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excellent oil. Its almonds and its fish were
also much prized. Its chief town was
SicTON, which was situated a little to the
W. of the river Asopus, and at the distance
of 20, or, according to others, 12 stadia
from the sea. Sicyon was one of the most
ancient cities of Greece. It is said to have
been originally called Aegialea or Aegiali,
after an ancient king, Aegialeus ; to have
been subsequentiy named Mecone, and finally
Sicyon, from an Athenian of this name.
Sicyon is represented by Homer as forming
part of the empire of Agamemnon ; but on
the invasion of Peloponnesus it became sub-
ject to Phalces, the son of Temenus, and was
henceforward a Dorian state. Sicyon, on
account of the small extent of its territory,
never attained much political importance,
and was generally dependent either on Argos
or Sparta. At the time of the 2nd Messenian
war it became subject to a succession of
tyrants, who administered their power with
moderation and justice for 100 years. On
the death of Clisthenes, the last of these,
about 576, a republican form of government
was established. Sicyon was for a long time
the chief seat of Grecian art. It gave its
name to one of the great schools of painting,
which was founded by Eupompus, and which
produced Pamphilus and Apelles. It is also
said to have been the earliest school of
statuary in Greece; but its earliest native
artist ot celebrity was Canachus. Lysippus
was also a native of Sicyon. The town was
likevise celebrated for the taste and skill
displayed in the various articles of dress
made by its inhabitants, among which we
find mention of a particular kind of shoe,
which was much prized in all parts of

SIDA, sIdE (-ae or -§s). (1) {JEski Adalia,
Ru.), a city of Pamphylia, on the coast, a
little W. of the river Melas. It was an
Aeolian colony from Cyme in Aeolis, and
was a chief seat of the worship of Athena
(Minerva), who is represented on its coins
holding a pomegranate {(rihii) as tiie emblem
of the city. — (2) The old name of Pole-


SLDICINI (-5rum), an Ausonian people in
the N 'w. of Campania and on the borders of
Samnium, who, being hard pressed by the
Samnites, united themselves to the Campa-
nians. Their chief town was Teanum.

SIDON (-Onis and -5nis), (0. T. Tsidon or,
in the English form, Zidon: Saida^ Ru.),
for a long time the most powerful, and
probably the most ancient, of the cities of
Phoenice. It stood in a plain about a mile
wide, on the coast of the Mediterranean, 200
ot 2

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stadia (20 geog. miles) N. of Tyre, 400 stadia
(40 geog. miles) S. of Berytus, 66 miles W.
of Damascus, and a day's journey N.W. of
the source of the Jordan at Faneas. It had
a fine double harbour, now almost filled with
sand ; and was strongly fortified. It was
the chief seat of the maritime power of
Phoenice, until eclipsed by its own ooloby,
Tyre [Trars] ; and its power on the land
side seems to have extended over all Phoenice,
and at one period (in the time of the Judges)
over at least a part of Palestine. In the
time of David and Solomon, Sidon appears
to have been subject to the king of Tyre.
It probably regained its former rank, as the
first of the Phoenician cities, by its submission
to Shalmanezer at the time of the Assyrian
conquest of Syria, for we find it governed by
its own king under the Babylonians and the
Persians. In the expedition of Xerxes
against Greece, the Sidonians furnished the
best ships in the whole fieet, and their king
obtained the highest place, next to Xerxes,
in the council, and above the king of Tyre.
Sidon received the great blow to her pros-
perity in the reign of Artaxerxes III. Ochus,
when the Sidonians, having taken part in the
revolt of Phoenice and Cyprus, and being
betrayed to Ochus by their own king, Tennes,
burnt themselves with their city, b.c. 351.
In addition to its commerce, Sidon was famed
for its manufactures of glass.

SIdONIUS (-i) APOLLINiRIS (-is), was
born at Lugdunum {Lyons) about a.b. 431.
He was raised to the senatorial dignity by
the emperor Avitus, whose daughter he had
married. After the downfal of Avitus he lived
some time in retirement ; but in 467 appeared
again in B^me as ambassador from the
Arverni to Anthemius. He gained the favour
of that prince by a panegyric ; was made a
patrician, and prefect of the city ; and soon
afterwards, though not a priest, bishop of
Clermont in Auvergne. His extant works
are some poems, and 9 books of letters.

SIGA, a considerable sea-port town of
Mauretania Caesariensis.

SIGEUM (-i : TenisJieri)^ the N.W. pro-
montory of the Troad, and the S. headland
at the entrance of the Hellespont. It is here
that Homer places the Grecian fieet and camp
during the Trojan war. Near it was a seaport
town of the same name.

SIGN i A (-ae : Segni)^ a town in Latium
on the £. side of the Volscian mountains,
founded by Tarquinius Priscus. It was cele-
brated for its temple of Jupiter Urius, for its
astringent wine, for its pears, and for a par-
ticular kind of pavemcQt for the fioors of
houses, called optu SUgninum.

SUA SILVA (-ae : Sila\ a large forest in

Bruttium on the Apennines, extending S. ol
Consentia to the Sicilian straits.

SILANION, an Athenian, a distinguished
statuary in bronze, was a contemporary of
Lysippus, and fiourished b.c. 324. His statue
of Sappho, which stood in the prytaneum at
Syracuse in the time of Verres, is alluded to
by Cicero in terms of the highest praise.

SILANUS (-i), JtJNIUS. (1) M., was
praetor b.c. 212. In 210 he accompanied P.
Scipio to Spain, and served under him with
great distinction during the whole of the war
in that country. He fell in battle against
the BoU in 196.— (2) M., consul 109, fought
in this year against the Cimbri In Transalpine
Gaul, and was defeated. He was accused
in consequence, in 104, by the tribune Cn.
Domitius Ahenobarbus, but acquitted. —
(3) D., stepfather of M. Brutus, the murderer
of Caesar, having married his mother Servilia.
He was consul 62, with L. Licinius Murena,
along with whom he proposed the Lex Lidnia
Julia. — (4) M., son of No. 3 and of Servilia,
served in Gaid as Caesar's legatus in 53.
After Caesar's murder in 44, he accompanied
M. Lepidus over the Alps ; and in the fol-
lowing year Lepidus sent him with a detach-
ment of troops into Cisalpine Gaul, where
he fought on the side of Antony. He was
consul in 25.

SILARUS (-1: 8ilaro\ a river in lower
Italy, forming the boundary between Lu-
cania and Campania, rises in the Apennines,
and falls into the Sinus Paestanus a little to
the N. of Paestum.

SIl£NUS (-i). It is remarked in the
article Sattbi that the older Satyrs were ge-
nerally termed Sileni ; but one of these Sileni
is commonly the Silenus, who always accom-
panies Dionysus (Bacchus), whom he is said
to have brought up and instructed. Like the
other Satyrs, he is called a son of Hermes
(Mercury) ; but some make him a son of Pan
by a nymph, or of Gaea (Tellus). Being the
constant companion of Dionysus, he is said,
like the god, to have been born at Nysa.
Moreover, he took part in the contest with
the Gigantes, and slew Enceladus. He is de-
scribed as a jovial old man, with a bald head,
a puck nose, fat and round like his wine-bag,
which he always carried with him, and gene-
rally intoxicated. As he could not trust his
own legs, he is generally represented riding
on an ass, or supported by other Satyrs. In
every other respect he is described as re-
sembling his brethren in their love of sleep,
wine, and music. He is mentioned along
with Marsyas and Olympus as the inventor
of the flute, which he is often seen playing ;
and a special kind of dance was called after
him, Silenus, whUe he himself is designated

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as the dancer. But it is a peculiar featrtre
in hia character that he was an inspired
prophet ; and when he was drunk and asleep

Sileuua. (From a Bronu; Statue found at Pompeii.)

he was in the power of mortals who might
compel him to prophesy and sing by sur-
rounding him with chains of flowers.

SlLIUS ITALICUS (-i), C, a Roman poet,
was horn about a.d. 25. He acquired great
reputation as an advocate, and was afterwards
one of the Centumviri. He was consul in
08, the year in which Nero perished ; he was
admitted to familiar intercourse with Vitel-
Uus, and was subsequently proconsul of Asia.
In his 75th year, in consequence of the pain
caused by an incurable disease, he starved
})imself to death, in the house once occupied
by Virgil. The great work of Silius Italicus
was an heroic poem in 17 books, entitled
Punicay which has descended to us entire.

SILCrES (-um), a powerful people in
Britain, inhabiting South WaleSy long offered
a formidable resistance to the Romans, and
afterwards to the Saxons.

SILVANUS (-i), a Latin divinity of the
fields and forests. He is also called the
protector of the boundaries of fields. In
connexion with woods {sylvestru deus)^ he
especially presided over plantations, and
delighted in trees g^rowing wild ; whence he
Is represented as carrying the trunk of a
cypress. Silvanus is further described as
the divinity protecting herds of cattle, pro-
moting their fertility, and driving away
wolves. Later writers identified Silvanus
with Pan, Faunus, Inuus, and Aegipan. In
the Latin poets, as well as in works of art,
he always appeals as an old man, but cheerfUl

and in love with Pomona. The sacrifices
offered to him consisted of grapes, ears of
com, milk, meat, wine, and pigs.

SILViUM (-i), a town of the Peucetii in
Apulia on the borders of Lucania, 20 mUes
S.E. of Venusia.

SILYIUS (.i), the son of Ascanius, is said
to have been so caUed because he was bom
in a wood. All the succeeding kings of Alba
bore the cognomen Silvius.

SIMMUs (-ae) . (1) Of Thebes, first the dis-
ciple of the Pythagorean philosopher Philo-
laiis, and afterwards the fHend and disciple of
I Socrates, at whose death he was present. Sim-
mias wrote 23 dialogues on philosophical sub-
jects, all of which are lost.

SIMOIS (-entis). [Teoas.] As a mytho-
logical personage, the river-god Simois is the
son of Oceanus and Tethys, and the father of
Astvochus and Hieronmeme.

SIMON (-dnis), one of the disciples of
Socrates, and by trade a leather-cutter.

SIMONIDES (-is.) (1) Of Amorgos, was
the 2nd, both in time and in reputation, of
the 3 principal iambic poets of the early
period of Greek literature, namely, Archilo-
chus, Simonides, and Hipponax. He was
a native of Samos, whence he led a colony to
the neighbouring island of Amorgos. He
flourished about b.o. 664. — (2) Of Ceos, one
of the most celebrated lyric poets of Greece,
was bom at lulls, in Ceos, b.o. 556, and was
the son of Leoprepes. He appears to have
been brought up to music and poetry as a
profession. From his native island he pro-
ceeded to Athens, and thence into Thessaly,
where he lived under the patronage of the
Aleuads and Scopads. He afterwards re-
tumed to Athens, and in 489 conquered
Aeschylus in the contest for the prize which
the Athenians offered for an elegy on those
who feU at Marathon. He composed several
other works of the same description ; and in
his 80th year his long poetical career at
Athens was crowned by the victory which he
gained with the dithyrambio chorus (447),
being the 56th prize which he had carried
off. Shortly after this he was invited to
Syracuse by Hiero, at whose court he lived
till his death in 467. He still continued,
when at Syracuse, to employ his muse oc-
casionally in the service of other Grecian
states. He made literature a profession, and
is said to have been the first who took mone>
for his poems.' The chief characteristics of
the poetry of Simonides were sweetness
(whence his surname of Meliceries) and ela-
borate finish, combined with the tmest poetic
conception and perfect power of expression ;
though in originality and fervour he was fv
inferior, not only to the early If no poets,

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•uch as Sappho and Alcaeiu, bat also to his
contemporary Pindar,

SDdPLICIUS (.i), one of the last philo.
iophers of the Neo>Platonic school, was a
native of Cilicia and a disciple of Ammonius
and Damascius. In consequence of the per-
secations, to which the pagan philosophers
were exposed in the reign of Justinian,
Simplicius was one of the 7 philosophers
who took refuge at the court of the Persian
king Chosroes. He returned home about
543. Simplicius wrote commentaries on
t«eyeral of Aristotle's works, which are
marked by sound sense and real learning.
He also wrote a conunentary on the Enchi-
ridion of Epictetus, which is likewise extant.

SINAE (.arum), the £..most people of
Asia. Ptolemy describes their country as
bounded on the N. by Serica, and on the S.
and W. by India extra Gangem. It cor.
responded to the S. part of Cfhma and the E.
part of the Burmese peninsula,

SINAI or 8INA (Jebel-et-Tur), a cluster
of dark, lofty, rocky mountains in the S.
angle of the triangular peninsula enclosed
between the 2 heads of the Bed Sea, and
bounded on the N. by the deserts on the
borders of Egypt and Palestine. The name,
which signifies a region of broken and cleft
rockSy is used in a wider sense for the whole pe-
ninsula, which formed a part of Arabia Petraea,
and was peopled, at the time of the Exodus,
by the Amalekites and Midianites, and after-
wards by the Nabathaean Arabs. Sinai' and
Horeb in the O. T. are both general names
for the whole group, the former being used
in the first 4 books of Moses, and the latter
in Deuteronomy. The summit on which the
law was given was probably that on the N.,
or the one usually called Horeb.

SINDI (-drum). (1) A people of Asiatic
Sarmatia, on the E. coast of the Euxine, and
at the foot of the Caucasus. They are also
mentioned by the names of Simdonss and
SiNDiANA. — (2) A people on the £. coast of
India extra Gangem (in Ooehin C^ina), also
called SiMDAB, and with a capital city, Sinsa.


SINGABA (-6rum: Sity'arf), a strongly
fortified city and Roman colony in the in-
terior of Mesopotamia, 84 Boman miles S. of


SINGUS (4), a town in l^Iacedonia on the
E. coast of the peninsula Sithonia, which gave
its name to the Sinus Singiticus.

SINIS or 8INNIS (-is), son of Polyp6mon,
Pemon or Poseidon (Neptune), by Sylea, the
daughter of C!orinthus. He was a robber,
who frequented the isthmus of Corinth, and
killed the travellers whom he captured, by

fastening them to the top of a fir-tree, which
he bent, and then let spring up again. He
himself was killed in this manner by Theseus.

8IN0N (-dnis), son of Aesimus, or, ac-
cording to Virgil {Aen,f iL 79), of Sisjfphus,
and grandson of AutJilf ous, was a relation of
Ulysses, whom he accompanied to Troy. He
allowed himself to be taken prisoner by the ,
Trojans, and then persuaded them to admit
into their city a wooden horse filled with
armed men, which the Greeks had constructed
as a ptetended atonement for the PalladiunL
The Trojans believed the deceiver, and
dragged the horse into the city ; whereupon
Sinon in the dead of night let the Greeks out
of the horse, who thus took Troy.

SINOpE (-es; Sinape^ Sinoub, Ru.), the
most important of all the Greek colonies
on the shores of the Euxine, stood on the
N. coast of Asia Minor, on the W. head-
land of the great bay of which the delta of
the river Halys forms the E. headland, ana
a little E. of the N.-most promontory of Asia
Minor. It appears in history as a very
early colony of the Milesians. Having been
destroyed hi the invasion of Asia by the
Cimmerians, it was restored by a new colony
trom Miletus, b.c. 632, and soon became the
greatest commercial city on the Euxine. Its
territory, called Sinopis, extended to the
banks of the Halys. It was the birthplace
and residence of Mithridates the Great, who
enlarged and beautified it. Shortly before
the murder of Julius Caesar, it was colonised
by the name of Julia Caesarea Felix Sinope,
and remained a fiourishing city, though it
never recovered its former importance. At
the time of Constantino it had declined so
much as to be ranked second to Amasia. It
was the native city of the renowned cynic
philosopher Diogenes, of the comic poet
Diphilus, and of the historian Baton.

SINtIcA, a district in Macedonia, Inha-
bited by the Thracian people Sinti, extended
E. of Crestonia and N. of Bisaltia as far as
the Strymon and the lake Prasias. Its chief
town was Heraclea Sintica.

SINOeSSA (-ae : Itocca di Mandragone)^
the last city of Latium on the confines of
Campania, to which it originally belonged,
was situated on the sea-coast and on the
Via Appia. It was colonised by the Romans,
together with the neighbouring town of
Mintumae, b.c. 296. It possessed a good
harbour, and was a place of considerable
commercial importance. In its neighbour-
hood were celebrated warm baths, called


SIGN. [Jerusalbm.]
8IPHNUS (-i : Siphno), an island In thi
Aegaean sea, forming one of the Cyclades..

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S.E. of Seriphus. It is of an oblong form,
and about 40 miles in circumference. Its
original name was Merope ; and it was colo-
nised by lonlans from Athens. In conse-
quence of their gold and silver mines, of
which the remains are still visible, the
Siphnians attained great prosperity, and
were regarded in the time of Herodotus as
ihe wealthiest of the islanders. Siphnus was
one of the few islands which refused tribute
to Xerxes ; and one of its ships fofight on
the side of the Greeks at Salamis. The moral
character of the Siphnians stood low, and
hence to act like a Siphnian {^pttiiut) be-
came a term of reproach.

SIPONTUM or SIPUNTUM (-i : Siponto),
called by the Greeks Sipus (-untis), an ancient
town in Apulia, in the district of Daunia,
on the S. slope of Mt. Garganus, and on the
coast. It is said to have been founded by
Diomede, and was of Greek origin. It was
colonised by the Romans, under whom it
became a place of some commercial im-

SIPtLUS (-i : SipuluDagh), a mountain
of Lydia, in Asia Minor. It is a branch of
the Tmolus, from the main chain of which it
proceeds N.W. along the course of the river
Hermus, as far as Magnesia and Sipylum.
It is mentioned by Homer. The fmcient
capital of Maeonia was said to have been
situated in the heart of the mountain chain,
and to have been called by the same name ;
but it was early swallowed up by an earth-
quake, and its site became a little lake called
Sale or Saloe, near which was a tumulus,
supposed to be the grave of Tantalus. The
mountain was rich in metals, and many mines
were worked in it.

SmBONIS LACUS {Sabdkat Bardowal), a
large and deep lake on the coast of Lower
Egypt, E. of Mt. Casius. Its circuit was
1000 stadia. It was strongly impregnated
with asphaltus.

SIRENES (-um), sea-nymphs who had the
power of charming by their songs all who
heard them. When Ulysses came near the
island, on the beach of which the Sirens were
sitting, and endeavouring to allure him and
his companions, he stufifed the ears of his
companions with wax, and tied himself to
the mast of his vessel, imtil he was so far off
that he could no longer hear the Sirens' song.
According to Homer, the island of the Sirens
was situated between Aeaea and the rock of
Scylla, near the S.W. coast of Italy ; but the
Roman poets place them on the Campanian
coast. Some state that they were 2 in
number, Aglaopheme and ThelxiepTa ; and
others, that there were 3, Pisinoe, Aglaope,
and ThelxiepTa, or Parthenope, Ligia, and

Leucosia. They are called daughters of
Phorcus, of Ach^ous and Ster5pe, of Terpsi-
ch5re, of MelpomSne, of Calliope, or of Gaea.
The Sirens are also connected with the
legends of the Argonauts and the rape of
PersephSne. When the Argonauts sailed by
the Sirens, the latter began to sing, but in
vain, for Orpheus surpassed them ; and as it
had been decreed that they should live only
till some one hearing their song should pass
by unmoved, they threw themselves into the
sea, and were metamorphosed into rocks.

SIREnUSAE (-firum), called by Virgil
{Aen, V. 864) Sibsnum Scopuu, 3 small unin-
habited and rocky islands near the S. side of
the Prom. Misenum, off the coast of Campania,
which were, accord^g to tradition, the abode
of the Sirens.

SIRIS (-is). (1) {Sinno), a river in Lucania
flowing Into the Tareutine gulf. — (2) {Torre
di Senna)f an ancient Greek town in Lucania
at the mouth of the preceding river.

SIRMIO (-onis : Sirmione), a beautifal
promontory on the S. shore of the Lacus
Ben&cus {Logo di Oarda), on which Catullus
had an estate.

SIRMIUM (-1: JIIitrovitz)t an important
city in Pannonia Inferior, was situated on
the left bank of the Savus. It was founded
by the Taurisci, and under the Romans
became the capital of Pannonia, and the
head-quarters of all their operations in their
wars against the Dacians and the neighbour,
ing barbarians.

SISAPON (-5ni8 : Almaden in the Sierra
Morena), an important town in Hispania
Baetica N. of Corduba.

SISCIA (-ae: Sissek), called Sxobsta by
Appian, an important town in Pannonia
Superior, situated upon an island formed by
the rivers Savus, Colapis, and Odra, and or.
the road from Aemona to Sirmium.

SiSENNA (-ae), L. CORNELIUS, a Roman
annalist, was praetor in the year when Sulln
died (B.C. 78), and probably obtained Sicily
for his province in 77. During the piratica
war (67) he acted as the legate of Pompey,
and having been despatched to Crete in com.
mand of an army, died in that island at the
age of about 52. His g^reat work was a
history of his own time, but he also translated
the Milesian fables of Aristides, and composed
a commentary upon Plautus.

SISYGAMBIS (-is), mother of Darius
Godomannus, the last king of Persia, fell into
the hands of Alexander, after the battle of
Issus, B.C. 838, together with the wife and
daughters of Darius. Alexander treated
these captives with the greatest generosity
and kindness, and displayed towards Sisy-
gambis, in particular, a reverence and deli.

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cacy of condact, which is one of the brightest
ornaments of his character. After his death
she put an end to her life by voluntary

SiStPHUS (-i), son of Aeftlus and Enarete,
whence he is called Aeolldes, He was
married to Merfipe, a daughter of Atlas or a
Pleiad, and became by her the father of
Glaucus, Omytion (or Porphyrion), Thersan-
der and Halmns. In later accounts he is
also called a son of Autolj^cus, and the father

of Ulysses by Antidea [Aimci^A] ; whenoe
we find Ulysses sometimes called Sisyphides.
He is said to have built the town of Ephyra,
afterwards Corinth. As king of Corinth he
promoted navigation and commerce, but he
was ft-andulent, avaricious, and deceitful.
His wickedness during life was severely
punished in the lower world, where he hatl
to roll up hill a huge marble block, which as
soon as it reached the top always rolled down

SUyphus, Ixion, and Tantalus. (Bartoli, Sepolc. Ant^ tav. 56.)

SITACE or SITTACfi (-Ss : EakuBagdad,
Ru.), a great and populous city of Babylonia,
near but not on the Tigris, and 8 parasangs
within the Median wall. Its probable site is
marked by a ruin called the Tower of Nimrod.
It gave the name of Sittacene to the district
on the lower course of the Tigris, E. of
Babylonia and N.W. of Susiana.

SITHONLa. (-ae), the central one of the 3
peninsulas running out from Chulcidice in
Macedonia, between the Toronaic and Singitic
gulfs. The Thracians were originally spread
over the greater part of Macedonia ; and the
ancients derived the name of Sithonia from
a Thracian king, Sithon. We also find men-
tion of a Thracian people, Sithonii, on the
shores of the Pontus Euzinus ; and the poets
frequently use Sithonia and Sithonius in the
general sense of Thracian.

S1T0NE8 (-urn), a German tribe in Scan-
dinavia, belonging to the race of the Suevi.

SITTIUS or SITIUS (4), P., of Nuceria
in Campania, was connected with Catiline,
and went to Spain in b.c. 64, from which
country he crossed over into Mauretania in
the following year. He Joined Caesar when
the latter came to Aftica, In 46, to prosecute

the war against the Pompeian party. He
was of great service to Caesar, in this war,
and at its conclusion was rewarded by him
with the western part of Numidia, where he
settled, distributing the land among his

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