William Smith.

A smaller classical dictionary of biography, mythology, and geography ... online

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children to Zeus (Jupiter), to assist him
against the Titans ; and, in return for this,
her children were allowed for ever to live
with Zeus, and Styx herself became the
divinity by whom the most solemn oaths were
sworn. When one of the gods had to take
an oath by Styx, Iris fetched a cup fUU of
water from the Styx, and the god, while
takinsr the oath, poured out the water.

STYX (Mavra-neria), a river in the N. of
Arcadia, near Nonacris, descending from a
high rock, and falling into the Cratliis.

SUADA (-ae), the Roman personification
of persuasion, the Greek JPit?M (IIkW), also
called by the diminutive Suadela,

SUBLAQUEUM (4 : Subiaco), a smaU town
of the Aequi in Latium, on the Anio near its

SUBLICIUS PONS, the oldest of the
bridges at Rome, said to have been built by

Ancus Martins. It was of wood {SubUeae r
piles) ; and being often carried away by the
floods, was always to the latest period rebuilt
of that material, firom a feeling of religions

sObORA or SUBURRA (-ae), a populous
district of Rome, comprehending the valley
between the Esquiline, Qiiirinal, and Yiminai.

SOCRO (-5nis). (1) (lucor), a river in
Hispania Tarraconensis, rising in a S. branch
of Mt. Idubeda in the territory of the Celti-
beri, and falling S. of Yalentia into a gulf of
the Mediterranean called after it Sinus Sucro-
nensis {Guif of Valencia). — (2) [Oullera), a
town of the Edetani in Hispania Tarraco-
nensis, on the preceding river, and between
the Iberus and Carthago Nova.

sCeSSA AURUNCA (-ae : Setta), a town
of the Aurunci in Latium, E. of the Via
Appia, between Mintumae and Te&num, on
the W. slope of Mt. Masslcus. It was the
birthplace of the poet Lucilins.

StESSA POM^TIA (-ae), also called
POMETIa simply, an ancient and important
town of the Volscl in Latium, S. of Forum
Appii, taken by Tarquinius Priscus. It was
one of the 23 cities situated in the plain
afterwards covered by the Pomptine Marshes,
which are said indeed to have derived their
name ftom this town.

SUESSETANI (-Orum), a people in His-
pania Tarraconensis, mentioned in connexion
with the Edetani.

powerful people in Gallia Belgica, who were
reckoned the bravest of all the Belgic Gauls
after the Bellovaci, and who coold bring
50,000 men into the field in Caesar's time.
The Suessiones dwelt in an extensive and
fertile country E. of the Bellovaci, S. of the
Veromandui, and W. of the Remi. They
possessed 12 towns, of which the capital wa.s
Noviodunum, subsequently Augusta Suesso-
num or Suessones {Soitsona.)

SUESSULA (-ae : Torre di Sessola), a town
in Sanmium, on the southern slope of Mt.


the Roman historian, was bom about the
beginning of the reign of Vespasian, and
practised as an advocate at Rome in the reign
of Trajan. He lived on intimate terms with
the younger Pliny, many of whose letters
are addressed to him. At the request of
Pliny, Trajan granted to Suetonius the jwt
triutn liberorumy for though he was married
he had not 3 children, which number was
necessary to relieve him from various legal
disabilities. Suet >nius was afterwards ap-
pointed privRte secretary (Magister Ei)isto-

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larum) to Hadrian, bnt was deprived of this
oflace by the emperor, along with Septicius
Clams, the Praefect of the Praetorians, on
the ground of associating with Sabina, the
emperor's wife, without his permission. His
chief work is his Lives of the Caesars. Sue-
tonius does not follow the chronological or-
der in his Lives, but groups together many
things of the same kind. His language is
very brief and precise, sometimes obscure,
without any aflfectation of ornament. The
treatise De illustribus Ghrammaticis and that
De Claris Rhetorihtts are probably only parts
of a larger work. The only other productions
of Suetonius still extant are a few lives of
lloman authors.

SUEVI (-orum), one of the greatest and
most powerful peoples of Germany, or, more
properly speaking, the collective name of a
great number of German tribes, who were
grouped together on account of their mi-
gratory mode of life, and spoken of in oppo-
Rition to the more settled tribes, who went
tinder the general name of Ingaevones. The
Suevi are described by all the ancient writers
as occupying the greater half of all Germany ;
but the accounts vary respecting the part of
the country which they inhabited.

SUIDAS (-ae), a Greek lexicographer,
of whom nothing is known. The Lexicon
of Suidas, though without merit as to its
execution, is valuable both for the literary
history of antiquity, for the explanation of
words, and for the citations from many
ancient writers.

SUIONES (-um), the general name of all
the German tribes inhabiting Scandinavia.

SULLA (-ae), the name of a patrician
family of the Cornelia gens. (1) P., great
grandfather of the dictator Sulla, and grand-
son of P. Cornelius Rufinus, who was twice
consul in the Samnite wars. [Rufijojs,
Cornelius.] His father is not mentioned.
He was flamen dialis, and likewise praetor
iirbanus and peregrinus in B.C. 212, when he
presided over the first celebration of the
Ludi Apollinares. — (2) L., sumamed Felix,
the dictator, was bom in b.o. 138. Although
his father left him only a small property,
his means were sufficient to secure for him
a good education. He studied the Greek and
lloman literature with diligence and success,
and appears early to have imbibed that love
for literature and art by which he was dis-
tinguished throughout life. At the same
time he prosecuted pleasure with equal
ardour, and his youth, as well as his man-
liood, was disgraced by the hiost sensual
vices. He was quaestor in 107, when he
served under Marius in Afdca, and displayed
both zeal and ability in the discharge of

his duties. Sulla continued to serve under
Marius with great distinction in the cam-
paigns against the Cimbri and Teutones ; but
Marius becoming jealous of the rising fame
of his officer, Sulla left Marius in 102, and
took a command under the colleague ot
Marius, Q. Catulus, who entrusted the chief
management of the war to Sulla. Sulla now
returned to Rome, where he appears to have
lived quietly for some years. He was praetor
in 93, and in the following year (92) was
sent as propraetor into Cilicia, with special
orders from the senate to restore Ariobar-
zanes to his kingdom of Cappadocia, from
which he had been expelled by Mithridates.
Sulla met with complete success. He defeated
Gordius, the general of Mithridates, in Cap-
padocia, and placed Ariobarzanes on the
throne. The enmity between Marius and
Sulla now assumed a more deadly form.
Sulla's ability and increasing reputation had
already led the aristocratical party to look
up to him as one of their leaders; and
thus political animosity was added to private
hatred ; but the breaking out of the Social
War hushed all private quarrels for the
time. Marius and Sulla both took an active
part in the war against the common foe.
But Marius was now advanced in years ; and
he had the deep mortification of finding that
his achievements were thrown into the shade
by the superior energy of his rival. Sulla
gained some brilliant victories over the
enemy, and took Bovianum, the chief town
of the Samnites. He was elected consul for
88, and received from the senate the com-
mand of the Mithridatic war. The events
which followed, — his expulsion from Rome
by Marius, his return to the city at the head
of his legions, and the proscription of Marius
and his leading adherents — are related in the
life of Marius. Sulla remained at Rome till
the end of the year, and set out for Greece at
the beginning of 87, in order to carry on the
war against Mithridates. After driving the
generals of Mithridates out of Greece, Sulla
crossed the Hellespont, and early in 84 con-
cluded a peace with the king of Pontus.
Sulla now prepared to return to Italy, where,
during his absence, the Marian party had
obtained the ascendancy. After leaving his
legate, L. Licinius Murena, in command of
the province of Asia, with two legions, he
set sail with his own army to Athens. "While
preparing for his deadly struggle in Italy, he
did not lose his interest in literature. He
carried with him from Athens to Rome the
valuable library of Apellicon of Teos, which
contained most of the works of Aristotle and
Theophrastus. [Apellicon.] He landed at
BrundusiuTP in the spring of 8S. n\e Marian

D 1) 2

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party far oatnombered him in troops, and had
erery prospect of victory. By bribery and
promises, however, Sulla gained over a large
number of the Marian soldiers, and he per-
suaded many of the Italian towns to espouse
his cause. Li the field his efforts were
crowned by equal success ; and he was ably
supported by several of Uie Roman nobles.
In the following year (82) the struggle was
brought to a close by the decisive battle
gained by Sulla over the Samnites and Luca-
nians under Pontius Telesinus before the
Colline gate of Borne. This victory was
followed by the surrender of Praeneste and
the death of the younger Marius, who had
taken reftige in this town. Sulla was now
master of Rome and Italy ; and he resolved
to take the most ample vengeance upon his
enemies, and to extirpate the popular party.
One of his first acts was to draw up a list of
his enemies who were to be put to death,
called a Proscriptio, Terror now reigned,
not only at Rome, but throughout Italy.
Fresh lists of the proscribed constantly ap-
peared. No one was safe ; for Sulla gratified
his friends by placing in the fatal lists their
personal enemies, or persons whose property
was coveted by his adherents. At the com.
mencement of these horrors Sulla had been
appointed dictator for as long a time as he
Judged to be necessary, during which period
he endeavoured to restore the power of the
aristocracy and senate, and to diminish that
of the people. At the beginning of 81, he
celebrated a splendid triumph on account of
his victory over Mithridates. In order to
strengthen his power, Sulla established mili-
tary colonies throughout Italy. 23 legions,
or, according to another statement, 47 legions
received grants of land in various parts of
Italy. Sulla likewise created at Rome a kind
of body-guard for his protection, by giving
the citizenship to a great number of slaves,
who had belonged to persons proscribed by
him. The slaves thus rewarded are said to
have been as many as 10,000, and were called
Comelii after him as their patron. After
holding the dictatorship till the beginning of
79, Sulla resigned this office, to the surprise
of all classes. He retired to his estate at
Puteoli, and there surrounded by the beauties
of nature and art, he passed the remainder of
his life in those literary and sensual enjoy-
ments in which he had always taken so much
pleasure. His dissolute mode of life hastened
his death. The immediate cause of his death
was the rupture of a blood-vessel, but some
time before he had been suffering from the
disgusting disease, which is known in modem
times by the mime of Morbus Pediculosus or
Phthiriasis. He died in 7 8 in the 60th year of

his age. — (3) Fattstus, bob of the dictator by
his fourth wife, Caecilia Metella, and a twin
brother of Fausta, was bom not long before
88, the year in which his father obtained
his first consulship. Faustus accompanied
Pompey into Asia, and was the first who
mounted the walls of the Temple of Jerusalem
in 63. In 60 he exhibited the gladiatorial
games which his father in his last will had
enjoined upon him. In 54 he was quaestor.
He married Pompey*8 daughter, and sided
with his father-in-law in the civil war. He
was present at the battle of Pharsalia, and
subsequently joined the leaders of his party
in Africa. After the battle of Thapsus in 46,
he attempted to escape into Mauretania, but
was taken prisoner by P. Sittius, and carried
to Caesar. Upon his arrival in Caesar's camp
he was murdered by the soldiers in a tumult.
— (4) P., nephew of the dictator, was elected
constd along with P. Autroruus Paetus foi
the year 65, but neither he nor his colleague
entered upon the office, as they were accused
of bribery by L. Torquatus the younger, and
condemned. It was currently believed that
Sulla was privy to both of Catiline's conspi-
racies. In the civil war Sulla espoused
Caesar's cause. He served under him as
legate in Greece, and commanded along with
Caesar himself the right wing at the battle of
Pharsalia (48). He died in 45. — (5) Serv.,
brother of No. 4, took part In both of
Ca;;iline's conspiracies.

SULMO (-6nis). (1) {Sulmona\ a town
of the Peligni in the country of the Sabines,
celebrated as the birthplace of Ovid. — (2)
{Sermoneta)f an ancient town of the Volsci
in Latium on the Ufens.

SULPICIa (-ae), a Roman poetess who
fiourished towards the close of the Ist cen-
tury, celebrated for sundry amatory efftisions,
addressed to her husband Calenus.


SULPICIUS RUFUS (-i). (1) P., one of
the most distlngruished orators of his time,
was bom b.c. 124. In 93 he was quaestor,
and in 89 he served as legate of the consul
Cn. Pompeius Strabo in the Marsic war. In
88, he was elected to the tribunate ; but ho
deserted the aristocratical party, and joined
Marius. When SuUa marched upon Rome at
the head of his army, Marius and Sulpicius
took to flight. Marius succeeded in making
his escape to Africa, but Sulpicius was dis-
covered in a villa, and put to death. — (2) P.,
probably son or grandson of the last, was one
of Caesar's legates in Gaul and in the civil
war. He was praetor in 48. — (3) Serv,,
with the surname Lemoxia, indicating the
tribe to which he belonged, was a contempo-
rary and friend of Cicero, and of about the

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same age. He became one of the best jurists
as well as most eloquent orators of his age.
He was quaestor of the district of Ostia, in
74 ; curule aedile, 69 ; praetor, 65 ; and
consul 51 with M. Qaudius Marcellus. He
appears to have espoused Caesar's side in the
civil war, and was appointed by Caesar pro-
consul of Achaia (46 or 45). He died in 43
in the camp of M. Antony, having been sent
by the senate on a mission to Antony, who
was besieging Dec. Brutus in Mutina. Sul-
picius wrote a great number of legal works.

SUMMANUS (-i), a derivative form from
mmmuSf the highest, an ancient Roman or
Etruscan divinity, who was of equal or even
of higher rank than Jupiter. As Jupiter was
the god of heaven in the bright day, so Sum-
manus was the god of the .nocturnal heaven,
and hurled his thunderbolts during the night.
Summanus had a temple at Rome near the
Circus Maximus.

SUNIUM (-i: C. Colonni), a celebrated
promontory forming the S. extremity of
Attica, with a town of the same name upon
it. Here was a splendid temple of Athena,
elevated 300 feet above the sea, the columns
of which are still extant, and have given the
modem name to the promontory.

SURENAS, the general of the Parthians,
who defeated Crassus in B.C. 54. [Ceassus.]


SURRENTUM (-i : Sorrento), an ancient
town of Campania opposite Capreae, and
situated on the promontory {Prom. Minervae)
separating the Sinus Paestanus from the
Sinus Puteolanus.

StJSA (-orum : O. T. Shusan : Shits, Ru.),
the winter residence of the Persian kings,
htood in the district Cissia of the province
Susiana, on the eastern bank of the river

SOSARION (-5ni8), to whom the origin of
the Attic Comedy is ascribed, was a native of
Megara, whence he removed into Attica, to
the village of Icaria, a place celebrated as a
seat of the worship of Dionysus (Bacchus).
The Megaric comedy appears to have flou-
rished, in its full development, about b.c.
600 and onwards ; and it was introduced by
Susarion into Attica between 580 — 564.

SDSIANAE (-ae, or -es) or SUSIS (-tdis :
nearly corresponding to Khuzistan), one of
the chief provinces of the ancient Persian
empire, lay between Babylonia and Persis,
and between Mt. Parachoatras and the head of
the Persian Gulf. In this last direction, its
coast extended from the junction of the
Euphrates with the Tigris, to about the
mouth of the river Oroatis {Tab). It was
divided from Persis on the S.E. and E. by a
mountainous ti'act, inhabited by independent

tribes, who made even the kings of Persia
pay them for a safe passage. On the N. it
was separated from Great Media by Mt. Char-
bauus ; on the W. from Assyria by an imagi-
nary Hne drawn S. from near the Median
pass in Mt. Zagros to the Tigris ; and from
Babylonia by the Tigris itself.

SUTRIUM (-i: /Sk^H), an ancient town of
Etruria on the E. side of the Saltus Ciminlus,
and on the road from Yulsinii to Rome, made
a Roman colony b.c 383.

StBARIS (-is). (1) {C!o8cile or SibaH), a
river in Lucania, flowing by the city of the
same name, and falling into the Crathis. —
(2) A celebrated Greek town in Lucania,
was situated between the rivers Sybaris
and Crathis at a short distance from the
Tarentine gulf, and near the confines of
Bruttium. It was founded b.c. 720 by
Achaeans and Troezenians, and soon at-
tained an extraordinary degree of prosperity
and wealth. Its inhabitants became so
notorious for their love of luxury and plea-
sure, that their name was employed to indicate
any voluptuary.

StBOTA (-orum: Syvota), a number of
small islands off the coast of Epirus, and op-
posite the promontory Leucimne in Corcyra,
with a harbour of the same name on the main

SYCHAEUS or 8ICHAEU8 (-i), also called

Sl^ENE (-€s: Assouan, Ru.), a city of
Upper Egyp^ on the E. bank of the Nile,
just below the First Cataract. It was an
important point in the astronomy and geo-
graphy of the ancients, as it lay just under
the tropic of Cancer, and was therefore
chosen as the place through which they drew
their chief parallel of latitude.

SYENNESIS, a common name of the kings
of Cilicia. Of these the most important are :
— (1) A king of Cilicia, who joined witl}
Labynetus (Nebuchadnezzar) in mediating
between Cyaxares and Alyattes, the kings
respectively of Media and Lydia, probably in
B.C. 610.-— (2) Contemporary with Darius
Hystaspis, to whom he was tributary. His
daughter was married to Pixodorus. — (3)
Contemporary with Artaxerxes II. (Mnemon),
ruled over Cilicia when the younger Cyrus
marched through his country in his expedi-
tion against his brother Artaxerxes.

StCAMBRI or SICAMBRI (-orum), one of the
most powerful peoples of Germany at an early
time, belonged to the Istaevones, and dwelt
originally N. of the Ubii on the Rhine, from
whence they spread towards the N. as far as
the Lippe. They were conquered by Tibe-
rius in the reign of Augustus. Shortly

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afterwards they disappear from history, and
are not mentioned again till the time of
Ptolemy, who places them much farther N.,
close to the Bructeri and the Langobardi,
somewhere between the Vecht and the Yssel.
At a still later period we find them forming
an important part of the confederacy known
under the name of Franci.

SYLLA. [Sulla.]

SYLVANUS. [Silvajito.]

SYLVIUS. [Silvius.]

St'MAETHDS (-1: Giaretta), a rlrcr on
the E. coast of Sicily and at the foot of Mt.
Aetna, forming the boundary between Leon-
tini and Catana.

SYM£ (-es), a smaU island off the S.W.
coast of Caria, lay in the mouth of the Sinus
Doridis to the W. of the promontory of

SYHMACHUS (-i), Q. AUKfiLlUS, a dis.
ting^hed scholar, statesman, and orator in
the latter half of the 4th century of the
Christian aera, remarkable for his seal in
upholding the ancient pagan religion of
Rome. He was proconsul of Africa in 373 ;
and in 391 Theodosius raised him to the
consulship. Of his works there are still extant
10 books of epistles and some fragments of

SYNNXdA (-ae), also 8YNNAS (4dis :
prob. Afiour-Kara-Hisary Ru.), a city in the
N. of Phrygia Salutaris, at first Incon.
siderable, but afterwards a place of much
importance, and from the time of Con-
stantine, the capital of Phrygia Salutaris.

StPHAX (-acis), king of the Massaesy-
Ifans, the W.-most tribe of the Numidians.
His history is related in the life of his con-
temporary and rival, Masinissa. Syphax
was taken prisoner by Masinissa, b.c. 203,
and was sent by Scipio, under the charge of
Laelius, to Rome, where he died shortly after.

St^RlCUSAE (.arum : Siracuaa in Italian,
Syracuse in English), the wealthiest and
most populous town in Sicily, was situ-
ated on the S. part of the E. coast,
400 stadia N. of the promontory Flem-
myrium, and 10 stadia N.E. of the mouth
of the river Anapus, near the lake or
marsh called SyrtieOf fh)m which it derived
its name. It was founded b.c. 734, one'year
after the foundation of Naxos, by a colony of
Corinthians and other Dorians, led by Archias
the Corinthian. The town was originally
confined to the island Ortygia lying imme-
diately off the coast ; but it afterwards spread
over the neighbouring mainland, and at the
time of its greatest extension under the elder
Dionysius it consisted of 5 distinct towns,
namely Oettoia, often called simply the
l-sLAKD, in which was the foiintain of Are-

thusa ; Achbadiiva, Ttche, Nsapolis, and
Epipglab. After Epipolue had been added
to the city, the circumference of Syracuse
was 180 stadia or upwards of 22 English
miles ; and the entire population of the city
is supposed to have amounted to 500,000
souls, at the time of its greatest prosperity.
— Syracuse had 2 harbours. The Great
Harbour, still called Porto Maggiore^ is a
splendid bay about 5 miles in circumference
formed by the island Ortygia and the pro-
montory Plemmyrium. The Small Harbour,
also called Laccitu^ lying between Ortygia
and Achradina, was capacious enough to
receive a large fleet of ships of war. — There
were several stone quarries {lautumiae) in
Syracuse, which are fi-equently mentioned by
ancient writers, and in which the unfortunate
Athenian prisoners were confined. On one
side of these quarries is the remarkable
excavation, called the Ear of Dionysius, in
which iC is said that this tyrant confined the
persons whom he suspected, and that ^e was
able from a little apartment above to overhear
the conversation of his captives. This talc
however is clearly an invention. — The modem
city of Syracuse is confined to the island.
The remaining quarters of the ancient city
are now uninhabited, and their position
marked only by a few ruins. Of these the
most important are the remains of the great
theatre, and of an amphitheatre of the Roman
period. — ^The government of Syracuse was
originally an aristocracy, and afterwards a
democracy, till Gelon made himself tyrant or
sovereign of Syracuse, b.c. 485. Under his
rule and that of his brother Hieron, Syracuse
was raised to an unexampled degree of wealth
and prosperity. Hieron died in 467, and
was succeeded by his brother Thrasybulus :
but the rapacity and cruelty of the latter
soon provoked a revolt among his subjects,
which led to his deposition and the establish,
ment of a democratical form of government.
The next most important event in the history
of Syracuse was the siege of the city by the
Athenians, which ended in the total destruc
tion of the great Athenian armament in 413.
The democracy continued to exist in Syracuse
till 406, when the elder Dionysius made him.
self tyrant of the city. After a long and
prosperous reign he was succeeded in 367 by
his son, the younger Dionysius, who was
finally expelled by Timoleon in 343. A
republican form of government was again
established ; but it did not last long ; and in
317 Syracuse fell under the sway of Agatbo-
cles. This tyrant died in 289 ; and the city
being distracted by factions, the Syracusans
voluntarily conferred the supreme power
upon Hieron II., with the title of king, in

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270. Hieron cultivated friendly relations
with the Romans; but on his death in 216,
at the advanced age of 92, his grandson
Hieronymus, who succeeded him, espoused
the side of the Carthaginians. A Roman
army under Marcellus was sent against
Syracuse ; and after a siege of 2 years, during
which Archimedes assisted his fellow-citizens
by the construction of various engines of
war [AacHiMBDBs], the city was taken by

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