William Smith.

A smaller classical dictionary of biography, mythology, and geography ... online

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principal writer of that species of composition
called the Mime {fM.(Mf)^ which was one of the
numerous varieties of the Dorian Comedy.
He flourished about b.c. 460 — 420. When
Sophron is called the inventor of Mimes, the
meaning is, that he reduced to the form of a
literary composition a species of amusement
which the Greeks of Sicily, who were pre-
eminent for broad humour and merriment,
had practised from time immemorial at their
public festivals. Plato was a great admirer
of Sophron ; and the philosopher is said to
have been the first who made the Mimes
known at Athens. The serious purpose which
was aimed at in the works of Sophron waH
always, as in the Attic Comedy, clothed under
a sportive form.

SOPHRONISCUS. [Socrates.]

SORA (-ae). (1) {Sora)^ a town in Latium,
on the right bank of the river Liris and N.
of Arpinum, with a strongly fortified citadel.
— (2) A town in Paphlagonia.

SORACTE (-is : Monte di S. Oreste)^ a cele-
brated mountain In Etruria, in the territory
of the Falisci, near the Tiber, about 24 nules
from Rome, but the summit of which, fre-
quently covered with snow, was clearly visible
from the city. (Hor. Carm. i. 9.) The whole
mountain was sacred to Apollo, and on its
summit was a temple of this god.

SORANUS (-i). (1) A Sabine divinity,
usually identified with Apollo, worshipped on
Mt. Soracte. — (2) A physician, a native of
Ephesus, practised his profession first at Alex-
andria, and afterwards at Rome, in the reigns
of Trajan and Hadrian, a.d. 98—138. There
are several medical works still extant under
the name of Soranus, but whether they were
written by the native of Ephesus cannot be
determined.

SOSIGENfiS (-is), the peripatetic philoso-
pher, was the astronomer employed by Julius
Caesar to superintend the correction of the
calendar (b.c. 46).

s6siUS(-i). (1) C, quaestor B.C. 66, and
praetor 49. He was afterwards one of An-
tony's principal lieutenants in the East, and
in 37 placed Herod upon the throne of Jeru-
salem. — (2) The name of two brothers (Sosii),
booksellers at Rome in the time of Horace.

SOSPITA (-ae), that is, the •* saving god-
dess," was a surname of Juno at Lanuvium
and at Rome, in both of which places she had
a temple. ^

SOSTRATUS (-i), the son of Dexiphanes,
of Cnidus, was one of the great architects who
flourished during and after the life of Alex-
ander the Great.



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SOtER (-5rl8), i.e., ««the Saviour/» (Lat.
Servator or Sospa), occurs as the surname of
!«everal diyinities, especially of Zeus (Jupiter).
It was also a surname of Ptolemaeus I., king
of Egypt, as well as of several of tiie other
later Greek kings.

SOTTllTES or SOTliTES (-mn), a power-
ful and warlike people in Gallia Aquitanica,
on the fh>ntiers of Gallia Narbonensis, {
were subdued by P. Crassus, Caesar's le-
gate.

SPARTA (-ae : Sparti&tes, Spartanus), also
called LACED AEMON (Lacedaemonius), the
capital of Laconia and the chief city of Pelo-
ponnesus, was situated on the right bank of
the Eurdtas {.Iri), about 20 miles fh>m the sea.
It stood on a plain which contained within it
several rising grounds and hills. It was
bounded on the £. by the Eurotas, on the
N.W. by the small river Genus {KtUnna),
and on the S.E. by the small river Tisia
[MagtUa),' both of which streams fell into the
Eurotas. The plain in which Sparta stood
was shut in on the E. by Mt. Menelaium, and
on the W. by Mt. TaygStus ; whence the city
Is called by Homer ** the hollow Lacedaemon."
It was of a circular form, about 6 miles in
circumference, and consisted of several dis.
tinct quarters, which were originally separate
villages, and which were never united into
one regular town. Its site is occupied by
the modem villages of Magula and Fsykhiko ;
ond the principal modem town in the neigh-
bourhood is Mtstra, which lies about 2 miles
to the W. on the slopes of Mt. Taygfitus.
During the flourishing times of Greek inde-
I>endence, Sparta was never surrounded by
walls, since the bravery of its citizens, and the
diflaculty of access to i^ were supposed to ren-
< ler such defences needless. It was first fortified
by the tyrant Nabis ; but it did not possess
regular walls till the time of the Romans.
Sparta, unlike most Greek cities, had no pro-
per Acropolis, but this name was only given
to one of the steepest hills of the town, on the
summit of which stood the temple of Athena
(Minerva) PoUQchos, or Chalcioecus. Sparta
is said to have been founded by Laoedaemon,
a son of Zeus (Jupiter) and Taygete, who
. married Sparta, the daughter of Eurotas, and
called the city after the name of his wife.
In the mythical period, Argos was the chief
city in Peloponnesus, and Sparta is repre-
sented as subject to it. Here reigned Mene-
iaas, the younger brother of Agamemnon ;
and by the marriage of Orestes, the son of
Agamemnon, with Hermione, the daughter of
Menelaus, the two kingdoms of Argos and
Sparta became united. The Dorian conquest
of Peloponnesus, which, according to tradi-
tion, took place 80 years after the Trojan war, j



made Sparta the capital of the country.
Laconia fell to the share of Eurysthenes and
Procles, the 2 sons of Aristodemus, who took
up their residence at Sparta, and ruled over
the kingdom conjointly. After the complete
subjugation of the country, we find three dis.
tinot classes in the population : the Dorian
conquerors, who resided in the capital, and
who were called Spartiatae or Spartans ; the
Perioeci or old Achaean inhabitants, who be-
came tributary to the Spartans, and possessed
no political rights ; and the Helots, who were
also a portion of the old Achaean inhabitants,
but were reduced to a state of slavery. From
various causes the Spartans became distracted
by intestine quarrels, till at length Lycurgus,
who belonged to the royal family, was selected
by all parties to give a new constitution to
the state. The constitution of Lycurgus,
which is described in a separate article
[Ltcvboxts], laid the foundation of Sparta's
greatness. In b.c. 748 the Spartans attackeu
Messenia, and after two wars conquered it, and
made it an integral portion of Laconia. [Mxs-
ssNiA.] After the close of the 2nd Meesenian
war the Spartans continued their conquests
in Peloponnesus. At the time of the Persian
invasion, they obtained by unanimous consent
the chief command in the war. But after the
final defeat of the Persians the haughtiness of
Pausanias disgusted most of the Greek states,
particularly the lonians, and led them to
transfer the supremacy to Athens (477). The
Spartans, however, regained it by the over-
throw of Athens in the Peloponnesian war
(404). But the Spartans did not retain thin
supremacy more than 30 years. Their deci-
sive defeat by the Thebans under Epaminon-
das at the battle of Leuctra (371), gave the
Spartan power a shock ft:om which it never
recovered ; and the restoration of the Mes-
senians to their country 2 years afterwards
completed the humiliation of Sparta. About
30 years afterwards the greater part of Greece
was obliged to yield to Philip of Macedon.
The Spartans, however, kept haughtily aloof
from the Macedonian conqueror, and refused
to take part in the Asiatic expedition of his
son Alexander the Great. Under the later
Macedonian monarchs the power of Sparta
still further declined. Agis endeavoured to
restore the ancient institutions of Lycurgus ;
but he perished in the attempt (240). deo-
menes III., who began to reign 236, was
more successful. His reforms inftised new
blood into the state ; and for a short time
he carried on war with success against the
Achaeans. But his defeat in 221 was fol-
lowed by the capture of Sparta, which now
sank into insignificance, and waft at length
compelled to join the Achaean league. Shortlj



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SPARTACUS.



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STAGIRUS.



afterwards it fell, with the rest of Greece,
under the Roman power.

SPARTIcUS (-i), by birth aThracian,w^
snccessively a shepherd, a soldier, and a chief
of banditti. On one of his predatory expe-
ditions he was taken prisoner, and sold to a
trainer of gladiators. In 73 he was a mem.
ber of the company of Lentulus, and was de>
tained in his school at Capua, in readiness
for the games at Rome. He persuaded his
fellow-prisoners to make an attempt to gain
their freedom. About 70 of them broke out
of the scliool of Lentulus, and took refuge in
the crater of Vesuvius. Spartacus was chosen
leader, and was soon joined by a number of
nmaway slaves. They were blockaded by
C. Claudius Pulcher at the head of 3000 men,
but Spartacus attacked the besiegers and put
them to flight. His numbers rapidly in-
creased, and for 2 years (b.c. 73 — 71) he de-
feated one Roman army .after another, and
laid waste Italy, from the foot of the Alps to
the southernmost comer of the peninsula.
After both the consuls of 72 had been defeated
by Spartacus, M. Licinius Crassus, the prae-
tor, was appointed to the command of the
war, which he terminated by a decisive battle
near the river Silarus, in which Spartacus
was defeated and slain.

SPARTI (-orum), the Sown-Men, is the
name given to the armed men who sprang
from the dragon's teeth sown by Cadmus.

SPARTIANUS (-i), AELIUS, one of the
Seriptores Sistoriae Auguataet lived in the
time of Diocletian and Constantine, and wrote
the biographies of several emperors.

SPERCHEUS (-i : Elladha), a river in the
S. of Thessaly, which rises in Mt. Tymphres-
tus, runs in an E.-ly direction through the
territory of the Aenianes and through the
district Malis, and falls into the innermost
comer of the Sinus Maliacus. As a river-god
Spercheus is a son of Oceanus and Ge, and
the father of Menesthius by Polydora, thift
daughter of Peleus.
• SPES (-ei), the personification of Hope,
was worshipped at Rome, where she had
several temples, the most ancient of which
had been built in b.c. 354, by the consul
Atilius Calatinus, near the Porta Carmentalis.
The Greeks also worshipped the personifica-
tion of Hope, ElpU^ and they relate the
beautiful allegory, that when Epimetheus
oX)ened the vessel brought to him by Pandora,
from which all kinds of evils were scattered
over the earth, Hope alone remained behind.
Hope was represented in works of art as a
youthful figure, lightly walking in full attire,
holding in her right hand a flower, and with
the left lifting up her garment.

8PEUSIPPUS (-i), the philosopher, was a



native of Athens, and the son of EurymMon
and Potone, a sister of Plato. He succeeded
Plato as president of the Academy, but was
at the head of the school for only 8 years
(B.C. 347—339).

SPHACTERIA. [Ptlos.]

SPHAERIa (-ae: Poros)^ an island off
the coast of Troezen in ArgoUs, and between
it and the island of Calauria.

SPHINX (-gis), a she-monster, born in the
coimtry of the Arimi, daughter of Orthus and
Chimaera, or of Typhon and Echidna, or
lastly of Typhon and Chimaera. She is itoid
to have proposed a riddle to the Thebans,
and to have murdered all who were unable
to guess it. Oedipus solved it, whereupon
the Sphinx slew herself. [Oedipus.] The
legend appears to have come from Egypt, but
the figure of the Sphinx is represented '
somewhat differently in Greek mythology
and art. The Egyptian Sphinx is the figure
of a lion without wings, in a lying attitude,
the upper part of the body being that of a
human being. The common idea of a Greek
Sphinx, on the other hand, is that of a
winged body of a lion, the breast and upper
part being the figure of a woman.

SPINA .(-ae). (1) {Spinazzino)^ a town
in Gallia Cispadana, in the territory of the
Lingones, on the most S.-ly of the mouths of
the Po, which was called after it Ostium
Spineticum. — (2) {Spina) ^ a town in Gallia
Transpadana, on the river Addua.

SPOLATUM. [Salona.]

SPOLETIUM or SPOLETUM (-1 : Spoleto),
a town in Umbria, on the Via Flaminia, oolo-
nised by the Romans b.c. 242. It suffered se-
verely in^the wars between Marius and Sulla.

SPORADES (-um), a group of scattered
islands in the Aegaean sea, off the island of
Crete and the W. coast of Asia Minor, so
called in opposition to the Cyclades, which
lay in a circle around Delos.

SPURINNA (-ae) VESTRITIUS, the harus-
pex who warned Caesar to beware of the Ides
of March.

STABIAE (-&mm : Castell aMarediStdbia),
an antiieut town in Campania, between Pom-
peii and Surrentum, which was destroyetl
by Sulla in the Social war, but which con-
tinued to exist down to the great eraption
of Vesuvius in a.d. 79, when it was over-
whelmed along with Pompeii and Hercu-
laneum. It was at Stabiae that the elder
Pliny perished.

STAGlRUS (-1), subsequently STAG!RA
(-ae : Slavro)^ a town of Macedonia, in Chal-
cidice, on the Strymonic gulf, and a little N.
of the isthmus which unites the promontory
of Athos to Chalcidice. It was a colony of
Andros, was founded b.c. 656, and was



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STA8INUS.



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STILICHO.



originally called Orthagoria. It is celebrated
as the birthplace of Aristotle.

STASINUS (-i), of Cyprus, an epic poet,
to whom some of the ancient -writers attri-
bated the poem of the Epic Cycle, entitled
Oypria^ and embracing the period antecedent
to the Iliad.

STATIELLI (-eymm), STATIELLiTES, or
STATIELLENSES (-ium), a small tribe in
Liguria, 8. of the Po, whose chief town was
Statiellae Aquae {Acgui), on the road trom
Genoa to Placentia.

STATILIa MESSALINA. [Messauna.]

STATILIUS TAURUS. [Taurus.]

8TATIRA (-ac). (1) Wife of Artaxerxes
II., king of Persia, was poisoned by Pary-
satis, the mother of the king. — (2) Sister and
wife of Darius HI., celebrated as the most
. beautifU woman of her time. She was taken
prisoner by Alexander, together with her
mother-in-law Sisygambis, and her daughters,
after the battle of Issus, b.c. 333. They were
all treated with the utmost respect by the
conqueror; but Statira died shortly before
the battle of Arbela, 331— (3) Also called
Baksikx, elder daughter of Darius III.
[Barsinb.]

STATIUS (-i), P. PAPINIuS, was bom
at Neapolis, about a.d. 61, and was the son
of a distinguished grammarian. He accom-
panied his father to Rome, where the latter
acted as the preceptor of Domitian, who held
him in high honour. Under the skilful
tuition of his father, the young Statius
speedily rose to fame, and became peculiarly
renowned for the brilliancy of his extempo-
raneous efiTusions, so that he gained the prize
three times in the Alban contests; but
having, after a long career of popularity,
been vanquished in the quinquennial games,
he retired to Neapolis, the place of his na-
tivity, along with his wife Claudia, whose
virtues he frequently commemorates. He
died about a.d. 96. His chief work is the
Thehdia^ an heroic poem, in 12 books, on the
expedition of the Seven against Thebes.
There is also extant a collection of his miscel-
laneous poems, in 5 books, under the title of
Silvae ; and an unfinished poem called the
Aehilleia, Statius may Justly claim the
praise of standing in the foremost rank
among the heroic poets of the Silver Age.

STATONIA (-ae), a town in Etruria, and a
Roman Praefectura, on the river Albinia, and
on the Lacus Statoniensis.

8TA.T0R (-6ris), a Roman surname of
Jupiter, describing him as staytng the
Romans in their flight from an enemy, and
generally as preserving the existing ordei of
thtnirs.

STENTOR (-5ris), a herald of the Greeks



in the Trojan war, whose voice was as loud
as that of 50 other men together.

8TENT5RIS LACUS. [Hkbrus.]

STENYCLfiRUS (-i), a town in the N. of
Messenia, which was the residence of tlu.'
Dorian kin^ of the country.

STEPHANUS (-i), of Byrantium, the
author of the geographical lexicon, entitled
Ethniea (of which, tmfortunately, we pos-
sess only an epitome. Stephanus was a
grammarian at Constantinople, and lived
after the time of Arcadius and Honorius, and
before that of Justinian II. His work wax
reduced to an epitome by a certain Hermo-
laus, who dedicated his abridgment to the
emperor Justinian II.

STEROPfi (-es), one of the Pleiads, wife
of Oenomaus, and daughter of Hippodamla.

STEROPES. [Cyclopes.]

STEsiCHORUS (-i), of Himft1^ in Sicily,
a celebrated Greek poet, contemporary with
Sappho, Alcaeus, Pitt&cus, and PhalSxis, is
said to have been bom b.c. 632, to have
flourished about 608, and to have died in
552, at the age of 80. Stesichorus was one
of the 9 chiefs of lyric poetry recognised by
the ancients. He stands, with Alcman, at
the head of one branch of the lyric art, the
choral poetry of the Dorians.

STESIMBROTUS (-i), of Thasos, a rhap-
sodist and historian in the time of Cimon
and Pericles, who is mentioned with praise
by Plato and Xenophon.

STHENEBOEA (-ae), called ANTEA by
many writers, was a daughter of the Lycian
king lob&tes, and the wife of Proetus. [Bslls-

ROPHONTTO.]

STHENSlUS (-1). (I) Son of Perseus
and AndromMa, king of Mycenae, and hus-
band of Nicippe, by whom he became the
father of Alcin5e, Meddsa, and Eurystheus.
— (2) Son of Androgoos, and grandson of
Minos. He accompanied Hercules from
Paros on his expedition against the Amazons,
and togrether with his brother Alcaeus, he
was appointed by Hercules ruler of Thasos. —
(3) Son of Actor, likewise a companion of Her-
cules in his expedition against the Amazons. —
— (4) Son of Capaneus and Evadne, was on^*
of the EpigSni, by whom Thebes was taken,
and commanded the Argives under Diomedes,
in the Trojan war, being the faithful friend
and companion of Diomedes. — (5) Father of
Cycnus, who was metamorphosed into a swan.
Hence we flnd the swan called by Ovid
Stheneleis volucris and Stheneleia proles. — (6)
A tragic poet, contemporary with Aristopha-
nes, who attacked him in the W(isp»,

STHENO. [GoROONKS.]

STILiCHO (-Snis), scm of a Vandal cap-
tain, became one of the most distinguished



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STROPHIUS.



g-enerals of Theodoaius I., on whose death he
became the real ruler of the West under the
emperor Honorius. He was put to death at
Ravenna in 408.

STILO (-onis), L. AELIUS PRAECO-
NINUS, a celebrated Roman grammarian,
one of the teachers of Varro and Cicero.

STILPO (-onis), a celebrated philosopher,
was a native of Megara, an(^ taught philoso.
phy in his native town. He is said to have
surpassed his contemporaries in inventive
power and dialectic art, and to have inspired
almost all Greece with a devotion to the
Megarian philosophy.

STIMULA (-ae), the name of Semele,
according to the pronunciation of the Ro-
mans.

8T0BAEUS (-1) JOANNES, derived his
surname apparently from being a native of
Stobi, in Macedonia. Of his personal history
we know nothing. Stobaeus was a man of
extensive reading, in the course of which he
noted down the most interesting passages ;
and to him we are indebted for a large pro-
portion of the fragments that remain of the
lost works of poets.

STOBI (.5rum), a town of Macedonia, and
the most important place in the district
Paeonia, was probably situated on the river
Erigon, N. of Thessalonica, and N.E. of
Hcraclea. It was made a Roman colony and
a municipium, and under the later emperors
was the capital of the province Macedonia II.
or Salutaris.

8T0ECHADES (-um) INSttLAE (J.
(PEiirg8), a group of 5 small islands in the
Mediterranean, off the coast of Gallia Nar-
bonensis, and E. of Massilia.

8T0ENI (-5rum), a Ligurian people, in
the Maritime Alps, conquered by Q. Mardos
Rex B.C. 118.

STRABO (.5nis), a cognomen in many
Roman gentes, signified a person who
squinted, and is accordingly classed with
■ PaettUt tliough the latter word did not indi-
cate such a complete distortion of vision as
Strabo.

STRABO, the geographer, was a native of
Amasia, in Pontus. The date of his birth is
unknown, but may perhaps be placed about
B.C. 54. He. lived during the whole of the
reign of Augustus, and during the early part,
at least, of the reign of Tiberius. He is sup-
posed to have died about a.d. 24. He lived
some years at Rome, and also travelled much
in various countries. We learn from his
own work that he was with his friend
Aelius Gallus in Egypt in b.c. 24. He wrote
an historical work in 43 books, which is lost.
It began where the history of Polybius ended,
and was probably continued to tiie baule of



Actium. He also wrote a work on Geography
(ri«»yfa^i»a), in 17 books, which has come
down to us entire, with the exception of the
7 th, of which we have only a. meagre
epitome. Strabo's work, according to his
own expression, was not intended for the
use of all persons. It was designed for all
who had had a good education, and par-
ticularly for those who were engaged in the
higher departments of administration. Hi»
work forms a striking contrast with* the
geography of Ptolemy, and the dry list of
names, occasionally relieved by something
added to them, in the geographical portion of
the Natural History of Pliny.

STRABO SEIUS. [Sejantjs.]

STRATON (-onis), son of Arcesilaus, of
Lamps&cus, was a distinguished peripatetic
philosopher, and the tutor of Ptolemy Phi-
ladelphus. He succeeded Theophrastus as
head of the school in b.c. 288, and, after
presiding over it 1 8 years, was succeeded by
Lycon. He devoted himself especially to the
study of natural science, whence he obtained
the appellation of Fhysictts.

STRXtONICE (-6s), daughter of Deme-
trius Poliorcetes and Phila, the daughter of
Antipater. In b.c. 300, at which time she
could not have been more tlian 1 7 years of age,
she was married to Seleucus, king of Syria.
Notwithstanding the disparity of their ages,
she lived in harmony with the old king for
some years, when it was discovered that her
step-son Antiochus was deeply enamoured of
her, and Seleucus, in order to save the life of
his son, which was endangered by the vio-
lence of his passion, gave up Stratonice in mar-
riage to the young prince.

STRATONICEA (-ae: JBskUHisar, Ru.),
one of the chief inland cities of Caria, built
by Antiochus I. Soter, who fortified it
strongly, and named it in honour of hi"
wife Stratonice. It stood E. of Mylasa and
S. of Alabanda, near the river Marsyas, a S.
tributary of the Maeander. Under the Ro-
mans it was a free city.

STRATUS (-i: Nr. Lepenu or Zepanon^
Ru.), the chief town in Acamania, 10 stadia
W. of the Achelous. Its territory was called
Stratick.

STROPHADES (-um) INSULAE, formerly
called Plotab {Strofadia and StHvaU)^ 2
islands in the Ionian sea, off the coast of
Messenia and S. of Zacynthus. The Harpies
were pursued to these islands by the sons of
Boreas ; and it was from the circumstance of
the latter returning from these islands after
the pursuit that they are supposed to have
obtained the name of Strophades.

STROPHIUS (-i), king of Phocis, son of
Crissus and Antiphatia, and husband of



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8TRYM0N.



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SUETONIUS.



Cydragora, Anaxibia or Astyochia, by whom
be became the father of Astydamia and Py-
kades. [Oassm.]

STRtMON (^nifl : Struma, caUed by the
Turks ICareuu), an important river in Macedo-
nia, forming the boundary between that coun.
try and Thrace down to the time of Philip. It
rose in Mt. Scomius, flowed first S. and then
S.E., passed through the lake Prasias, and,
immediately 8. of Amphipolis, fell into a
bay of the Aegaean Sea, called after it Stbt-
MONicus Sinus.

STYMPHAlTdES. [SmiPHAi.rs.]

STYMPHALUS (4), a town in the N.E. of
Arcadia, the territory of which was bounded
on the N. by Achaia, on the E. by Sicyonia
and Phliasia, on the 8. by the territory of
Mantinea, and on the W. by that of Orcho-
menus and Pheneus. The town itself was
situated on a mountain of the same name,
and on the N. side of the lake Sttmphalis
(Zaraka)f on which dwelt, according to
tradition, the celebrated birds, called Smc-
PHALiDKS, destroyed by Hercules.

STYRA (^rum : Stura), a town in Euboea
on the S.W. coast, not far from Carystus, and
nearly opposite Marathon in Attica.

STYX i'fm), connected with the verb
rrvyim^ to hate or abhor, is the name of the
principal river in the netheir world, around
which it flows 7 times. Styx is described as
a daughter of Oceanns and Tethys. As a
nymph she dwelt at the entrance of Hades,
in a lofty grotto which was supported by
silver columns. As a river Styx is described
as a branch of Oceanns, flowing from its 10th
Hource; and the river Cocytus again is a
branch of the Styx. By Pallas Styx became
the mother of Zelus (zeal), Nice (victory),
Bia (strength), and Cratos (power). She was
the first of all the immortals who took her



Online LibraryWilliam SmithA smaller classical dictionary of biography, mythology, and geography ... → online text (page 77 of 90)