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in his 27 th year, was invited to share the
couch and supper of his judge. This reading
of the Andriay however, must have preceded
its performance nearly two years, for Caecilius
died in 168, and it was not acted till 166.
Meanwhile, copies were in circulation, envy
was awakened, and Luscius Lavinius, a
veteran, and not very successful play-writer,
began his unwearied attacks on the dramatic
and personal character of the author. The
Andria was successful, and, aided by the ac
complishments and good address of Terence
himself, was the means of introducing him
to the most refined and intellectual circles of
Rome. His chief patrons were Laelius and
the younger Scipio, both of whom treated
him as an equal, and are said even to have
assisted him in the composition of his plays.
After residing some years at Rome, Terence
went to Greece, where he devoted himself to
the study of Menander's comedies. He never

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retur&ed to Italy, and we have various, but
no certain, accounts of his death. He died
in the 36th year of his age, in 159, or in the
year following. Six comedies are all that
remain to us ; and they are probably all that
Terence produced. They are founded on
Greek originals, but we have corresponding
fragments enough of Menander to prove that
Terence retouched and sometimes improved
his model. In summing up his merits, we
ought not to omit the praise which has been
universally accorded him — that, although a
foreigner and a freedman, he divides with
Cicero and Caesar the palm of pure Latinity.
TEREUS (-6o8,or -ei), son of Ares (Mars),

' king of the Thracians in Daulis, afterwards
Phocis. Pandion, king of Attica, who had 2
daughters, FhilomSla and Procne, called in
the assistance of Tereus against some enemy,
and gave him his daughter Procne in marriage.
Tereus became by her the father of Itys, and
then concealed her in the country, that he
might thus marry her sister Philomela, whom
he deceived by saying that Procne was dead.
At the same time he deprived Philomela of
her tongue. Ovid {Met. vi. 566) reverses the
story by stating that Tereus told Procne that
her sister Philomela was dead. Philomela,
however, soon learned the truth, and made it
known to her sister by a few words which
she wove into a peplus. Procne thereupon
killed her own son Itys, and served up the
flesh of the child in a diah before Tereus.
She then fled with her sister, Tereus pur-
sued them with an axe, and when the sisters

« were overtaken they prayed to the gods to
change them into birds. Procne, accord-
ingly, became a nightingale, Philomela a
swaUow, and Tereus a hoopoo. According
to some, Procne became a swallow, Philomela
a nightingale, and Tereus a hawk.

TERGESTE (-is : Trieste), a town of Istria,
on a bay in the N.E. of the Adriatic gulf
called after it Tergestinus Sinus. It was
made a Roman colony by Vespasian.


TERINA (-ae: St. Eufemia), a town on
the W. coast of Bruttium, from which the
Sinus Terinaeus derived its name.

tress in Rhaetia, which has given its name to
the country of the Tyrol.

TERMESSUS (-i ; prob. Shenel, Ru.), a
dty of Pisidia, high up on the Taurus.

TERMINUS (-i), a Roman divinity, pre-
siding over boimdaries and frontiers. His
worship is said to have been instituted by
Numa, who ordered that every one should
mark the boundaries of his landed property
by stones consecrated to Jupiter, and at these

boundary-stones every year sacrifices should
be offered at the festival of the Terminalia.
The Terminus of the Roman state originally
stood between the 5th and 6th milestone on
the road towards Laurentimi, near a place
called Festi. Another public Terminus stood
in the temple of Jupiter in the Capitol.

TERPANDER (-dri), the father of Greek
music, and through it of lyric poetry. He
was a native of Antissa in Lesbos, and
flourished between b.o. 700 and 650. He
established the first musical school or system
that existed in Greece, and added 3 sttings
to the lyre, wUch before his time had only 4.

T£RPSICH6r£ (-€8), one of the 9 Muses,
presided over the choral song and dancing.

TERRA. [Gaea.]

TERRACINA. [Tabkacina.]

TESTA (-ae), C. TREBATIUS, a Roman
jurist, and a contemporary and firiend of
Cicero. Trebatius enjoyed considerable re-
putation under Augustus as a lawyer. Horace
addressed to him the 1st Satire of the 2nd

TETHTS (-^08, aee. -ja, and -Jn), daughter
of Uranus and Gaea, and wife of Oceanus, by
whom she became the mother of the Oceanides
and or the numerous river-gods.

TETRIca (-ae), a mountain on the frontiers
of Pisenum and the land of the Sabines, be-
longing to the great chain of the Apennines.

TETRiCUS (-i), C. PESUVIUS, one of the
Thirty Tyrants, and the last of the pretenders
Mho ruled Gaul during its separation from
the empire under Gallienus and his sue- .
cesser, a.d. 267—274.

TEUCER (-cri). (i) Son of the river-god
Scamander by the nymph Idaea, was the first
king of Troy, whence the Trojans are some- .
times called Teucri. — (2) Son of Telamon and
Hesione, was a step-brother of Ajax, and the
best archer among the Greeks at Troy. He
founded the town of Salamis, in Cyprus, and
married Eune, the daughter of Cyprus, by
whom he became the father of Asteria.


TEUMESSUS (-i), a mountain in Boeotia,
near Hypatus, and close to Thebes, on the
road from the latter place to Chalcis.


TEUTHRAS (-antis), an ancient king of
Mysia. He was succeeded in the kingdom of
Mysia by Telephus. [Telephus.] The 50
daughters of Teuthras, given as a reward to
Hercules, are called by Ovid Teuthrantia

TEUTHRAS (prob. Demirji-Lagh), a moun-
tain in the Mysian district of Teuthrania, a
S.W. branch of Temnus.


£ £

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hills in Germany, extending fh)m OsnabHiok
to Paderbom (the Teutoburger Wald or Xtp<
pUehe Wald). It is celebrated on account of
the defeat and destmction of Yams and S
Boman legriona by the Germans under Armi-
nius, A.D. 9.

TEUT(5nE8 (-urn) or TEUT5NI (-Crum),
a powerful people in Germany, who probably
dwelt on the coast of the Baltic, near the
Oimbri. They invaded Gaul and the Boman
dominions, along with the Cimbri, at the lat-
ter end of the 2nd century b.c.

Jdtel IW*), an isolated mountain at the £.
end of the plain of Esdraelon in Galilee.

THAIS (-Idis), a celebrated Athenian cour-
tesan, who accompanied Alexander the Great
on his expedition into Asia. After the death of
'Alexander, Thai's attached herself to Ptolemy
Lagi, by whom she became the mother of two
sons, Leontiscus and Lagus, and of a daugh-
ter, Irene.

THALA (-ae), a great city of Numidia,
mentioned by Sallust and other writers, and
probably identical with Tblsptk or Thslbpts,
a city in the S. of Numidia, 7 1 Boman miles
N.W. of Capsa.

LASSIO (^nis), a Boman senator of the time
of Bomulus. At the time of the rape of the
Sabine women, when a maiden of surpassing
beauty was carried off for Thalassius, the
persons conducting her, in order to protect
her against any assaults from others, ex-
claimed " for Thalassius." Hence, it is said,
arose the wedding shout with which a bride
at Borne was conducted to the house of her

THALfiS (-etis and -is), the Ionic philo-
sopher, and one of the Seven Sages, was bom
at Miletus about b.c. 636, and died about 546,
at the age of 90, though the exact date nei-
ther, of his birth nor of his death is known.
He is said to have predicted the eclipse of the
son which happened in the reign of the
Lydian king Alyattes ; to have diverted the
course of the Halys in the time of Croesiis ;
and later, in order to unite the lonians, when
threatened by the Persians, to have instituted
a federal council in Teos. He was one of the
founders in Greece of the study of philosophy
and mathematics. Thales maintained that
water is the origin of things, meaning thereby,
that It is water out of which every thing
arises, and into which every thing resolves
itself. Thales left no works behind him.

THXlES or THALETAS (-ae), the cele-
brated musician and lyric poet, was a native
of Gortyna, in Crete, and probably flourished
snortl^ after Terpander.

THALTa (.ae). (1) One of the Musee,

and, at least in later times, the Muse of
Ctomedy. [Musab.]— (2) One of the Nereides.
— (3) One of the Charites or Graces.

THALLO. [Horab.]

THAMf BIS (-is) or THAMtBAS (-ae),
an ancient Thracian bard, was a son of Phil-
ammon, and the nymph Argiope. In his
presumptfon he challenged the Muses to a
trial of skill, and being overcome in the con-
test, was deprived by them of his sight and
of the power of singing. He was represented
with a broken lyre in his hand.

THInaTOS. [Moes.]

THAPSlCUS (-i: O.T. Thipsach : an
Aramean word, signified a /ord .• at the ford
of EUHamtnan^ near Rakkah^ E«Of » city »f
Syria, in the province of Chalybonitfs, on the
left bank of the Euphrates, 2000 stadia 8. of
Zeugma, and 15 parasangs from the mouth
of the river Chaboras (the Araxes of Xeno.

THAPSUS (-i). (1) A city on the E.
coast of Sicily, on a peninsula of the same
name {Isola degli MagnUi), — (2) {Demos,
Bu.), a city on the £. coast of Byzacena, in

THA808 or THXsUS (-i : Thaso or Timo),
an island in the N. of the Aegaean sea, off the
coast of Thrace, and opposite the mouth of the
river Nestus. It was at a very early period
taken possession of by the Phoenicians, on
account of its valuable gold mines. Accord-
ing to tradition the Phoenicians were
led by Thasus, son of Poseidon (Neptune),
or Agenor, who came ftrom the East in search
of Europa, and from whom the island de-
rived its name. Thasos was afterwards
colonised by the Parians, b.c. 708, and
among the colonists was the poet Archilochus.
The Thraoians once possessed a considerable
territory on the coast of Thrace, and were
one of the richest and most powerful peoples
in the N. of the Aegaean. They were sub-
dued by the Persians under Mardonius, and
subsequently became part of tbe Athenian
maritime empire. They revolted, however,
from Athens, in b.c. 465, and after sustain-
ing a siege of 8 years, were subdued by
Cimon in 463. They again revolted from
Athens in 411, and CAllod in the Spartans,
but the island was again restored to the
Athenians by Thrasybulus in 407.

THAUMA8 (-antis), son of Pontus and
Ge, and by the Ocoanid Electra, the father
of Iris and the Harpies. Hence Iris is called
ThautnantiaSf Thaumantis^ and Thattmantia
virgo. ^

THEiNO (-08). (1) Daughter of Cisseus,
wife of Antenor, and priestess of Athena
(Minerva) at Iliou. — <2) A celebrated female
philosopher of the Pythagorean school.

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appears to have been the -wife of Pytha-
(roras, and the mother by him of Telanges,
Mnesarchos, Myia, and Arignote; but the
accounts respecting her were various.

THEBAE (4lrum), in the poets sometimes
i.e.. Great Oity of Jwt^ in Scripture NO, or
NO AMMON, was the capital of Thebats, or
Upper Egypt, and, for a long time, of the
whole country. It was reputed the oldest
city of the world. It stood in about the
centre of the ThebaSd, on both banks of the
Nile, above Coptos, and in the Nomos Cop.
tites. It appears to have been at the height
of its splendour, as the capital of Egypt, and
as a chief seat of the worship of Ammon,
about B.C. 1600. The fame of its grandeur
had reached the Greeks as early as the time
of Homer, who describes it, with poetical
exag^ration, as having a hundred gates,
from each of which it could send out 200
war chariots, fully armed. Its real extent
was calculated by the Greek writers at 140
stadia (14 geog. miles) in circuit. That
these computations are not exaggerated, .is
proved by the existing ruins, which extend
from side to side of the valley of the Nile,
here about 6 miles wide; while the rocks
which bound the valley are perforated with
tombs. These ruins, which are perhaps the
most magnificent in the world, enclose
within their site the 4 modem villages of
CkxmaCy Luxor ^ Medinet Abou, and Ooumou.

THEBAE (-arum), in JSwroptf. (I) {Theba,
Turkish Stwa)^ the chief city in Boeotia, was
situated in a plain S.E. of the lake Hylice, and
N.E. of Flataeae. Its acropolis, which was an
oval eminence, of no great height, was called
Caomba, because it was said to have been
founded by Cadmus, the leader of a Phoe-
nician colony. It is said that the fortifications
of the city were constructed by Amphion and
his brother Zethus ; and that, when Amphion
played his lyre, the stones moved of their
own accord, and formed the wall. The terri-
tory of Thebes was called Thebais, and
extended E.-wards as far as the Euboean sea.
No city is more celebrated in the mythical
ages of Greece than Thebes. It was here
that the use of letters was first introduced
from Phoenicia into W. Europe. It was the
reputed birthplace of the 2 great divinities,
Dionfsus (Bacchus) and Hercules. It was
also the native city of the seer Tiresias, as
well as of the great musician, Amphion. It
was the scene of the tragic fate of Oedipus,
and of the war of the " Seven against
Thebes." A few years afterwards "The
Epigoni," or descendants of the seven heroes,
marched against Thebes to revenge their
fathers' death -, they took the city, and razed

it to the ground. It appears at the earliest
historical period as a large and flourishing
city ; and it is represented as possessing 7
gates, the nupber assigned to it in the
ancient legends. The Thebans were from an
early period inveterate enemies of their
neighbours,, the Athenians. In the Pelopon-
neslan war they espoxised the Spartan side,
and contributed not a little to the downfall of
Athens. But, in common with the other
Greek states, they soon became disgusted
with the Spartan supremacy, and joined tht
confederacy formed against Sparta in b.o.
394. The peace of Antalcidas, in 387, put
an end to hostilities in Greece; but the
treacherous seizure of the Cadmea by the
Lacedaemonian general, Phoebidas, in 882,
and its reeovery by the Theban exiles in 879,
led to a war between Thebes and Sparta, in
which the former not only recovered its inde-
pendence, but for ever destroyed the Lace-
daemonian supremacy. This was the most
glorious period in the Theban annals ; and
the decisive defeat of the Spartans at the
battle of Leuctra, in 371, made Thebes the
first power in Greece. Her greatness, how-
ever, was mainly due to the pre-eminent
aoilities of her citizens, Epaminondas and
Pelopidas ; and with the death of the former
at the batUe of Mantinea, in 362, she lost the
supremacy which she had so recently gained.
The Thebans were induced, by the eloquence
of Demosthenes, to forget their old animosi-
ties against the Athenians, and to join the
latter in protecting the liberties of Greece
against Philip of Macedon ; but their united
forces were defeated by Philip, at the battle
of Chaeronea, in 338. Soon after the death
of Philip and the accession of Alexander, the
Thebans made a last attempt to recover their
liberty, but were cruelly punished by the
young king. The city was taken by Alex-
ander in 336, and was entirely destroyed,
with the exception of the temples, and the
house of the poet Pindar ; 6000 inhabitants
were slain, and 80,000 sold as slaves. In
316 the city was rebuilt by Cassander, with
the assistance of the Athenians. In 290 it
was taken by Demetrius Poliorcetes, and
again sitffered greatly. After the Macedonian
period Thebes rapidly declined in importance ;
and it received its last blow fh)m Bulla, who
gave half of its territory to the Delphians. —
(2) Sumamed Phthioticab, an important
city of Thessaly, in the district Phthiotis.

THEBAJs. [Akotptus.]

THEBE (-gs), a city of Mysia, on the
wooded slope of M. Placus, destroyed by
Achilles. It was said to have been the birth,
place of Andromache and Chryseis.

THEMIS (-Idis), daughter of Urftnus and
E E 2

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Q^ was married to Zeus (Jupiter), by whom
•he became the mother of the Horae, En-
nomia. Dice (Astraea), Irene, and of the
Moerae. In the Homeric poems, Themis is
the personification of the order of things
established by law, costom, and equity,
whence she is described as reigning in the
assemblies of men, and as convening, by the
command of Zeus, the assembly of the gods.
She dwells in Olympus, and is on friendly
terms with Hera (Juno). She is also described
as a prophetic divinity, and is said to have
been in possession of the Delphic oracle as
the successor of Ge, and predecessor of Apollo.
Nymphs, believed to be daughters of Zeus
and Themis, lived in a cave t>n the river
Eridanus, and the Hesperides also are called
daughters of Zeus and Themis. On coins she
often bears a resemblance to the figure of
Athena (Minerva), and holds a cornucopia and
a pair jof scales.

THEMISCTEA, a plain on the coast of
Pontus, extending E. of the river Iris, beyond
the Thermddon, celebrated from very ancient
times as the country of the Amazons.

THEMISTIUS (-i), a distinguished phi-
losopher and rhetorician, was a Paphlagonian,
and flourished, first at Constantinople, and
afterwards at Rome, in the reigns of Con-
stantius, Julian, Jovian, Yalens, Gratian,
and Theodosius.

THEMISTOCLES (-is), the celebrated
Athenian, was the son of Neocles and Abrd.
t5non, a Thracian woman, and was bom
about B.C. 514. In his youth he had an im-
petuous character ; he displayed great intel-
lectual power, combined with a lofty ambition,
and desire of political distinction. He began
his career by setting himself in opposition to
those who had most power, and especially to
Aristides, to whose ostracism (in 483) he'
contributed. From this time he was the
I>olitical leader in Athens. In 481 he was
Archon Eponymus; about which time he
persuaded the Athenians to employ the pro-
duce of the silver mines of Laurium in
building ships, instead of distributing it
among the Athenian citizens. Upon the
invasion of Greece by Xerxes, Themistocles
was appointed to the command of the Athe-
nian fleet; and to his energy, prudence,
foresight, and courage, the Greeks mainly
owed their salvation from the Persian do-
minion. Upon the approach of Xerxes, the
Athenians, on the advice of Themistocles,
deserted their city, and removed their
women, children, and infirm persons, to Sala-
mis, Aegina, and Troezen. A panic having
seized the Spartans and other Greeks, The-
mistocles sent a faithful slave to the Persian
commanders, informing them that the Greeks

intended to make their escape, and that the
Persians had now the opportunity of accom-
pushing a noble enterprise, if they would
only cut off their retreat. The Persians
believed what they were told, and in the
night their fleet occupied the whole of the
channel between Salamis and the mainland.
The Greeks were thus compelled to fight;
and the result was the great and glorious
victory, in which the greater part of the fleet
of Xerxes was destroyed. This victory,
which was due to Themistocles, established
his reputation among the Greeks. Yet his
influence does not appear to have survived
the expulsion of the Persians from Greece
and the fortification of the ports of Athens,
to which he had advised the Athenians. He
was tirobably accused of peculation, and
perhaps justly, for he was not very scru-
pulous; at all events he was ostracised in
471, and retired to Argoe. After the dis-
covery of the treasonable correspondence of
Pausanias with the Persian king, the Lacedae-
monians sent to Athens to accuse Themis-
tocles of being privy to the design of
Fausanias; whereupon the Athenians sent
off persons with the Lacedaemonians with
instructions to arrest him (466). Themis,
tocles, hearing of what was designed against
him, first fled from Argos to Corcyra ; then
to Epirus, where he took refuge in the house
of Admetus, king of the Molossi, and flnally
reached the coast of Asia in safety. Xerxes
was now dead (465), and Artaxerxes was on
the throne. Themistocles went up to visit
the king at his royal residence ; and on his
arrival he sent the king a letter, in which he
promised to do him a good service, and
prayed that he might be allowed to wait a
year, and then to explain personally what
brought him there. In a. year he made him-
self master of the Persian language and the
Persian usages, and, being presented to the
king, obtained the greatest influence over
him, and was presented with a handsome
allowance, after the Persian fashion. Mag-
nesia supplied him with bread, Lampsacus
with wine, and Myus with the other pro-
visions. But before he could accomplish any-
thing he died, probably by poison, ad-
ministered by himself, from despair of
accomplishing anything against his country.
Themistocles had great talents, but little
morality; and thus ended his career, un-
happily and ingloriously. He died in 449,
at the age of 65.

THEOCLtMENUS (-i), a soothsayer, son
of Polj-phides of Hyperasia, and a descendant
of Melampus.

THEOCRITUS (-i). (1) Of Chios, an
orator, sophist, and perhaps an historian, in

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the time of Alexander the Great. None of
his -works are extant with the exception of
2 or 8 epigrams, among which Lb a very
bitter one upon AristoUe.-— (2) The celebrated
bucolic poet, was a native of Syracuse, and the
son of Praxagfiras and PhUinna. He visited
Alexandria during the latter end of the
reign of Ptolemy Soter, where he received
the instruction of Philetas and Asclepiadee,
and began to distinguish himself as a poet.
His first efforts obtained for him the patron-
age of Ptolemy Philadelphus, who was
associated in the kingdom with his father,
Ptolemy Soter, in b.c. 285, and in whose
praise the poet wrote the 14th, 15th,
and 17th Idyls. Theocritus afterwards re-
turned to Syracuse, and lived there under
Hiero n. It appears from the 16th Idyl that
he was dissatisfied, both with the want of
liberality on the part of Hiero in rewarding
him for his poems, and with the political
Ktate of his native country. It may there-
fore be supposed that he devoted the latter
part of his life almost entirely to the con-
templation of those scenes of nature and of
country life, on his representations of which
his fame chiefly rests. Theocritus was the
creator of bucolic poetry as a branch of Greek,
and through imitators, such as Virgil, of Roman
literature. The bucolic idyls of Theocritus
are of a dramatic and mimetic character, and
are pictures of the ordinary life of the
common people of Sicily.

THEODECTES (-ae), of Phaselis, in Pam-
phylia, was a highly distinguished rheto-
rician and tragic poet in the time of Philip
of Macedon, The greater part of his life was
Rpent at Athens, where he died at the age
of 41.

(I.) King of the Visigoths from a.d. 418 to
451, fell fighting on the side of Aetius
and the Romans at the great battle of
Chalons, in which Attila was defeated,
451.— (II.) King of the Visigoths a. a.
452 — 466, 2nd son of Theodoric I., was
assassinated in 466 by his brother Euric, who
succeeded him on the throne. Theodoric II.
was a patron of letters and learned men. —
(m.) Sumamed the Gkxat, king of the Ostro-
goths, succeeded his father Theodemir, in 47 5.
Theodoric entered Italy in 489, and after de-
feating Odoacer in S great battles, and laying
siege to Ravenna, compelled Odoacer to capi-
tulate on condition that he and Theodoric
should rule Jointly over Italy ; but Odoacer
was soon afterwards murdered by his more
fortunate rival (493). Theodoric thus became
master of Italy, which he ruled for 83 years,
till his death in 526. His long reign was
prosperous and beneficent. Theodoric was

a patron of literature; and among his min-
isters were Cassiodorus and Bo€thius, the
two last writers who can claim a place in the
literature of ancient Rome.

THIodORUS (-i). (1) Of Byzantium, a
rhetorician, and a contemporary of Plato. —
(2) A philosopher of the Cyrenaic school,
usually designated by ancient writers ** the
Atheist." He resided for some time at
Athens ; and being banished thence, went to
Alexandria, where he entered the service of
Ptolemy son of Lagus. — (3) An eminent

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