mycale. The
island is formed by a range of mountain;*
extending from E. to W., whence it derived
its name; for 2«jUos was an old Greek
word signifying a mountain. The circum-
ference of the island is about 80 miles.
According to the earliest traditions, it was a
chief seat of the Carians and Leleges, and
the residence of their first king, Ancaeus ;
and was afterwards colonised by Aeolians
from Lesbos, and by lonians from Epidaurus.
The Samians early acquired such power at
sea that, besides obtaining possession of parts
of the opposite coast of Asia, they foimded
many colonies. After a transition from the
state of an heroic monarchy, through an
anstocracy, to a democracy, the island became
subject to the most distinguished of the so-
called tyrants, Polycbates (b.c. 532), under
whom its power and splendour reached their
highest pitch, and Samos would probably
have become the mistress of the Aegaean, but
for the murder of Polycrates, At this period
the Samians had extensive commercial re-
lations with Egypt, and they obtained from
Amasis the privilege of a separate temple at
Naucratis. The Samians now became subject
to the Persian empire, under which they wer«
governed by tyrants, vrith a brief interval at
the time of the Ionic revolt, until the battle
of Mycale, which made them independent,
B.C. 479. They now joined the Athenian
confederacy, of which they continued inde-
pendent members until b.c. 440, when an
opportunity arose for reducing them to entire
subjection and depriving them of their fieet,
which was effected by Pericles after an ob-
stinate resistance of 9 months* duration.
In the Peloponnesian war, Samos held firm
to Athens. Transferred to Sparta after the
battle of Aegospotami, 405, it was soon
restored to Athens by that of Cnidus, 394 ;
but went over to Sparta again in 390. Soon
after, it fell into the hands of the Persians,
being conquered by the satrap Tigranes ; but
it was recovered by Timotheus for Athens.
In the Social war, the Athenians successfully
defended it against the attacks of the confe-
derated Chians, Rhodians, and Byzantines,
and placed in it a body of 2000 cleruchi, b.c
352. After Alexander's death, it was taken
from the Athenians by Perdiccas, 323 ; but
restored to them by Polysperchon, 319. In



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SAMOSATA.



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8APIS.



the Macedonian yrax, Samoa was taken by the
Rhodians, then by Philip, and lastly by the
Rhodians again, b.o. 200. It took part with
Mithridates in his first war against Rome, on
the conclusion of which it was finally united to
the province of Asia, b.c. 84. Meanwhile it
had greatly declined, and daring the war it
had been wasted by the incursions of pirates.
Its prosperity was partially restored under
the propraetorship of Q, Cicero, b.c. 62, but
still more by the residence in it of Antony
and Cleopatra, 32, and afterwards of Octa-
vianus, who made Samoa a free state. It sank
into insignificance as early as the 2nd century.
Samos may be regarded as almost the chief
centre of Ionian manners, energies, luxury,
science, and art. In very early tunes, there
was a native school of statuary, and Samian
architects became famous beyond their own
island. In painting, the island produced Calli.
phon,Theodorus, Agatharchus, and Timanthes.
Its pottery was celebrated throughout the
ancient world. In literature, Samos was made
illustrious by the poets Asius, Choerilus, and
Aeschrion; by the philosophers Pythagoras
and Melissus ; and by the Mstorians Pagaeus
and Duris. — ^The capital city, also called Sa-
mos, stood on the S.E. side of the island, oppo-
site Pr. Trogilium, partly on the shore, and
partly rising on the hills behind in the form
of an amphitheatre. It had a magnificent
harbour, and numerous splendid buildings,
among which, besides the Heraeum and other
temples, the chief were the senate-house, the
theatre, and a gymnasium dedicated to Eros.
In the time of Herodotus, Samos was reckoned
one of the finest cities of the world. Its
ruins are so considerable as to allow its plan
to be traced : there are remains of its walls
and towers, and of the theatre and aqueduct.

SAMOSATA {Somdsat), the capital of the
province, and afterwards kingdom, of Com-
magene, in the N. of Syria, stood on the
right bank of the Euphrates, N.W. of Edessa.
It is celebrated, in literary history, as the
birthplace of Lucian, and, in church history,
as that of the heretic Paul, bishop of Antioch,
in the 8rd century. Nothing remains of it
but a heap of ruins.

SAMOTHRACE (-6fl) and SAMOTHRACIA
(-ae : Samothrdki), a small island in the N.
of the Aegaean sea, opposite the mouth of the
Hebrus in Thrace, from which it was 38
miles distant. It is about 32 miles in cir-
cumference, and contains in its centre a lofty
mountain, called Saoce, from which Homei
says that Troy could be seen. Samothrace
was the chief seat of the worship of the
Cabiri [Cabiri], and was celebrated for its
religious mysteries, which were some of the
most famous in the ancient world. The



political history of Samothrace is of little
importance.

SAMPSICERAMUS (-i), the name of a
petty prince of Emesa in Syria ; a nickname
given by Cicero to Cn. Pompeius.

8ANCHUNIATH0N (-onis), said to have
been an ancient Phoenician writer, whose
works were translated into Greek by Philo By-
blius, who lived in the latter half of the 1 st cen-
tury of the Christian era. A considerable frag-
ment of the translation of Philo is preserved
by Eusebius in the first book of his Fr<u-
paraHo Hvangelica ; but it is now generally
agreed among modem scholars, that the work
was a forgery of Philo.

bANCUS, 8ANGUS, or SEMO SANCUS
(-i), a Roman divinity, said to have been
originally a Sabine god, and identical with
Hercules and Dius Fidius. The name, which
is etymologically the same as Sanctutf and
connected with Saneiref seems to justify this
belief, and characterises Sancus as a divinity
presiding over oaths. Sancus had a temple
at Rome, on the Quirinal, opposite that of
Quirinus, and close by the gate which de-
rived ftom him the name of SanqucUis porta.

SANDROCOTTUS (-i), an Indian king in
the time of Seleucus Nicator, ruled over the
powerful nation of the Gangaridae and Praaii
on the banks of the Ganges.

^SANGARIUS (.i), SANGARIS, or SX-
OARIS {Sakariyeh)^ the largest river of Asia
Minor after the Halys, had its source in a
mountain called Adoreus, near the little town
of Sangia, on the borders of Galatia and
Phrygia, whence it fiowed first N. through
Galatia, then W. and N.W. through the N.E.
part of Phrygia, and then N. through Bithy-
nia, of which it originally formed the E.
boundary. It fell at last into the tuxine,
about half way between the Bosporus and
Heraclea.

SANGIA. [Sanoaktos.]

SANNIO (-Snis), a name of the buffoon in
the mimes, derived from ganna, whence comes
the Italian ^nni (hence our Zany).

SANNYRION (-6nis), an Athenian comic
poet, flourished b.c. 407 and onwards. His
excessive leanness was ridiculed by Strattis
and Aristophanes.

SANTONES (-um) or SANTONI (-6rum),
a powerful people in Gallia Aquitanica, dwelt
on the coast of the ocean, N. of the Garumna.
Under the Romans they were a free people.
Their chief town was Mediolanum, afterwards
Santones {Saintea).

SAPAEI (-orum), a people in Thrace, dwelt
on Mt. Pangaeus, between the lake Bistonis
and the coast.

SAPIS (-is : 8avi6)y a small river in Gallia
Cisalpina, rising in the Apennines, and flow.



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SAPOR.



367



SARDINIA.



ing into the Adiiatic 8. of RaTenn{^ between
the Po and the Aternus.

SAPOR. [Sassamidae.]

SAPPHO (-us), one of the iwo great
leaders of the Aeolian school of lyric poetry
(AJcaeua being the other), was a native of
Mytilene, or, as some said, of Eresos in Lesbos.
Sappho was contemporary with Alcaeus, Stesi-
chorus, and Pittacus. That she was not only
contemporary, but lived in friendly inter-
course, with Alcaeus, is shown by existing
fragments of the poetry of both. Of the
events of her life we have no other informa-
tion than an obscure allusion in the Parian
Marble, and in Ovid {Her. xv. 51), to her
flight ft'om Mytilene to Sicily, to escape some
unknown danger, between 604 and 592 ; and
the common story that being in love with
Phaon, and finding her love unrequited, she
leapt down from the Leucadian rock. This
story, hpwever, seems to have been an inven-
tion of later times. At Mytilene Sappho
appears to have been the centre of a female
literary socie.ty, most of the members of
which were her pupils in poetry, fashion, and
gallantry. The ancient writers agree in ex-
pressing the most unbounded admiration for
her poetry. Her lyric poems formed 9 books,
but of these only fragments have come down
to us. The most important is a splendid ode
to Aphrodite (Venus), of which we perhaps
possess the whole.

SARANCAE, SARANGAE or -ES (-firum),
a people of Sogdiana.

SARDANAPALUS (-i), the last king of the
Assyrian empire of Ninus or Nineveh, noted
for his luxury, licentiousness, and effeminacy.
He passed his time in his palace unseen by
any of his subjects, dressed in female apparel,
and surrounded by concubines. At length
Arbaces, satrap of Media, and Belesys, the
noblest of the Chaldaean priests, resolved
to renounce allegiance to such a worthless
monarch, and advanced at the head of a for-
midable army against Nineveh. But all of a
sudden the effeminate prince threw off his
luxurious habits, and appeared an undaunted
warrior. Placing himself at the head of Ms
troops, he twice defeated the rebels, but was
at length worsted and obliged to shut him-
self up in Nineveh. Here he sustained a
siege for two years, till at length, finding it
impossible to hold out any longer, he collected
all his treasures, wives, and concubines, and
placing them on an immense pile which he
had constructed, set it on fire, and thus de-
stroyed both himself and them, b.o. 876.
This is the accoimt of Ctesias, which has been
preserved by Diodorus Siculus, and which
has been followed by most subsequent writers
and chronologists. Modem writers however



have shown that the whole narrative of Cte-
sias is mythical, and it is in direct contradic-
tion to Herodotus and the writers of the Old
Testament.

SARDI. ^[Saedinta.]

SARDINIA (-ae : Sardi: Sardinia) ^ a large
island in the Mediterranean, is in the shape
of a parallelogram, upwards of 140 nautical
miles in length from N. to S. with an
average breadth of 60. It was regarded
by the ancients as the largest of the Medi-
terranean islands, and this opinion, though
usually considered an error, is now found to
be correct ; since it appears by actual ad-
measurement that Sardinia is a little larger
than Sicily. Sardinia lies in almost a central
position between Spain, Gaul, Italy, and
Africa. A chain of mountains runs along
the whole of the E. side of the island from
N. to S. occupying about l-3rd of its surface.
These mountains were called by the ancients
Insani Montes, a name which they probably
derived from their wild and savage appear-
ance, and from their being the haunt of
numerous robbers. Sardinia was very fertile,
but was not extensively ciQtivated, in con-
sequence of the uncivilised character of its
inhabitants. Still the plains in the W. and
S. parts of the island produced a great
quantity of com, of which much was ex-
ported to Rome every year. Among the pro-
ducts of the island one of the most cele-
brated was the Sardonica herhay a poisonous
plant, which was said to produce fatal con-
vulsions in the person who ate of it. These
convulsions agitated and distorted the mouth
so that the person appeared to laugh, though
in excruciating pain ; hence the well-known
risu8 Sardonictts. Sardinia contained a large
quantity of the precious metals, especially
silver, the mines of which were worked in
antiquity to a great extent. There were
likewise numerous mineral springs ; and
large quantities of salt were manufactured
on the W. and S. coasts. — The population of
Sardinia was of a very mixed kind. To what
race the original inhabitants belonged we
are not informed ; but it appears that Phoe-
nicians, Tyrrhenians, and Carthaginians
settled in the island at 'different periods.
The Greeks are also said to have planted
colonies in the island, but this account is
very suspicious. Sardinia was known to th e
Greeks as early as b.c. 500, since we find
that Histiaeus of Miletus promised Darius
that he would render the island of Sardo
tributary to his power. It was conquered
by the Carthaginians at an early period,
and continued in their possession till the end
of the first Punic war. Shortly after this
event, the Romans availed themselves of the



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368



8ARPED0N.



langeroufl war which the Carthaginians were
carrying on against their mercenaries in
AMca, to take possession of Sardinia, b.c.
238. It was now formed into a Roman
province under the government of a praetor ;
but a large portion of it was only nominally
subject to the Romans ; and it was not till
after many years and numerous revolts, that
{he inhabitants submitted to the Roman
dominion. Sardinia continued to belong to
the Roman empire till the 5th century, when
it was taken possession of by the Vandals.

SARDlS (-is), or 8ARDES (-ium : Sar-
diftni : Sort, Ru.), one of the most ancient
and famous cities of Asia Minor, and the
capital of the great Lydian monarchy, stood
on the 8. edge of the rich valley of the
Hermus, at the N. foot of the Mt Tmolus, on
the little river Pactolus, 80 stadia (8 geog.
miles) S. of the junction of that river with
the fiermus. On a lofty precipitous rock,
forming an outpost of the range of Tmolus,
was the almost impregnable citadel, which
some suppose to "be the Hyde of Homer, who,



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