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soldiers. After the death of Caesar, Arabio,
the son of Masinissa, returned to Africa, and
killed Sittius by stratagem.

SMARAGDUS MONS {Jekel Zaburah)^ a
mountain of Upper Egypt, near the coast of
the Red Sea, N. of Berenice. It obtained its
name from its extensive emerald mines.

SMERDIS, the son of Cyrus, was mur-
dered by order of his brother CambJ-ses. A
Magian, named PatizTthcs, who had been
left by Cambyses in charge of his palace and
treasures, availed himself of the likeness of
his brother to the deceased Smerdis, to pro-
claim this brother as king, representing him
as the younger son of Cyrus. Cambyses
heard of the revolt in Syria, but he died of
an accidental wound in the thigh, as he was
mounting his horse to march against the
usurper. The false Smerdis was acknow-
I edged as king by the Persians, and reigned
for 7 months without opposition. The fraud
was discovered by Phaedima, who had been

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one of the wives of Cambyses, and had been
transferred to his successor. She com-
municated it to her father, Otanes, who
thereupon formed a conspiracy, and in con-
junction with 6 other noble Persians,
succeeded in forcing* his way into the palace,
where they slew the false Smerdis and his
brother Patizlthes in the 8th month of their
reign, 521.

SMINTHEU8 (-CiJs, »!, or 6i), a surname
of Apollo, which is derived by some from
fffjut&o(^ a mouse, and by others from the town
of Sminthe in Troas. The mouse was re-
garded by the ancients as inspired by the
vapours arising from the earth, and as the
symbol of prophetic iwwer.

SMYRNA, or MYRRHA. [Adonis.]
SMYRNA and in many MSS. ZMYRNA
(-ae : Smyrna^ Turk. Izmir)^ one of the
most ancient and flourishing cities of Asia
Minor, and the only one of the great cities
on its W. coast which has survived to this
day, stood in a position alike remarkable
for its beauty and for other natural advan-
tages. Lying just about the centre of the
W. coast of Asia Minor ; on the banks of the
little river Meles, at the bottom of a deep
bay, the Sinus Hermaeus or Smymaeus [O,
of Smyrna), which formed a safe and immense
harbour for the largest ships up to the very
walls of the city; at the foot of the rich
slopes of Tmolus and at the entrance to the
great and fertile valley of the Hermus, in
which lay the great and wealthy city of
Sardis; and in the midst of the Greek
colonies on the £. shore of the Aeagean ; it
was marked out by nature as one of the
greatest emporiums for the trade between
Europe and Asia, and has preserved that
character to the present day.' There are
various accounts of its origin. The most
probable is that which represents it as an
Aeolian colony from Cyme. At an early period
it fell, by a stratagem, into the hands of the
lonians of Colophon, and remained an Ionian
tfity from that time forth : this appears to
have happened before 01. 23. (b.c. 688). Its
early history is very obscure. This much is
clear, however, that, at ^ome period the old
dty of Smyrna, which stood on the N.E. side
of the Hermacon Gulf, was abandoned ; and
Uiat it was succeeded by a new city on the
8.E. side of the same gulf (the present site),
which is said to have been built by Antigonus,
and which was enlarged and beautified by
Lysimachus. This new city stood partly on
the sea-shore and partly on a hill called
Mastusia. The city soon became one of tiie
greatest and most prosperous in the world.
It was especially favoured by the Romans on
account of the aid it rendered them in the

Syrian and Mithridatic wars. It was the
seat of a conventus juridicus. In the Civil
wars it was taken and partly destroyed by
Dolabella, but it soon recovered. It occupies
a distinguished place in the early history of
Christianity, as one of the only two among
the 7 churches of Asia which St. John ad-
dresses, in the Apocalypse, without any
admixture of rebuke, and as the scene of the
labours and martyrdom of Polycarp. There
are but few ruins of the ancient city. In
addition to all her other sources of renown,
Smyrna stood at the head of the cities which
claimed the birth of Homer. The poet
was worshipped as a hero in a magnificent
building called the HomerSum.

SMYRNAEUS SINUS ((?. of Ismir or
Smyrna), the great gulf on the W. coast of
Asia Minor, at the bottom of which Smyrna

SOCRATES (-is). (1) The celebrated
Athenian philosopher, was bom in the demue
Aldp^ce, in the immediate neighbourhood of
Athens, b.c. 469. His father Sophroniscus
was a statuary ; his mother Phaena^Ste was
a midwife. In his youth Socrates followed the
profession of his father, and attained suf-
ficient proficiency to execute the group of
clothed Graces which was preserved in the
Acropolis, and was shown as his work down
to the time of Pausanias. The personal
qualities of Socrates were marked and striking.
His physical constitution was healthy, robust,
and enduring to an extraordinary degree.
He was capable of bearing fatig^ue or hard-
ship, and indifferent to heat or cold, in n
measure which astonished all his companions.
He went barefoot in all seasons of the year,
even during the winter campaign at Potidaea,
under the severe frosts of Thrace ; and the
same homely clothing sufiiced for him in
winter as well as in summer. His ugly
physiognomy excited the jests both of his
friends and enemies, who inform us that he-
had a fiat nose, thick lips, and prominent
eyes, like a satyr or Silenus. Of the circum-
stances of his life we are almost wholly
ignorant : he served as an hoplite at Potidaea,
Delium, and AmphipSlis, with great credit to
himself. He seems never to have filled any
political office until 406, in which year he
was a member of the senate of Five Hundred,
and one of the Pryt&nes, when on the occasion
of the trial of the 6 generals, he refused, in
spite of all personal hazard, to put an uncon-
stitutional question to the vote. He displayed
the same moral courage in refusing to obey
the order of the Thirty Tyrants for the ap-
prehension of Leon the Salaminian. — ^At what
time Socrates relinquished his profession as a
statuary we do not know ; but it is certain

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that at least all the middle and later part
of his life was devoted ta the telf-iinposed
task of teaching, to the exclusion of all
other business, public or private, and to the
neglect of all means of fortune. But he never
opened a school, nor did he, like the sophisto
of his time, deliver public lectures. He was
persuaded that he had a special religious
mission, and that he constantly heard the
monitions of a divine or supernatural voice.
Everywhere, in the market-place, in the
gymnasia and in the workshops, he sought
and found opportunities for awakening and
guiding, in boys, youths, and men, moral
consciousness and the impulse after know,
ledge respecting the end and value of our
actions. His object, however, was only
to aid them in developing the germs of
knowledge ; to practise a kind of mental mid-
wifery, just as his mother FhaenarSte exer-
cised the corresponding corporeal an ; and he
therefore fought unweariedly against all false
appearance and conceit of knowledge. This
was probably the reason why he was selected
for at^tck by Aristophanes and the other
comic writers. Attached to none of the pre-
vailing parties, Socrates found in each of
them his friends and his enemies. Hated
and persecuted by Critias, Charlcles, and
others among the Thirty TyranU, who had
him specially in view in the decree which
they issued, forbidding the teaching of the
art of oratory, he was impeached after their
banishment and by their opponents. An
orator named Lycon, and a poet (a friend
of Thrasybaius) named MelStus, united in
the impeachment with the powerful dema-
gogue Anj^tus, an embittered antagonist of
the sophists and their system, and one of the
leaders of the band which, setting out fh>m
Phyle, forced their way into the Piraeus,
and drove out the Thirty Tyrants. The
judges also are described as persons who had
been banished, and who had returned with
Thrasybulus. The chief articles of impeach-
ment were, that Socrates was guilty of cor-
rupting the youth, and of despising the
tutelary deities of the state, putting in their
place other new divinities ; but the accusation
was doubtless also dictated by political
animosity. The substance of tiie speech
which Socrates delivered in his defence is
probably preserved by Plato In the piece
entitled the " Apology of Socrates." Being
condemned by a majority of only 6 votes,
he refused to acquiesce in any greater
punishment than a fine of 60 minae, on
the security of Plato, Crito, and other friends.
Incensed by this speech, the judges con-
ilemned him to death by a majority of 80
votes. The sentence could not be carried

into execution until after the return of the
vessel which had been sent to Delos on the
periodical Theoric mission. The SO days
which intervened between its return and the
execution of Socrates were devoted by htm
to poetic attempts (the first he had made
in his life), and to his usual eonversati<ni
with his friends. One of these conversations,
on the duty of obedience to the laws, Plato
has reported in the CritOf so called alter the
faithful follower of Socrates, who had endea-
voured without success to persuade him to
make his escape. In another, imitated or
worked up by Plato in the Ph<udo^ Socrates,
inunediately before he drank the cup of hem-
lock, developed the grounds of his immovable
conviction of the immortality of the souL He
died with composure and cheerfulness in his
70th year, b.c. 399. He must be considered
as having laid the foundation of formal logic.
— (2) The ecclesiastical historian, was bom
at Constantinople about a.d. 879. He was a
pupil of Ammonius and Helladius, and fol.
lowed the profession of an advocate in his
native city, whence he is sumamed Scholas-
ticus. The Eceleaiattieal History of Socrates
extends from the reign of Constantino the
Great, 806, to that of the younger Theodosius,

s6D0MA (-5rum and -ae ; also -urn, gen.
-i ; and -i, gen. -5rum), a very ancient
city of Canaan, in the beautiful valley of
Siddim, closely connected with Gomorrha,
over which and the other 3 "cities of
the plain,'* the king of Sodom seems to
have had a sort of supremacy. In the
book of Genesis we find these cities as sub-
ject, in the time of Abraham, to the king
of Elam and his allies (an indication of the
early supremacy in W. Asia of the masters
of the Tigris and Euphrates valley), and
their attempt to cast off the yoke was the
occasioL of the first war on record. (Gen.
xiv.) Soon afterwards, the abominable sins
of these cities called down the divine ven-
geance, and they were all destroyed by fire
from heaven, except Zoar, which was spared
at the Intercession of Lot.

of Julia Maesa, and mother of Elagabalus,
became the chosen counsellor of her son and
encouraged and shared his follies and enor-
mities. She was slain by the praetorians on
the 11th of March, a.d. 222.

SOGDIANA (-ae), (Old Persian, Sughda :
parts of Turkestan and Bokhara^ including
the district still called Sogd)^ the N.E. pro-
vince of the ancient Persian Empire, Separated
on the S. from Bactriana and Margiana by
the upper course of the Oxus {Jihowi) ; on
the £. and N. from Scythia by the Sogdii

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Ciomedarum and Oscii M. {Kara-Dagh^ Alatan
and Ak Tagh) and by the upper course of
the Jaxartes {Sihotm) ; and bounded on the
N.W. by the great deserts E. of the Sea of

SOGDIANUS (4), one of the iUegitimate
(tons of Artaxerxes I. Longimanus, acquired
the throne on the death of his father b.c. 425,
by the murder of his legitimate brother
Kerxes 11. Sogdianus, however, was mur-
dered in his turn, after a reign of 7 months,
by his brother Ochns.
80GDII M0NTE8. [Sogdiana.]
SOL. [Hklios.]

SOLI (-6rum), or SOLOE. (1) Mezetlu,
Rn.), a city on the coast of Cilicia, between
the rivers Lamus and Cydnus, said to have
been colonised by Argives and Lydians from'
Rhodes. Pompey restored the city which
had been destroyed by Tigranes, and peopled
it with the survivors of the defeated bands
of pirates ; and from this time forth it waa
called PoHPEiopoLis. It was celebrated in
literary history as the birthplace of the
Stoic philosopher Chrysippus, of the comic
poet Philemon, and of the astronomer and
poet Aratus. — (2) {AligorOf in the valley of
Solea, Ru.), a considerable sea-port town in
the W. part of the N. coast of Cyprus.

S0LINU8 (-i), C. JtJLIUS, the author of
a geographicfd compendium, divided into 57
chapters, containing a brief sketch of the
world as known to the ancients, diversified
by historical notices, remarks on the origin,
habits, religious zdtes and social condition of
various nations enumerated. It displays but
little knowledge or judgment. Solinus may
perhaps be placed about x.d. 238.
SOLIS pons. [Oasis, No. 3.]
SOLOE. [Sou.]

BOLOIS (C. Cantin, Arab. Itas el ffoudik),
a promontory running far out into the sea,
in the 8. part of the W. coast of Mauretania.
SOLON (-onis), the celebrated Athenian
legislator, was bom about b.c. 638. His
father Execestides was a descendant of
Codrus, and his mother was a cousin of the
mother of Pisistratus. Execestides had
seriously crippled his resources by a too
nrodigal expenditure ; and Solon consequently
found it either necessary or convenient in
his youth to betake himself to the life of a
foreign trader. It is likely enough that
while necessity compelled him to seek a live-
lihood in some mode or other, his active and
inquiring spirit led him to select that pursuit
which would furnish the amplest means for
its gratification. Solon early distinguished
himself by his poetical abilities. His first
effusions were in a somewhat light and
•imatory strain, which afterwards 'gave way

to the more dignified and earnest purpose of
inculcating profound reflections or sage
advice. So widely indeed did his reputation
spread, that he was ranked as one of the
famous 7 sages. The occasion which first
brought Solon prominently forward as an
actor on the political stage, was the contest
between Athens and Megara respecting the
possession of Salamis. Indignant at the dis-
honourable renunciation of their claims by
the Athenians, he feigned madness, rushed
into the agora, and there recited a short
elegiac poem of 100 lines, in which he called
upon the Athenians to retrieve their disgrace
and reconquer the lovely island. The pusil-
lanimous law was rescinded ; war was
declared; and Solon himself appointed to
conduct it. The Megarians were driven out
of the island, but a tedious war ensued, which
was finally settled by the arbitration of
Sparta. Both parties appealed, in support of
their claim, to the authority of Homer ; and
it was cui7ently believed in antiquity that
Solon had surreptiously inserted the line (7/.
ii. 558) which speaks of AJax as ranging hij«
ships with the Athenians. The Spartans
decided in favour of the Athenians, about
B.C. 596. Solon himself, probably, was one
of those who received grants of land in
Salamis, and this may account for his being
termed a Salaminian. Soon after these
events (about 595) Solon took a leading part
in promoting hostilities on behalf of Delphi
against Cirrha, and was the mover of the
decree of the Amphictyons by which war
was declared. It was about the time of the
outbreak of this war, that, in consequence of
the distracted state of Attica, which was rent
by civil commotions, Solon was called upon
by all parties to mediate between them, and
alleviate the miseries that prevailed. He
was chosen archon 594, and under that legal
title was invested with unlimited power for
adopting such measures as the exigencies of
the state demanded. In fulfilment of the
task entrusted to him, Solon addressed him-
self to the relief of the existing distress ;
which he effected by his celebrated disbur-
dening ordinance («i«'^;tft<a). This measure
was framed to relieve the debtors with as
little infringement as possible on the claims
of the wealthy creditors ; and seems prin-
cipally to have consisted of a depreciation of
the coinage. The success of the Seisachtheiu
procured for Solon such confidence and popu-
larity that he was further charged with thiB
task of entirely remodelling the constitution.
He repealed all the laws of Draco except
those relating to bloodshed, and introduced a
great many reforms by a new distribution of
th^ different classes of citizens, by enlarglnj^

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the fonctions of the EecletiOy or popular
assembly, and by instituting the BouU or
senate of 400. Besides the arrangement of
the general political relations of the people,
Solon was the author of a great yariety of
special laws, which do not seem to have been
arranged in any systematic manner. The
laws of Solon were inscribed on wooden rollers
(i|«»K) and triangular tablets («!^Ct<?), and
were set up at first in the Acropolis,
afterwards in the Prytaneum. The Athenians
were also indebted to Solon for some rec-
tification of the calendar. It is said that
Solon exacted Arom the people a solemn oath,
that they would obserre his laws without
alteration for a certain space, and then
absented himself from Athens for 10 years.
He first visited Egypt; and from thence
proceeded to Cyprus, where he was received
with great distinction by Philocyprus, king
of the little town of Aepea. Solon persuaded
the king to remove from the old site, and
build a new town on the plain. The new
settlement was called Soli, in honour of the
illustrious visitor. He is further said to
have visited Lydia ; and his interview with
Croesus was one of the most celebrated stories
in antiquity. [Crobsds.] During the absence
of Solon the old dissensions were renewed,
and shortly after his arrival at Athens, the
supreme power was seized by Pisistratus.
The tyrant, after his usurpation, is said to
have paid considerable court to Solon, and
on various occasions to have solicited his
advice, which Solon did not withhold. Solon
probably died about 558, two years after the
overthrow of the constitution, at the age of 80.
Of the poems of Solon several ftragments
remain. They do not indicate any great
degree of imaginative power, but their style
is vigorous and simple.

SOLtMA (-6rum). (1) (Taktalu-Doffh),
the mountain range which runs parallel to
the E. coast of Lycia, and is a S. continuation
of Mt. Climax. — (2) Another name for Jbru-


SOLtMI. [LtCia.]

SOMNUS (.i), the personification and god
of sleep, is described as a brother of Death,
and as a son of Night. In works of art.
Sleep and Death are represented alike as two
youths, sleeping or holding inverted torches
in their hands. [Moas.]

SONTIUS (-i : l8onzo\ a river in Venetia,
in the N. of Italy, rising in the Camic Alps,
and falling into the Sinus Tergestuius, £. of

SOPHEnS (-6s), a district of Armenia
Major, lying between the ranges of Anti-
taurus and Masius ; separated from Melitene,
in Armenia Minor, by the Euphrates, from

Mesopotamia by the Antitaurus, and from the
£. part of Armenia Major by the river

SOPHOCLfiS (-is). (1) The celebrated
tragic poet, was bom at Coldnus, a village
little more than a mile to the N.W.
of Athens, b.c. 495. He was 30 years
younger than Aeschylus, and 15 years older
than Euripides. His father's name was
Sophilus, or Sophillus, of whose condition in
life we know nothing for certain ; but it is
clear that Sophocles received an education
not inferior to that of the sons of the most
distinguished citizens of Athens. In both
of the leading branches of Greek education,
music and gymnastics, he was carefully
trained, and in both he gained the prize of a
■garland. Of the skill which he had attained
in music and dancing in his 16th year, and
of the perfection of his bodily form, we have
conclusive evidence in the fact that, when
the Athenians were assembled in solemn
festival around the trophy which they had
set up in Salamis to celebrate their victory
over the fieet of Xerxos, Sophocles was
chosen to lead, naked, and with lyre in
hand, the chorus which danced about the
trophy, and sang the songs of triumph, 480.
His first appearance as a dramatist took
place in 468, under peculiarly Interesting
circumstances ; not only from the fact that
Sophocles, at the age of 27, came forward as
the rival of the veteran Aeschylus, whose
supremacy had been maintained during an
entire generation, but also from the oharactei
of the judges. The solemnities of the Great
Dionysia were rendered more imposing by
the occasion of the return of Cimon ftrom his
expedition to Scyros, bringing with him the
bones of Theseus. Public expectation was so
excited respecting the approaching dramatic
contest, and party feeling ran so high, that
Apsephion, the Archon Eponymus, whose
duty it was to appoint the judges, had not
yet ventured to proceed to the final act of
drawing the lots for their election, when
Cimon, with his 9 colleagues in the com-
mand, having entered the theatre, the Ar-
chon detained them at the altar, and
administered to them the oath appointed for
the judges in the dramatic contests. Their
decision was in favour of Sophocles, who
received the first prize; the second only
being awarded to Aeschylus, who was so
mortified at his defeat, that he left Athens,
and retired to Sicily. From this epoch
Sophocles held the supremacy of the Athenian
sts^, until a formidable rival arose in Eu-
ripides, who gained the first prize for the first
time in 441. In the spring of 440 Sophocles
brought out the Antigone^ a play which gave

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the Athenians such satisfaction, that they
appointed him one of the ten strategic of
Avhom Pericles was the chief, in the war
against Samos. In his last years his son
lophon, jealous of his father's love for his
grrandson Sophocles, and apprehending that
he purposed to bestow upon this grandson a
large proportion of his property, is said to
have summoned his father before the Phra-
tores, on the charge that his mind was
affected by old age. As his only reply,
Sophocles exclaimed, " If I am Sophocles,
I am not beside myself ; and if I am beside
myself, I am not Sophocles ;'* and then read
from his Oedipus at Colonus, which was
lately written, but not yet brought out, the
magnificent parodos^ beginning —

whereupon the judges at once dismissed the
case, and rebuked lophon for his undutiful
conduct. Sophocles died soon afterwards, in
406, in his 90th year. The manner of his
death is variously and* fictitiously related.
Less heroic than those of Aeschylus, less
homely and familiar than those of Euripides,
the tragedies of Sophocles are the perfection
of the Greek drama. The number of plays
Hscribed to him was 130 ; and it is remark-
able, as proving his growing activity and suc-
cess, that of these 81 were brought out after
his 54th year. Only 7 are extant. — (2) Son
of Ariston and grandson of the elder Sophocles,
was also an Atbenii^ tragic poet. In 401 he
brought out the Oedipus at Colonus of his
^andfather ; but he did not begin to exhibit
his own dramas till 396.

SOPHONISBA (-ae), daughter of the Car-
thaginian general Hasdrubal, the son of
Gisco. She had been betrothed by her father,
at a very early age, to the Numidian prince
Masinissa, but at a subsequent period Has-
drubal being desirous to gain over Syphax,
the rival monarch of Numidia, to the Cartha-
ginian alliance, gave her in marriage to that
prince. After the defeat of Syphax, and the
capture of his capital city of Cirta by Masi-
nissa, Sophonisba fell into the hands of the
conqueror, upon whom her beauty exercised
so powerful an influence, that he determined
to marry her himself. Their nuptials were
accordingly celebrated without delay, but
Scipio (who was apprehensive lest she should
exercise the same influence over Masinissa
which she had previously done over Syphax)
refused to ratify this arrangement, and up-
braiding Masinissa with his weakness, in-
sisted on the immediate surrender of the
princess. Unable to resist this command,
the Numidian king spared her the humiliation
of captivity, by sending her a bowl of poison,

which she drank without hesitation^ and thus
put an end to her own life.

SOpHRON (-finis), of Syracuse, was the

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