William Smith.

A smaller classical dictionary of biography, mythology, and geography ... online

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wisdom, gained him the love both of Ancus
Marcius and of the people. The former ap-
pointed him guardian of his children ; and.



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TARQUINIUS.



412



TABRACINA.



when be died, the senate and the people
unanimoiuly elected Tarquinios to the racant
throne. The reign of Tarquinijis was dis-
tinguished by greut exploits in war, and by
irreat works in peace. He defeated the
Latins and Sabines; and the latter people
ceded to him the town of Collatia, where he
placed a garrison under the command of
Kgerias, the son of his deceased brother
Aruns, who took the surname of Collatinus.
Some traditions relate that Tarquinius de-
feated the Etruscans likewise. He erected
many public buildings, and other works, at
Rome, the most celebrated of which are the
vast sewers which still remain. Tarquinius
also made some important changes in the
constitution of the state. He was murdered
after a reign of 88 years at the instigation of
the sons of Ancus Marcius. But the latter
<lld not secure the reward of their crime, for
iServius Tullius, with the assistance of Tana,
quil, succeeded to the vacant throne. Servius
Tullius, whose life is given under Tullius,
was murdered after a reign of 44 years, by
his son-in-law, L. Tarquinius, who ascended
the vacant throne. — L. Tabquinius Suprrbus,
commenced his reign without any of the
forms of election. One of his first acts was
to abolish the rights which had been con-
ferred upon the plebeians by Servius ; and at
the same time all the senators and patricians
whom he mistrusted, or whose wealth he
coveted, were put to death or driven into
exile. He surrounded himself by a body-
jniard, by means of which he was enabled to
do what he liked. His cruelty and tyranny
obtained for him the surname of Superbus.
Hut, although a tyrant at home, he raised
llome to great influence and power among
the surrounding nations. He gave his
(laughter in marriage to Octavius Mamilius
of Tusculum, the most powerful of the Latin
chiefs; and under his sway Rome became
the head of the Latin confederacy. He de-
feated the Tolscians, and took the wealthy
town of Sucssa Pometia, with the spoils of
which he commenced the erection of the
Capitol which his father had vowed. In the
raults of this temple he deposited the 3
Sibylline books, which he purchased from a
Sibyl or prophetess for 300 pieces of gold ; a
price which he had at flrst scornfully refused.
He next engaged in war with Gabii, one of
the Latin cities, which refused to enter into
the league. Unable to take the city by force
of arms, Tarquinius had recourse to stratagem.
His son, Sextus, pretending to be ill-treated
by his father, and covered with the bloody
marks of stripes, fled to Gabii. The in-
fatuated inhabitants intrusted him with the
command of their troops; whereupon, at a



hint of his father, who stnick off the heads
of the tallest poppies in his garden before
the eyes of Sextus's messenger, he put to
death or banished all the leading men of
the place, and then had no difficulty in
compelling it to submit to his father. In
the midst of his prosperity Tarquinius fell
through a shameful outrage committed by his
son Sextus on Lncretia, the wife of his cousin
Tarquinius Collatinus. As soon as Sextos
had departed, Lucretia sent for her husband
and father. Collatinus came, accompanied
by L. Brutus; Lucretius, by P. Valerius,
who afterwards gained the surname of Pub-
licola. They found her in an agony of
sorrow. She told them what had happened,
enjoined them to avenge her dishonour, and
then stabbed herself to death. They all
swore to avenge her. Brutus threw off his
assimied stupidity, and placed himself at
their head. Brutus, who was Tribunus
Celerum, summoned the people, and related
the deed of shame. All classes were inflamed
with the same indignation. A decree was
passed deposing the king, and banishing him
and his family from the city. Tarquinius,
with his two sons, Titus and Arons, took
refuge at Caere in Etruria. Sextus repaired
to Gabii, his own principality, where he was
shortly after murdered by the friends of those
whom he had put to death. Tarquinius
reigrned 24 years. He was banished b.c.
510. The people of Tarquinii and Veil
espoused the cause of the exiled tyrant, and
marched against Rome. The two consuls
advanced to meet them. A bloody battle was
fought, in which Brutus and Aruns, the sons
of Tarquinius, slew each other. Tarquinius
next repaired to Lars Porsena, the powerful
king of Clusium, who marched against Rome
at the head of a vast army. The history of
this memorable expedition is related under
Porsena. After Porsena quitted Rome,
Tarquinius took refuge with his son-in-law,
Mamilius Octavius of Tusculum. Under the
guidance of the latter, the Latin states^
espoused the cause of the exiled king, and
declared war against Rome. The contest was
decided by the celebrated battle of the lake
Regillus, in which the Romans gained the
victory by the help of Castor and Pollux.
Tarquinius now fled to Aristobulus at Cumae,
where he died a wretched and childless old
man. Such is the story of the Tarquins ac-
cording to the ancient writers ; but it con-
tains numerous inconsistencies, and must not
be received as a real history.

TARRACINA (-ae : Terracina), more an-
ciently called ANXUR (-tlris), an ancient
town of Latium situated 58 miles S.£. ot
Rome on the Via AppiA and upon the coast.



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TARRACO.



413



TAURUS.



with a strongly fortified citadel upon a high
hill, on which stood the temple of Jupiter
Anxurus.

TARRAcO (-Onis : Tarragona)^ an ancient
town on the £. coast of Spain situated on
a rock 760 ft. high, hetween the river Iberus
and tiie Pyrenees on the river Tulcis. It
was founded by the Massilians, and was made
the head quarters of the 2 brothers P. and
Cn. Scipio, in their campaigns against the
Carthaginians in the 2nd Punic war. It sub-
seqnently became a populous and flourishing
town ; and Augustus, who wintered here (b.c.
26) after his Cantabrian campaign, made it
the capital of one of the 3 Spanish provinces
{Miapania Tarraconensis) and also a Roman
colony.

TARSIUS (-i : Tarza or Balikesri)^ a river
of Mysia, rising in Mt. Temnus, and flowing
N.E., through the Miletopolites Lacus, into
the Macestus.

TARSUS, TARSOS (-i: Tersus, Ru.), the
chief city of Cilicia, stood near the centre
of Cilicia Campestris, on the river Cydnus,
about 12 miles above its mouth. All that
can be determined with certainty as to its
origin seems to be that it was a very ancient
city of the Syrians, who were the earliest
known inhabitants of this part of Asia
Minor, and that it received Greek settlers
at an early x>eriod. At the time of the Mace-
donian invasion, it was held by the Persian
troops, who were about to bum it, when they
were prevented by Alexander's arrival. After
playing an important part as a military post
in the wars of the successors of Alexander,
and under the Syrian kings, it became, by
the i>eace between the Romans and Antiochus
the Great, the frontier city of the Syrian
kingdom on the N.W. As the power of the
Seleucidae declined, it suffered much from
the oppression of its governors, and from the
wars between the members of the royal
family. At the time of the Mithridatic War,
it suffered, on the one hand, from Tigranes,
who overran Cilicia, and, on the other, from
the pirates, who had their strongholds in the
mountains of Cilicia Aspera, and made frequent
incursions into the level country. From both
these enemies it was rescued by Pompey, who
made it the capital of the new Roman pro-
vince of Cilicia, b.c. 66. Under Augustus,
the city obtained immunity from taxes,
through the influence of the emperor's tutor,
the Stoic Athenodorus, who was a native of
the place. It enjoyed the favour, and was
called by the names, of several of the later
emperors. It was the scene of important
events in the wars with the Persians, the
Arabs, And the Turks, and also in the Cru-
sades. Tarsus was the birth-place of many



distinguished men, and above all, of the
Apostle Paul.

TARTARUS (-i), son of Aether and Gf,
and by his mother Ge the father of the
Gigantes, Typhoeus, and Echidna. In the
Iliad Tartarus is a place beneath the earth,
as far below Hades as Heaven is above the
earth, and closed by iron gates. Later poets
use the name as synonymous with Hades.

TARTESSUS (-i), an ancient town in
Spain, and one of the chief settlements of the
Phoenicians, probably the same as the Tar-
shish of Scripture. The whole country W. '
of Gibraltar was also called Taktessis.

TARUSCON or TARASCON (-onis : Taras.
con), a town of the Salyes in Gaul, on the E.
bank of the Rhone, K. of Arelate, and E.
of Nemausus.

TARVIsiUM (-i : Tref)iso\ a town of
Venetia in the N. of Italy, on the river Silis,
which became the seat of a bishopric, and a
place of importance in the middle ages.

TATIUS,T., kingof theSabines. [Romulus.]

TATTA {Tuz-Gol), a great salt lake in the
centre of Asia Minor.

TAULANTII (-orum), a people of Illyria,
in the neighbourhood of Epidamnus.

TAUNUS (-i : Tanntu)^ a range of moun-
tains in Germany, at no great distance from
the confluence of the Moenus (Jfain) and the
Rhine.

TAURASIA. [TATJRnn.]

TAURENTUM (-i) and TAUROlS (-entis),
a fortress belonging to Maseilia, and near the
latter city.

TAURI (-drum), a wild and savage people
in European Sarmatia, who sacrificed all
strangers to a goddess whom the Greeks
identified with Artemis (Diana). The Tauri
dwelt in the peninsula which was called after
them Chersonesus Taurica.

TAURINI (-orum), a people of Liguria
dwelling on the upper course of the Po, at
the foot of the Alps. Their chief town was
Taurasia, afterwards colonised by Augustus,
and called Augusta Taurinorum {Turin).

TAURISCI (-orum), a Celtic people in
Noricum, and probably the old Celtic name
of the entire population of the country,

TAUROTS. [Tatjeentum.]

TAUROMENIUM (-i : Taormina), a city
on the E. coast of Sicily, situated on Mt.
Taurus, from which it derived its name, an<l
founded B.C. 358 by Andromachus with the
remains of the inhabitants of Naxos.

TAURUS (-i: from the Aramaean Tnr, a
high mountain : Taurus^ Ala-Dagh^ and other
special names), a great mountain chain of
Asia. In its widest extent, the name was
applied, by the later geographers, to the
whole of the great chain, which runs through



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TAVIUM.



414



TELCHINE8.



Asia from W. to E. ; but in its tisQal signi.
fication, it denotes the mountain-chain in the
s. of Ajda Minor, which begins at the Sacrum
ur Chelidoninm Prom, at the S.E. angle of
Lycia, surrounds the gulf of Pamphylia,
jMMsing through the middle of Pisidia ; then
;dong the 8. frontier of Lycaonia and Cappa-
docia, which it divides from Ciliciaand Com>
magene ; thence, after being broken through
by the Euphrates, it proceeds almost due E.
through the 8. of Armenia, forming the
watershed between the sources of the Tigris
on the 8., and the streams which feed the
upper Euphrates and the Araxes on the N. ;
thus it continues as far as the S. margin of
the lake Arsissa, where it ceases to bear the
name of Taurus, and is continued in the
chain which, under the names of Niphates,
Zagros, &c.f forms the N.E. margin of the
Tigris and Euphrates Talley.

TAviUM (-i: prob. Bofffiaz £»enl, Ru.),
the capital of the Trocmi, in Galatia, stood
on the £. side of the Halys, but at some dis-
tance from the rirer, and formed the centre
of meeting for roads leading to all parts of
Asia Minor.

TAXIlA or TAXIALA (-5rum), an im-
portant city of India intra Gangem, stood in
a large and fertile plain between the Indus
and the Hydaspes, and was the capital of the
Indian king Taziles.

TAXILES. (1) An Indian prince or king,
who reigned orer the tract between the Indus
and the Hydaspes, at the period of the expe-
dition of Alexander, b.c. 327. His real name
was Mophis, or Omphis, and the Greeks
appear to have called him Taxiles or Taxilas,
from the name of his capital city of Taxila.
— (2) A general in the service of Mithridates
the Great.

TAtGETfi, (-6s), daughter of Atlas and
. Pleione, one of the Pleiades, from whom
Mt. Taygetus in Laconia is said to have
derived its name. By Zeus (Jupiter), she
became the mother of Lacedaemon and of
Eurotas.

XAIfGETUS or TitGETUM (-i), or
TA"tGETA (-orum), a lofty range of moun-
tains of a wild and savage character, sppa.
rating Laconia and Messenia, and extending
from the frontiers of Arcadia down to the
Prom. Taenarum.

TEANUM (-i). (1) Aptjlum (nr. Ponte
Rotto), a town of Apulia on the river Frento
and the confines of the Frentani, 18 miles
from Larinum. — (2) Sidicinum {Teano), an
important town of Campania, and the capital
of the Sidicini, situated on the N. slope of
Mt. Massicus and on the Via Praenestina,
6 miles W. of Gales.

TEAruS (-i: Jearnt Deara or Dere), a



river of Thrace, the waters of which were
useful in curing cutaneous diseases.

TEATE (-is : Chieti), the capital of the
Marrucini, situated on a steep hill on the
river Atemus, and on the road from Ater-
num to Corfinium.

TECME8SA (-ae), the daughter of the
Phrygian king Teleutas, whose territory was
ravaged by the Greeks during a predatory
excursion from Troy. Tecmessa was taken
prisoner, and was given to Ajax, the son of
Telamon, by whom she had a son, Eurysaces.

TECTOSXgES (-um). (1) In Gallia.
[YoLCAB.] — (2) In Asia Minor. [Gaijltia.]

TEGEA (-ae). (1) {Piali), an important
city of Arcadia, and the capital of the district
Tbobatis, which was bounded on the E. by
Argolis and Laconica, on the 8. by Laconia,
on the W. by Maenalia, and on the N. by
the territory of Mantinea. It was one of thr
most ancient towns of Arcadia, and is said to
have been founded by Tegeates, the son of
Lycaon. The Tegeatae sent 3000 men to
the battle of Plataea, in which they were
distinguished for their bravery. They re-
mained faithftilto 8parta in the Peloponnesian
war ; but after the battle of Leuctra they
joined the rest of the Arcadians in establish,
ing their independence. During the wars of
the Achaean league Tegea was taken both by
Cleomenes, king of Sparta, and Antigonus
Doson, king of Macedonia, and the ally of
the Achaeans. — (2) A town in Crete, said to
have been founded by Agamemnon.

TELAMON (-onis), son of Aeacus and
EndeVs, and brother of Peleus. Havinjr
assisted Peleus in slaying their half-brother
Phocus [Pkleus], Telamon was expelled from
Aegina, and came to Salamis. Here he was
first married to Glauce, daughter of Cychreus,
king of the island, on whose death Telamon
became king of Salamis. He afterwards
married Periboea or Eriboea, daughter of
Alcathous, by whom he became the father of
Ajax, who is hence frequently called Tela-
moni&dis, and Telamonlus heros, Telamon
himself was one of the Calydonian hunters
and one of the Argonauts. He was also a
gfreat friend of Hercules, whom he joined in
his expedition against Laomedon of Troy,
which city he was the first to enter. Her-
cules, in return, gave to him Theanira or
Hesione, a daughter of Laomedon, by whom
he became the father of Teucer andTrambelus.

TELAMON (Telamone), a town and harbour
of Etruria, a few miles S. of the river Umbro,
said to have been founded by Telamon on his
return from the Argonautic expedition.

TELCHINES (-um), a family or a tribe,
said to have been descended from Thalassa ot
Poseidon (Neptune). They are represented



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TELEBOAE.



415



TEMESA.



in 8 difTerent aspects : — (1.) As eulHvatora of
the soil and ministers of the gods. As such
they came ftrom Crete to Cyprus, and from
thence to Rhodes, where they founded Cami-
rus, laiysus, and Lindus. Rhodes, which
was named after them TelchinU^ was aban>
doned by them, because they foresaw that
the island would be inundated. Poseidon
was intarusted to them by Rhea, and they
brought him up in conjunction with Caphira,
a daughter of Oceanus. Rhea, Apollo and
Zeus (Jupiter), however, are also described
as hostile to the Telchines. Apollo is said
to have assumed the shape of a wolf, and to
have thus destroyed the Telchines, and Zeus
to have overwhelmed them by an inimdation.
(2.) As sorcerers and envious daemons. Their
very eyes and aspect are said to have been
destructive. They had it in their power to
bring on hail, rain, and snow, and to assume
any form they pleased ; they farther mixed
Stygian water with sulphur, in order thereby
to destroy animals and plants. {Z.)As artists^
for they are said to have invented usefal
arts and institu^tions, and to have made
images of the gods. They worked in brass
and iron, made the sickle of Cronos and the
trident of Poseidon.

TfiLEBOAE. [Taphiah.]

TELEGONUS (-i), son of Ulysses and
Circe. After Ulysses had returned to Ithaca,
Circe sent out Telegonus in search of his
father. A storm cast his ship on the coast
of Ithaca, and being pressed by hunger, he
liegan to plunder the fields. Ulysses and
Telemachus being informed of the ravages
caused by the stranger, went out to fight
against him ; but Telegonus ran Ulysses
through with a spear which he had received
from his mother. At the command of Athena
(Minerva). Telegonus, accompanied by Tele-
machus and Penelope, went to Circe in Aeaea,
there buried the body of Ulysses, and mar-
ried Penelope, by whom he became the father
of Italus.

TELEMACHUS (4), son of Ulysses and
Penelope. He was still an infant when his
father went to Troy ; and when the latter
had been absent from home nearly 20 years,
Telemachus went to Pylos and Sparta, to
gather information concerning him. He was
hospitably received by Nestor, who sent his
own son to conduct Telemachus to Sparta.
Menelaus also received him kindly, and com-
mimicated to him the prophecy of Proteus
concerning Ulysses. From Sparta Telema-
chus returned home ; and on his arrival
there he found his father, whom he assisted
in slaying the suitors.

TELEMUS (-i), son of Eurymus, and a
celebrated soothsayer.



TfiLEPHUS (-i), son of Hercules and
Ange, the daughter of king Aleus of Tegea.
On reaching manhood, he consulted the
Delphic oracle to learn his parentage, and
was ordered to go to king Teuthras in Mysia.
He there foimd his mother, and succeeded
Teuthras on the throne of Mysia. He
married Laodice or Astyoche, a daughter of
Priam; and he attempted to prevent the
Greeks from landing on the coast of Mysia.
Dionysus (Bacchus), however, caused him to
sttmible over a vine, whereupon he was
woimded by Achilles. Being informed by an
oracle that the wound could only be cxired
by him who had inflicted it, Telephus re-
paired to the Grecian camp ; and as the
Greeks had likewise learnt from an oracle
that without the aid of Telephus they could
not reach Troy, Achilles cured Telephus by
means of the rust of the spear with which
he had been wounded. Telephus, in return,
pointed out to the Greeks the road which
they had to take.

TELESIA (-ae : Telese)^ a town in Sam-
nium, on the road from Allifae to Bene-
rentum^

TELESILLA (-ae), of Argos, a celebrated
lyric poetess and heroine, flourished about
B.C. 610. She led a band of her country-
women in the war with the Spartans.

TELESlNUS, PONTIUS. [Ponttos.]

TELLENAE (-arum), a town in Latium
between the later Via Ostiensis and the Via
Appia.

TELLUS. [Gaka.]

TELMESSUS or TELMISSUS (-i).
(1) (Jfigi, the port of Macri^ Ru.), a city of
Lycia, near the borders of Carla, on a gulf
called Telmissicus Sinus, and close to the
promontory Telmissis. — (2) A town of Caria,
60 stadia (6 geog. miles) from Halicamassus.

TELO (-onis), MARTIUS {Toulon\ a port
town of Gallia Narbonensis on the Medi-
terranean.

TELOS (-i: Telos or Pishopi), a small
island of the Carpathian sea, one of tne
Sporades.

TELPHUSSA. [Thelpusa.]

TEMENIDAE. [Tbmenus ]

TEMENUS (-i), son of Aristomachns, wfc»
one of the Heraclidae who invaded Pelopoi. -
nesus. After the conquest of the peninsula,
he received Argos as his share. His de-
scendants, the Temenidae, being expelled
from Argos, are said to have founded the
kingdom of Macedonia, whence the kings of
Macedonia called themselves Temenidae.

TEMESA or TEMPSA (-ae : Torre del
Lnpi), a town in Bruttium on the Sinus
Terinaeus, and one of the most ancient Ausu-
nian towns in the S. of Italy,



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TEMPE.



416



TERENTIUS.



TEMPfi (neat pL indcl.), a beantifbl and
romantie Talley in the N. of Thesaaly between
Mts. Olympos and Oaea, through which the
Peneos escapes into the sea. The lovelj
8oenei7 of this glen is frequently described
by the ancient poets and declaimers ; and it
was also eelebrated as one of the faToorite
hanifts of Apollo, who transplanted his
laurel from this spot to Delphi. So oele-
brated was the scenery of Temp^ that its
name was given to any beautiful ralley.
Thus we find a Temp^ in the land of the
Sabines, near Reate, through which the river
Velinus flowed ; and also a Temp^ in Sicily,
through which the river Helorus flowed, henoe
called by Ovid Tempe Heloria.

TENCTERI or TENCHTERI (-Crum), a
people of Germany dwelling on the Rhine
between the Ruhr and the Sieg, S. of the
Usipetes, in conjunction with whom th^
name usually occurs.

TENED08 or TENEDU8 (-i), a small
island of the Aegaean sea, off the coast of
lYoas, of an importance very disproportionate
to its size, on account of its position near the
mouth of the Hellespont, from which it is
about 12 miles distant. It appears in the
legend of the Trojan War as the station to
which the Greeks withdrew their fleet, in
order to induce the Trojans to think that
they had departed, and to receivr the wooden
horse. In the Persian War it was used by
Kerzes as a naval station. It afterwards be-
came a tributary ally of Athens, and adhered
to her during the whole of the Peloponnesian
War, and down to the peace of Antaloidas,
by which it was surrendered to the Persians.
At the Macedonian conquest the Tenedians
trained their liberty.

TENES or TENNE8, son of Cycnus and
Proclea, and brother of Hemithea. Cycnus
was king of Colonae in Troas. His 2nd wiJe
was Philonome, who fell in love with her
step-son; but as he repulsed her advances
she accused him to his father, who put both
his son and daughter into a chest, and threw
them into the sea. But the chest was driven
on the coast of the island of Leucophrys, of
which the inhabitants elected Tenes king,
and which he called Tenedos, after his own
name.

TENOS (4 : Tino)^ a small island in the
Aegaean sea, S.E. of Andros and N. of
Delos.

TENTtRA (-drum: Denderah, Ru.), a
city of Upper Egypt, on the western bank of
the Nile, between Abydos and Coptos, with
celebrated temples of Athor (the Egyptian
Venus), Isis, and Typhon. There are still
magnificent remains of the temples of Athor
and of Isis: in the latter was found the



celebrated Zodiac, which is now preserved at
Paris.

TEOS (-1: 8iffhqfik)f one of the Ionian
cities on the eoast of Asia Minor, renowned
as the birthplace of the lyric poet Anacreon
It stood at the bottom of the bay between the
promontories of Coryoeum and Myonncsus.

TERENTIA (-ae). (1) Wife of M. Cicero,
the orat<H', to whom she fk)re 2 children, a
son and daughter. She was a woman of
sound sense and great resolution ; and her
firmness of character was of no small service
to her weak and vacillating husband in some
important periods of his life. During the civil
war, however, Cicero was offended with her
conduct, and divorced her in b.c. 46. Terentia
is said to have attained the age of 103. —
(2) Also called TsasirrnxA, the wife of Mae-
cenas, and also one of the favourite mistresses
of Augustus.

TERENTIUS(-i) AFER, P., usually caUed
Tbbxmcx, the celebrated comic poet, was bom
at Carthage, b.c. 195. By birth or purchase
he became the slave of P. Terentius Lucanns,
a Roman senator. A handsome person and
promising talents recommended Terence to
his master, who afforded him the best
education of the age, and finally manumitted
him. On his manumission, according to the
usual practice, Terence assumed his patron'«
name, Terentius, having been previously
called Publius or Publipor. The Attdria wan
the first play offered by Terence for repre-
sentation. The curule aediles referred the
piece to Caecilius, then one of the most
popular play-writers at Rome. Unknown
and meanly dad, Terence began to read from
a low stool his opening scene. A few verses
showed the elder poet that no ordinary writer
was before him, and the young aspirant, then



Online LibraryWilliam SmithA smaller classical dictionary of biography, mythology, and geography ... → online text (page 80 of 90)