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legates, in the war against Jugurtha. Both
he and the consul took large bribes from the
Nimiidian king to obtain for him a favourable
peace, for which offence an indictment was
brought forward by C. Mamilius, the tribime
of the plebs ; but though Scaurus had been
one of the most guilty, such was his influence
in the state, that he contrived to be appointed
one of the three quaesitores, who were elected
imder the bill, for the purpose of prosecuting
the criminals. He thus secured himself, but
was imable to save any of his accomplices.
In 109, Scaurus was censor with M. Livius
Drusns. In his consulship he restored the
Milvian bridge, and constructed the Aemilian
road. In 107 he was elected consul a second
time, in place of L. Cassius Longinus. In
the struggles between the aristocratical and
popular parties, Scaurus was always a warm
supporter of the former. He died about 89.
— (2) M. AmiiLnjs Scaubus, eldest son of
the preceding, and stepson of the dictator
Sulla, served under Pompey as quaestor in
the third Mithridatic war. After this he
commanded an army in the East. He was
curule aedile in 58, when he celebrated the
public games with extraordinary splendour.
In 56 he was praetor, and in the following
year governed the province of Sardinia,
which he plundered without mercy. On his
return to Rome he was accused of the crime
of repetundae. He was defended by Cicero,
HortensiuB, and others, and was acquitted,
notwithstanding his guilt. He was accused
again in 52, under Pompey's new law against
ambitus, and was condemned. — (3) M. Ab-
MiLius SoAVKUS, son of No. 2, and Mucia,
the former wife of Pompey the triumvir, and
consequently the half-brother of Sex. Pompey.
He accompanied the latter into Asia, after
the defeat of his fleet in Sicily, but betrayed

him into the hands of the generals of M. An-
tonius, in 35. — (4) Mambrcus Aemiuus
ScAVRXTS, son of No. 3, was a distinguished
orator and poet, but of a dissolute character.
Being accused of majestas under Tiberius,
A.D. 34, he put an end to his own life.

SCELERATUS CAMPUS (-i), a place in
Rome, close to the Porta Collina, where ves-
tals who had broken their vows were en-
tombed alive.

SCENlTAE (-arum) (i.e. dwellen in tents),
the general name used by the Ghreeks for the
Bedawee (Bedouin) tribes of Arabia De-

SCEPSIS (prob. EskUUpsMy or Eslci.
Shupshe^ Ru.), an ancient city in the interior
of the Troad, S.E. of Alexandria, in the
mountains^of Ida.

SCHERIA. [Phabacks.]

SCIATHUS (-i : Skiatho), a small island in
the Aegaean sea, N. of Euboea and E. of the
Magnesian coast of Thessaly, with a town of
the same name upon it.

SCILLtS (-untis), a town of Elis in the
district Triphylia, on the river Selinus, 20
stadia S. of Olympia.

SCIOnE (-6s), the chief town in the
Macedonian peninsula of Pallene, on the W.

SCIPIO (-dnis), the name of an illustrious
patrician family of the Cornelia gens, said to
have been given to the founder of the family,
because he served as a staff in directing his
blind father. This family produced some of
the greatest men in Rome, and to them she
was more indebted than to any others for the
empire of the world. The family tomb of
the Scipios was discovered in 1780, and the
inscriptions and other curiosities are now
deposited in the Museo Pio-Clementino, at
Rome. — (1) P. CoRNELivs SciPio, magister
equitum, b.c. 396, and consular tribune 395,
and 394. — (2) L. Corn. Scipio, consul 350.
— (3) P. Corn. Scipio Barbatvs, consul
328, and dictator, 306. He was also pontifex
maximus. — (4) L. Corn. Scipio Barbatits,
the great great-grandfather of the conqueror
of Hannibal, consul 298, when he carried on
war against the Etruscans, and defeated them
near Volaterrae. — (5) Cn. Corn. Scipio
AsiNA, son of No. 4, was consul 260, in the
Ist Punic war, and a 2nd time in 254. — (6)
L. Corn. Scipio, also son of No. 4, was consul
259. He drove the Carthaginians out of
Sardinia and Corsica, defeating Hanno, the
Carthaginian commander. He was censor in
258. — \l) P. Corn. Scipio Asina, son of No.
5, was consul 221, and carried on war, with
his colleague M. Minucius Rufus, against the
Istri, who were subdued by the. consuls. —
(8) P. Corn. Scipio, son of No. 6, was consul.

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with Ti. Sempronins Longns, in 218, the Ist
year of the 2nd Punic war. He encountered
Hannibal, on his march into Italy, in Cisal.
pine Gaul ; but the Romans were defeated, the
consul himself received a scTere wound, and
was only saved from death by the courage of
Ms young son^ Publius, the fttture conqueror
of Hannibal. Scipio now retreated across the
Ticinus, crossed the Po also, first took up his
quarters at Placentia, and subsequently with-
drew to the hills on the left bank of the
Trebia, where he was joined by the other
consul, Sempronius Longus. The latter re.
solved upon a battle, in opposition to the
advice of his colleague. The result was the
complete defeat of the Boman army, which
was obliged to take refuge within the walls
of Placentia. In the following year 217,
Scipio, whose imperium had been prolonged,
crossed over into Spain; where, with his
brother Cneius, he made head against the
Carthaginians till 211, when they were de-
feated and slaiUk — (9) Ck. Cobn. Scipio
Calvits, son of No. 6, and brother of No. 8,
was oonisul 222, with M. Claudius Marcellus. —
(10) P. Corn. Scipio Afbicanvs Majok, son
of No. 8, was bom in 234. He was unques-
tionably one of the greatest men of Rome,
and he acquired at an early age the confi-
dence and admiration of his countrymen.
His enthusiastic mind led him to believe that
he was a special favourite of the gods ; and
he never engaged in any public or private
business without first going to the Capitol,
where he sat some time alone, enjoying com.
munication from the gods. He is first men-
tioned in 218 at the battle of the Ticinus,
when he saved the life of his father as has
been already related. He fought at Cannae
two years afterwards (216), when he was
already a tribune of the soldiers, and was one
of the few Roman officers who survived that
fatal day. He was chosen along with Appius
Claudius to command the remains of the
army, which had taken refuge at Canusium ;
and it was owing to his youthftil heroism and
presence of mind that the Roman nobles,
who had thought of leaving Italy in despair,
were prevented from carrying their rash
project into effect. He had already gained
the favour of the people to such an extent,
that he was elected aedile in 212, although
he had not yet reached the legal age. In
210, after the death of his father and undo
in Spain, Scipio, then barely 24, was chosen
with enthusiasm to take the command in
that country. His success was striking and
rapid. In the first campaign (210) he took
the important city of Carthago Nova, and in
the course of the next 3 years he drove the
Carthaginians entirely out of Spain. He

returned to Rome in 206, and was elected
consul for the following year (205), although
he had not yet filled the office of praetor, and
FM only 30 years of age. He was anxious
to cross over at once to Africa, and bring the
contest to an end at the gates of Carthage ;
and, after much opposition, obtained a fleet
and army for that purpose. After spending
the winter in Sicily, and completing all his
preparations for the invasion of Africa, he
crossed over to the latter country in the
course of the following year. Success again
attended his arms. The Carthaginians and
their ally Syphax were defeated with great
slaughter ; and the former were compelled to
recall Hannibal trom Italy as the only hope of
saving their country. ' The long stru^le
between the 2 peoples was at length brought
to a dose by the battle fought near the city of
Zama on the 19th of October, 202, in which
Scipio gained a decisive and brilliant victory
over Hannibal. Carthage had no alternative
but submission ; but the final treaty was not
concluded till the following year (201).
Scipio returned to Italy in 201, and entered
Rome in triumph. He was received with
universal enthusiasm, and the surname of
Afdcanus was conferred upon him. He took
no prominent part in public affairs during
the next few years. He was censor in 1 99 with
P. Aelius Paetus, and consul a second time
in 194 with Ti. Sempronius Longus. In 193,
he was one of the 8 commissioners who were
sent to AfHca to mediate between Masinissa
and the Carthaginians; and in the same
year he was one of the ambassadors sent to
Antioohus at Ephesus, at whose court Han-
nibal was then residing. In 190 Afdcanus
served as legate under his brother Lucius in
the war against Antioehus the Great. After
their return, Lucius and subsequently Afri-
canus himself, were accused of having
received bribes from Antioehus to let the
monaVoh off too leniently, and of having
appropriated to their own use part of the
money which had been paid by Antioohus to
the Roman state. The successful issue of the
prosecution of Lucius emboldened his enemies
to bring the great Afdcanus himself before
the people. His accuser was M. Naevius,
the tribune of the people, and the accusation
was brought in 185. When the trial came
on, and Africanus was summoned, he proudly
reminded the people that this was the anni-
versary of the day on which he had defeated
Hannibal at Zama, and called upon them to
follow him to the Capitol, in order there to
return thanks to the immortal gods, and to
pray that they would grant the Roman state
other cituEens like himself. Scipio struck a
chord which vibrated on every heart, and waa

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followed by crowds to the Capitol. Having
thus set all the laws at defiance, Soipio imme-
diately quitted Eome, and retired to his country
seat at Litumum. The tribunes wished to
renew the prosecution ; but Qracchus wisely
persuaded them to let it drop. Soipio never
returned to Rcmie. The year of his death is
uncertain; but he probably died in 183. —
(11) L. CoBN. SciFio AsiATicvs, also called
AsiAOBMXs or AsiAOBNUB, was the son of No.
8, and the brother of the gfnot AfHcanus.
He served under his brother in Spain ; was
praetor in 193, when he obtained the pro-
vince of Sicily ; and consul in 190, with C.
Laelius. He defeated Antiochus at Mt.
Bipylus, in 190, entered Eome in triuihph in
the following year, and assumed the surname
of Asiaticus. His accusation and condemna-
tion have been already related in the Ufe
of his brother. — (12) P. Cobn. Soipio Afbi-
CANvs, elder son ot the great Afiricanus, was
prevented by his weak health from taking
any part in public affairs. — (13) L. or Cn.
CofiN. Soipio Africantts, younger son of the
great Africanus. He accompanied his father
into Asia in 190, and was taken prisoner by
Antiochus. This Scipio was a degenerate
son of an illustrious sire. — (14) L. Corn.
SciFio Asiaticus, a descendant of No, 11,
belonged to the Marian party, and was consul
88 with C. Norbanufl.— "(15) P. Cobk. Scipio
Aemiliaiots Afbicakcs Minor, was the
youngftr son of L. Aemilius Paulus, the con-
queror of Macedonia, and was adopted by P.
Scipio [No. 12], the son of the ccmqueror of
Hannibal. He was bom about 185.* In his
17th year he accompanied his father Paulus
to Greece, and fought under him at the battle
of Pydna, 168. Scipio devoted himself with
ardour to the study of literature, and formed
an intimate friendship with Polybius and
Panaetius. He likewise admitted the poets
Lucilius and Terence to his intimacy, and is
said to have assisted the latter in the com-
position of his comedies. His friendship
with Laelius, whose tastes and pursuits were
{>o congenial to his own, has be^ immortal,
ised by Cicero's celebrated treatise entitled
•* Laelius, sive de Amicitia." Although thus
devoted to the study of polite literature,
Scipio is said to have cultivated the virtues
which distinguished the older Romans, and
to have made Cato the model of his conduct.
Scipio first served in Spain with great dis-
tinction as military tribime under the consul
L. Lucullus in 151. On the breaking out of
the 8rd Punie war in 149 he accompanied
the Roman army to Africa, again with the
rank of military tribune. Here he gained
stiU more renown. By his personal bravery
and military skill he repaired, to a great

extent, the mistakes of the consul Manillus,
whose army on one occasion he saved from
destruction. He returned to Rome in 148,
and had already gained such popularity that
when he became a candidate for the aedileship
for the following year (147) he was elected
consul, although he was only 37, and had
not therefore attained the legal age. The
senate assigned to him AfHca as his province
to which he forthwith sailed. He prosecuted
the siege of Carthage with the utmost vigour ;
and, in spite of ft desperate resistance, cap-
tured it in the spring of 146. After reducing
Africa to the form of a Roman province,
Scipio returned to Rome in the same yeai,
and celebrated a splendid triumph on account
of his victory. The surname of Africanus,
which he had inherited by ad(^tion bom the
conqueror of Hannibal, had been now ac
quired by him by his own exploits. In 142
Scipi(/was eensor, and in the administraticm
of the duties of Us office he attempted to
repress the growing luxury and immorality
of his contemporaries. In 139 Seipio was
accused by Ti. Claudius Asellus of majestas,
but acquitted. The speeches which he de-
livered on the occasion obtained great cele-
brity, and were held in high esteem in a
later age. It appears to have been after this
event that Scipio was sent on an embassy to
Egypt and Asia to attend to the Roman
interests in those countries. The long con-
tinuance of the war in Spain again called
Scipio to the consulsMp. He was appointed
consul in his absence, and had the province
of Spain assigned to him in 134. His opera-
tions were attended with success; and in
133 he brought the war to a conclusion by
the capture of the city of Numantia after a
long siege. He now received the surname
of Numantinus in addition to that of Afri-
canus. During his absence in Spain Tib.
Gracchus had been put to death. Scipio was
married to Sempronia, the sister of the fiOlen
tribune, but he had no sympathy with his
reforms, and no sorrow for his fate. Upon
his return to Rome in 1 82^ ^e took the lead in
opposing the popular i»rt^» and endeavoured
to prevent the agrarian law of Tib. Gracchus
from being carried into effect. In the disputes
that arose in consequenice, he was accused by
Carbo with the bitterest invectives as the
enemy of the people, and upon his again
expressing his approval of the death of Tib.
Gracchus, the people shouted out, ** Down
with the tyrant." In the evening he went
home with the intention of composing a
speech for the following day ; but next day he
was found dead in has room. He is supposed
to have been murdered, and Cicero mentions
Carbo as his assassin. — (16) P. Cork.

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Soipxo Nasioa, fhat is, " Soipio with the
pointed nose," was the son of On. Soipio
CalTQS, who feU in Spain in 311. [No. 9.]
He is first mentioned in 204 as a young man
who was judged by the senate to be the best
citizen in the state, and was therefore sent to
Ostia along with the Roman matrons to
reeeiye the statae of the Idaean Mother,
which had been brought firom Pessinos. He
was oorole aedile 196 ; praetor in 194, when
he fought with sncoees in Farther Spain ; and
consul 191, when he defeated the Boil, and
triumphed oyer them on his' return to Bome.
Scipio Nasica was a celebrated jurist, and a
house was given him by the state in the Via
Sacra, in order that he might be more easily
consulted. — (17) P. C!orn. Soipio Nasica
CioRCVLinf , son of No. ] 6, inherited fh>m his
father a love of jurispruience, and became
so celebrated for his discernment and for his
knowledge of the pontifical and civil law,
that he received the surname of Corculum,
He was elected pontifex maximus in 150. —

(18) P. Corn. Scipio Nasica Sbrapio, son of
No. 17, is chiefly known as the leader of the
senate in the murder of Tib. Gracchus. In
consequence of his conduct on this occasion
Nasica became an object of such detestation
to the people, that the senate found it advi.
sable to send him on a pretended mission to
Asia, although he was pontifex maximus,
and ought not, therefore, to have quitted
Italy. He did not venture to return to Bome,
and after wandering about fh>m place to
place, died soon afterwards at Pergamum.—

(19) P. Corn. Scipio Nasica, son of No. 18,
was consul 111, and died during his consul-
ship. — (20) P. Corn. Scipio Nasica, son of
No. 19, praetor 94. This Scipio became the
father-in-law of Cn. Pompey the triumvir,
and fell in Africa in 46. His life is given
under Metellus. — (21) Cn. Co&n. Scipio
HispALLus, son of L. Scipio who is only
known as a brother of the 2 Sclpios who
fell in Spain. Hispallus was praetor 179,
and consul 171. — (22) Cn. Corn. Soipio
Hispallus, son of No. 21, was praetor 139,
when he published an edict that all Chal-
daeans (i. e. astrologers) should leave Rome
and Italy within 10 days.

SClRITIS, a wild and mountainous district
in the N. of Laconia, on the borders of
Arcadia, with a town called Scntvs.
• SCIrON (-6nis), a fMnous robber who
infested the frontier between Attica and
Megaris. He not only robbed the travellers
who passed through the country, but com-
pelled them on the Scironian rock to wash
his feet, and kicked them into the sea, while
they were thus employed. At the foot of the
rook there was a tortoise, which devoured

the bodies of the robber's victims. He was
slain by Theseus.

SCIrONIA SAXA (-Orum : DerveniBouno),
large rocks on the £. coast of Megaris, between
which and the sea there was only a narrow
dangeroos pass, called the Scironian road. The
name of the rocks was derived f^om the
oelebrated robber Sciron.

SCODRA (-ae : Scodar or Scutari), one of
the most important towns in Illyricum, on
the left bank of the river Barbana, at the
S.E. comer of the Lacus Labeatis, and about
17 miles from the coast.


SCOMIUS (-i) MONS, a mountain in Mace-
donia, which runs E. of Mt. Scardus, in the
direction of N. to S. towards Mt. Haemus.

SC5paS (-ae). (1) An Aetolian, who held
a leading position among his countrymen at
the period of the outbrcMik of the war with
Philip and the Achaeans, b.c. 220 ; in the
first year of which he commanded the Aeto-
lian army. After the close of the war with
Philip, he withdrew to Alexandria. Here
he was received with the utmost favour by
the ministers of the young king, Ptolemy Y.,
and was appointed to the chief command of
the army against Antiochus the Great, but
was ultimately unsuccessful. Notwithstand-
ing this he continued in high favour at the
Egyptian court ; but having formed a plot in
196 to obtain by force the chief administra-
tion of the kingdom, he was arrested and put
to death. — (2) A distinguished sculptor and
architect, was a native of Pares, and appears
to have belonged to a family of artists in that
island. He flourished from b.c 395 to 350.
He was the architect of the temple of Athena
Alea, at Tegea, in Arcadia, which was
commenced soon after b.c. 394. He was one
of the artists employed in executing the has-
reliefs, which decorated the frieze of tiie
mausoleum at Halicamassus in Caria, a
portion of which is now deposited in the
British Museum. Among the single statues
and groups of Scopes, the best known in
modem times is his group of figures repre-
senting the ' destruction of the sons and
daughters of Niobe. But the most esteemed
oC all the works of Scopes, in antiquity, was
Us group representing Achilles conducted to
the island of Leuce by the divinities of the sea.
SCORDISCI (-drum), a people in Pannonis
Superior, are sometimes classed among the
niyrians, but were the remains of an anqient
and powerftd Celtic tribe. They dwelt
between the Savus and Dravus.

SCOTI (-drum), a people mentioned to«
gether with the Picri, by the later Roman
writers as one of the chief tribes of the
ancient Caledonians. They dwelt in the 8.

Digitized by





of Scotland and in Ireland ; and from them
the former country has derived its name.

SCOTUSSA (-ae), a very ancient town of
Thessaly, in the district Felasgiotis, near the
source of the Onchestus.

SCRIBONIA (-ae), wife of Octavianus,
afterwards the emperor Augustus, had been
married twice before. By one of her former
husbands, P. Scipio, she had two children,
P. Scipio, who was consul, b.c. 16, and a
daughter, (Tomelia, who was married to
Paulus Aemilius Lepidus, censor b.c. 22.
Scribonia was the sister of L. Scribonius
Libo, who was the father-in-law of Sex.
Pompey. Augustus married her in 40, on
the advice of Maecenas, because he was then
afraid that Sex. Pompey would form an
alliance with Antony to crush him; but
having renewed his alliance with Antony,
Octavian divorced her in the following year
(39), on the very day on which she had
borne him a daughter, Julia, in order to marry
Livia. Scribonia long survived her separation
from Octavian. In a.d. 2 she accompanied,
of her own accord, her daughter Julia into
exile to the island of Pandataria.




8CULTENNA (-ae : Panaro)^ a river in
Oallia Cispadana, rising in the Apennines,
and flowing to the £. of Mutina into the Po.

SCtLACIUM, also SCtLACfiUM, or
SCYLLETIUM (-i : Squillace)^ a Greek town
on the £. coast of Bruttium, was situated on
2 adjoining hills at a short distance from the
ooast, between the rivers Caecinus and Car-
dnes. Prom this town the Scylacixjs or
ScTLLETiCTJS SiNiTs, derived its name.

SCtLAX (-acis). (1) Of Caryanda in
Caria, was sent by Darius Hystaapis on a
voyage of discovery down the Indus. Setting
out from the city of Caspatyrus and the
Pactyican district, Scylax reached the sea,
and then sailed W. through the Indian
Ocean to the Red Sea, performing the whole
voyage in 30 months. There is still extant
a Peripltis bearing the name of Scylax, but
which could not have been written by the
subject either of this or of the following
article. — (2) Of Halicamassus, a friend of
Panaetius, distinguished for his knowledge
of the stars, and for his political influence in
his own state.

SCYLLA (-ae) and CHXrYBDIS (-is), the
names of two rocks between Italy and Sicily.
In the one nearest to Italy was a cave, in
which dwelt Scylla, a daughter of Crataeis,
a fearful monster, barking like a dog, with
12 feet, and six long necks and heads, each
of which contained 3 rows of sharp teeth.

The opposite rock, which was much lower,
contained an immense fig-tree, under which
dwelt Charybdis, who thrice every day swal-
lowed down the waters of the sea, and thrice
threw them up again. This is the Homeric
account ; but later traditions give diflferent
accounts of Scylla's parentage. Hercules is
said to have killed her, because she stole
some of the oxen of Geryon ; but Phorcys is
said to have restored her to life. Virgil
(Aen.f vi. 286) speaks of several Scyllae, and
places them in the lower world. Charybdis
is described as a daughter of Poseidon (Nep.
tune) and Oaea (Tellus), and as a voracious
woman, who stole oxen from Hercules, and
was hurled by the thunderbolt of Zeus (Ju-
piter) into the s^a.

Scylla. (From a Coin of Agrigentum.)

SCYLLA (-ae), daughter of king Nisus uf
Megara, who fell in love with Minos. [Nisus,
and Minos.]

SCYLLAEUM (-i). (1) (Scigilo), a pro-
montory on the coast of Bruttium, at the N.
entrance to the Sicilian straits, where the
monster Scylla was supposed to live. [Scylla.]
— (2) {Scilla or Seiglio), a town in Bruttium,
on the above-named promontory. There are
still remains of the ancient citadel. — (3) A
promontory in Argolis, on the coast of
Troesen, forming, with the promontory of
Sunium in Attica, the entrance to the Saronic


SCYLLETIUM. [Sctlacitm.]

SCYMNUS (-i), of Chios, wrote a Periegens,
or description of the earth, in prose, and
which is consequently different from the
Periegesis in Iambic metre, which has oomv
down to us.

SCYROS (-i: Seyro), an island in the
Aegaean sea, E. of Euboea, and one of the
Sporades. Here Thetis concealed her son
Achilles in woman's attire among the daugh>
ters of Lycomedes, and here also Pyrrhus,

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